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Neilands, Jessica
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Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Thirabowonkitphithan, P., Žalnėravičius, R., Shafaat, A., Jakubauskas, D., Neilands, J., Laiwattanapaisal, W. & Ruzgas, T. (2024). Electrogenicity of microbial biofilms of medically relevant microorganisms: potentiometric, amperometric and wireless detection.. Biosensors & bioelectronics, 246, Article ID 115892.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrogenicity of microbial biofilms of medically relevant microorganisms: potentiometric, amperometric and wireless detection.
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2024 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 246, article id 115892Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the progression of biofilm formation is related to the success of infection treatment, detecting microbial biofilms is of great interest. Biofilms of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus gordonii bacteria, Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria, and Candida albicans yeast were examined using potentiometric, amperometric, and wireless readout modes in this study. As a biofilm formed, the open circuit potential (OCP) of biofilm hosting electrode (bioanode) became increasingly negative. Depending on the microorganism, the OCP ranged from −70 to −250 mV. The co-culture generated the most negative OCP (−300 mV vs Ag/AgCl), while the single-species biofilm formed by E. coli developed the least negative (−70 mV). The OCP of a fungal biofilm formed by C. albicans was −100 mV. The difference in electrode currents generated by biofilms was more pronounced. The current density of the S. aureus biofilm was 0.9‧10−7 A cm−2, while the value of the P. aeruginosa biofilm was 1.3‧10−6 A cm−2. Importantly, a biofilm formed by a co-culture of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa had a slightly higher negative OCP value and current density than the most electrogenic P. aeruginosa single-species biofilm. We present evidence that bacteria can share redox mediators found in multi-species biofilms. This synergy, enabling higher current and OCP values of multi-species biofilm hosting electrodes, could be beneficial for electrochemical detection of infectious biofilms in clinics. We demonstrate that the electrogenic biofilm can provide basis to construct novel wireless, chip-free, and battery-free biofilm detection method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Biofilm detection, Microbial biosensor, Open circuit potential, Wireless biosensor
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64686 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2023.115892 (DOI)001135565500001 ()38056343 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85178667875 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Shafaat, A., Francisco Gonzalez-Martinez, J., O Silva, W., Lesch, A., Nagar, B., Lopes da Silva, Z., . . . Ruzgas, T. (2023). A Rapidly Responsive Sensor for Wireless Detection of Early and Mature Microbial Biofilms.. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 62(40), Article ID e202308181.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Rapidly Responsive Sensor for Wireless Detection of Early and Mature Microbial Biofilms.
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2023 (English)In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 62, no 40, article id e202308181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofilm-associated infections, which are able to resist antibiotics, pose a significant challenge in clinical treatments. Such infections have been linked to various medical conditions, including chronic wounds and implant-associated infections, making them a major public-health concern. Early-detection of biofilm formation offers significant advantages in mitigating adverse effects caused by biofilms. In this work, we aim to explore the feasibility of employing a novel wireless sensor for tracking both early-stage and matured-biofilms formed by the medically relevant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensor utilizes electrochemical reduction of an AgCl layer bridging two silver legs made by inkjet-printing, forming a part of near-field-communication tag antenna. The antenna is interfaced with a carbon cloth designed to promote the growth of microorganisms, thereby serving as an electron source for reduction of the resistive AgCl into a highly-conductive Ag bridge. The AgCl-Ag transformation significantly alters the impedance of the antenna, facilitating wireless identification of an endpoint caused by microbial growth. To the best of our knowledge, this study for the first time presents the evidence showcasing that electrons released through the actions of bacteria can be harnessed to convert AgCl to Ag, thus enabling the wireless, battery-less, and chip-less early-detection of biofilm formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
Microbial biofilm, chip-less wireless sensing, inkjet printing, mediated electron transfer, near field communication
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62039 (URN)10.1002/anie.202308181 (DOI)001090146000021 ()37490019 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168699269 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
Neilands, J., Svensäter, G., Boisen, G., Robertsson, C., Wickström, C. & Davies, J. R. (2023). Formation and Analysis of Mono-species and Polymicrobial Oral Biofilms in Flow-Cell Models. In: Bacterial Pathogenesis: Methods and Protocols, (pp. 33-52). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation and Analysis of Mono-species and Polymicrobial Oral Biofilms in Flow-Cell Models
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2023 (English)In: Bacterial Pathogenesis: Methods and Protocols,, Springer, 2023, p. 33-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The oral microbiota, which is known to include at least 600 different bacterial species, is found on the teethand mucosal surfaces as multi-species communities or biofilms. The oral surfaces are covered with a pellicleof proteins absorbed from saliva, and biofilm formation is initiated when primary colonizers, which expresssurface adhesins that bind to specific salivary components, attach to the oral tissues. Further developmentthen proceeds through co-aggregation of additional species. Over time, the composition of oral biofilms,which varies between different sites throughout the oral cavity, is determined by a combination ofenvironmental factors such as the properties of the underlying surface, nutrient availability and oxygenlevels, and bacterial interactions within the community. A complex equilibrium between biofilm communities and the host is responsible for the maintenance of a healthy biofilm phenotype (eubiosis). In the faceof sustained environmental perturbation, however, biofilm homeostasis can break down giving rise todysbiosis, which is associated with the development of oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis.In vitro models have an important part to play in increasing our understanding of the complex processesinvolved in biofilm development in oral health and disease, and the requirements for experimental system,microbial complexity, and analysis techniques will necessarily vary depending on the question posed. In thischapter we describe some current and well-established methods used in our laboratory for studying oralbacteria in biofilm models which can be adapted to suit the needs of individual users. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Methods in Molecular Biology, E-ISSN 1940-6029 ; 2674
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62874 (URN)10.1007/978-1-0716-3243-7_2 (DOI)37258958 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160680476 (Scopus ID)978-1-0716-3242-0 (ISBN)978-1-0716-3243-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-09-29 Created: 2023-09-29 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Hix Janssens, T., Shinde, S., Abouhany, R., Davies, J. R., Neilands, J., Svensäter, G. & Sellergren, B. (2023). Microcontact-Imprinted Optical Sensors for Virulence Factors of Periodontal Disease. ACS Omega, 8(17), 15259-15265
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microcontact-Imprinted Optical Sensors for Virulence Factors of Periodontal Disease
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2023 (English)In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, no 17, p. 15259-15265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Periodontitis (gum disease) is a common biofilm-mediated oral condition, with around 7% of the adult population suffering from severe disease with risk for tooth loss. Moreover, periodontitis virulence markers have been found in atherosclerotic plaque and brain tissue, suggesting a link to cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases. The lack of accurate, fast, and sensitive clinical methods to identify patients at risk leads, on the one hand, to patients being undiagnosed until the onset of severe disease and, on the other hand, to overtreatment of individuals with mild disease, diverting resources from those patients most in need. The periodontitis-associated bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis, secrete gingipains which are highly active proteases recognized as key virulence factors during disease progression. This makes them interesting candidates as predictive biomarkers, but currently, there are no methods in clinical use for monitoring them. Quantifying the levels or proteolytic activity of gingipains in the periodontal pocket surrounding the teeth could enable early-stage disease diagnosis. Here, we report on a monitoring approach based on high-affinity microcontact imprinted polymer-based receptors for the Arg and Lys specific gingipains Rgp and Kgp and their combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor technology for quantifying gingipain levels in biofluids and patient samples. Therefore, Rgp and Kgp were immobilized on glass coverslips followed by microcontact imprinting of poly-acrylamide based films anchored to gold sensor chips. The monomers selected were N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM), N-hydroxyethyl acrylamide (HEAA) and N-methacryloyl-4-aminobenzamidine hydrochloride (BAM), with N,N′-methylene bis(acrylamide) (BIS) as the crosslinker. This resulted in imprinted surfaces exhibiting selectivity towards their templates high affinity and selectivity for the templated proteins with dissociation constants (Kd) of 159 and 299 nM for the Rgp- and Kgp-imprinted, surfaces respectively. The former surface displayed even higher affinity (Kd = 71 nM) when tested in dilute cell culture supernatants. Calculated limits of detection for the sensors were 110 and 90 nM corresponding to levels below clinically relevant concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
National Category
Dentistry Medical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-59511 (URN)10.1021/acsomega.3c00389 (DOI)000978106200001 ()37151489 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85154067619 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-08-15Bibliographically approved
Shafaat, A., Žalnėravičius, R., Ratautas, D., Dagys, M., Meškys, R., Rutkienė, R., . . . Ruzgas, T. (2022). Glucose-to-Resistor Transduction Integrated into a Radio-Frequency Antenna for Chip-less and Battery-less Wireless Sensing. ACS Sensors, 7(4), 1222-1234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glucose-to-Resistor Transduction Integrated into a Radio-Frequency Antenna for Chip-less and Battery-less Wireless Sensing
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2022 (English)In: ACS Sensors, E-ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1222-1234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To maximize the potential of 5G infrastructure in healthcare, simple integration of biosensors with wireless tag antennas would be beneficial. This work introduces novel glucose-to-resistor transduction, which enables simple, wireless biosensor design. The biosensor was realized on a near-field communication tag antenna, where a sensing bioanode generated electrical current and electroreduced a nonconducting antenna material into an excellent conductor. For this, a part of the antenna was replaced by a Ag nanoparticle layer oxidized to high-resistance AgCl. The bioanode was based on Au nanoparticle-wired glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). The exposure of the cathode-bioanode to glucose solution resulted in GDH-catalyzed oxidation of glucose at the bioanode with a concomitant reduction of AgCl to highly conducting Ag on the cathode. The AgCl-to-Ag conversion strongly affected the impedance of the antenna circuit, allowing wireless detection of glucose. Mimicking the final application, the proposed wireless biosensor was ultimately evaluated through the measurement of glucose in whole blood, showing good agreement with the values obtained with a commercially available glucometer. This work, for the first time, demonstrates that making a part of the antenna from the AgCl layer allows achieving simple, chip-less, and battery-less wireless sensing of enzyme-catalyzed reduction reaction. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
Keywords
Internet of Things, wireless detection of glucose, direct electron transfer, glucose dehydrogenase, chip-less wireless sensing
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51019 (URN)10.1021/acssensors.2c00394 (DOI)000794994500032 ()35392657 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85128799436 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-04320Knowledge Foundation, 20170058Knowledge Foundation, 20190010
Available from: 2022-04-08 Created: 2022-04-08 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
Neilands, J. & Kinnby, B. (2022). Porphyromonas gingivalis initiates coagulation and secretes polyphosphates: A mechanism for sustaining chronic inflammation?. Microbial Pathogenesis, 162, 1-8, Article ID 104648.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porphyromonas gingivalis initiates coagulation and secretes polyphosphates: A mechanism for sustaining chronic inflammation?
2022 (English)In: Microbial Pathogenesis, ISSN 0882-4010, E-ISSN 1096-1208, Vol. 162, p. 1-8, article id 104648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation resulting in destruction of tooth-supporting bone. Chronic inflammation is characterized by extravascular fibrin deposition. Fibrin is central to destruction of bone; monocytes bind to fibrin and form osteoclasts, thus providing a link between coagulation and the tissue destructive processes in periodontitis. The oral microbiome is essential to oral health. However, local ecological changes, such as increased biofilm formation, result in a dysbiotic microbiome characterized by an increase of protease-producing species e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis. Proteases initiate inflammation and may cleave coagulation factors. Polyphosphates (polyP) may also provide bacteria with procoagulant properties similar to platelet-released polyP. P. gingivalis has also been found in remote locations related to vascular pathology and Alzheimer's disease.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate procoagulant activity of ten different species of oral bacteria present in oral health and disease as well as presence of polyP and fibrin formation in planktonic and biofilm bacteria.

METHODS: Oral bacteria were studied for protease production and procoagulant activity. The presence of polyP and formation of fibrin was observed using confocal microscopy.

RESULTS: P. gingivalis showed strong protease activity and was the only species exerting procoagulant activity. Confocal microscopy showed polyP intracellularly in planktonic bacteria and extracellularly after biofilm formation. Fibrin formation emanated from planktonic bacteria and from both bacteria and polyP in biofilm cultures.

CONCLUSIONS: The procoagulant activity of P. gingivalis could explain its role in chronic inflammation, locally in oral tissues as well as in remote locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Fibrin, Inflammation, Periodontitis, Polyphosphates, Porphyromonas gingivalis
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-37384 (URN)10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104648 (DOI)000793148900005 ()33242642 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85097161682 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-12-08 Created: 2020-12-08 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Boisen, G., Davies, J. R. & Neilands, J. (2021). Acid tolerance in early colonizers of oral biofilms. BMC Microbiology, 21(1), Article ID 45.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acid tolerance in early colonizers of oral biofilms
2021 (English)In: BMC Microbiology, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In caries, low pH drives selection and enrichment of acidogenic and aciduric bacteria in oral biofilms, and development of acid tolerance in early colonizers is thought to play a key role in this shift. Since previous studies have focussed on planktonic cells, the effect of biofilm growth as well as the role of a salivary pellicle on this process is largely unknown. We explored acid tolerance and acid tolerance response (ATR) induction in biofilm cells of both clinical and laboratory strains of three oral streptococcal species (Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mutans) as well as two oral species of Actinomyces (A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus) and examined the role of salivary proteins in acid tolerance development.

METHODS: Biofilms were formed on surfaces in Ibidi® mini flow cells with or without a coating of salivary proteins and acid tolerance assessed by exposing them to a challenge known to kill non-acid tolerant cells (pH 3.5 for 30 min) followed by staining with LIVE/DEAD BacLight and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The ability to induce an ATR was assessed by exposing the biofilms to an adaptation pH (pH 5.5) for 2 hours prior to the low pH challenge.

RESULTS: Biofilm formation significantly increased acid tolerance in all the clinical streptococcal strains (P < 0.05) whereas the laboratory strains varied in their response. In biofilms, S. oralis was much more acid tolerant than S. gordonii or S. mutans. A. naeslundii showed a significant increase in acid tolerance in biofilms compared to planktonic cells (P < 0.001) which was not seen for A. odontolyticus. All strains except S. oralis induced an ATR after pre-exposure to pH 5.5 (P < 0.05). The presence of a salivary pellicle enhanced both acid tolerance development and ATR induction in S. gordonii biofilms (P < 0.05) but did not affect the other bacteria to the same extent.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that factors such as surface contact, the presence of a salivary pellicle and sensing of environmental pH can contribute to the development of high levels of acid tolerance amongst early colonizers in oral biofilms which may be important in the initiation of caries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2021
Keywords
Acid tolerance response, Actinomyces, Pellicle, Salivary proteins, Streptococci
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-41154 (URN)10.1186/s12866-021-02089-2 (DOI)000617808500001 ()33583397 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85101037383 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-10 Created: 2021-03-10 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Alshammari, H., Neilands, J., Svensäter, G. & Stavropoulos, A. (2021). Antimicrobial Potential of Strontium Hydroxide on Bacteria Associated with Peri-Implantitis. Antibiotics, 10(2), Article ID 150.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial Potential of Strontium Hydroxide on Bacteria Associated with Peri-Implantitis
2021 (English)In: Antibiotics, E-ISSN 2079-6382, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Peri-implantitis due to infection of dental implants is a common complication that may cause significant patient morbidity. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial potential of Sr(OH)2 against different bacteria associated with peri-implantitis. Methods: The antimicrobial potential of five concentrations of Sr(OH)2 (100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01 mM) was assessed with agar diffusion test, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and biofilm viability assays against six bacteria commonly associated with biomaterial infections: Streptococcus mitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Escherichia coli, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Results: Zones of inhibition were only observed for, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mM of Sr(OH)2 tested against P. gingivalis, in the agar diffusion test. Growth inhibition in planktonic cultures was achieved at 10 mM for all species tested (p < 0.001). In biofilm viability assay, 10 and 100 mM Sr(OH)2 showed potent bactericidal affect against S. mitis, S. epidermidis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. coli, and P. gingivalis. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that Sr(OH)2 has antimicrobial properties against bacteria associated with peri-implantitis. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
antimicrobial, bacteria, peri-implantitis, strontium
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-41149 (URN)10.3390/antibiotics10020150 (DOI)000622033700001 ()33546189 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85100658878 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-10 Created: 2021-03-10 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Alshammari, H., Bakitian, F., Neilands, J., Andersen, O. Z. & Stavropoulos, A. (2021). Antimicrobial Properties of Strontium Functionalized Titanium Surfaces for Oral Applications, A Systematic Review. Coatings, 11(7), Article ID 810.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial Properties of Strontium Functionalized Titanium Surfaces for Oral Applications, A Systematic Review
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2021 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 810Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the current scientific evidence of the antimicrobial potential of strontium (Sr) when used to functionalize titanium (Ti) for oral applications. Out of an initial list of 1081 potentially relevant publications identified in three electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane) up to 1 February 2021, nine publications based on in vitro studies met the inclusion criteria. The antimicrobial potential of Sr was investigated on different types of functionalized Ti substrates, employing different application methods. Nine studies reported on the early, i.e., 6-24 h, and two studies on the late, i.e., 7-28 days, antimicrobial effect of Sr, primarily against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and/or Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sr-modified samples demonstrated relevant early antimicrobial potential against S. aureus in three studies; only one of which presented statistical significance values, while the other two presented only the percentage of antimicrobial rate and biofilm inhibition. A relevant late biofilm inhibition potential against S. aureus of 40% and 10%-after 7 and 14 days, respectively-was reported in one study. Combining Sr with other metal ions, i.e., silver (Ag), zinc (Zn), and fluorine (F), demonstrated a significant antimicrobial effect and biofilm inhibition against both S. aureus and E. coli. Sr ion release within the first 24 h was generally low, i.e., below 50 mu g/L and 0.6 ppm; however, sustained Sr ion release for up to 30 days, while maintaining up to 90% of its original content, was also demonstrated. Thus, in most studies included herein, Sr-functionalized Ti showed a limited immediate (i.e., 24 h) antimicrobial effect, likely due to a low Sr ion release; however, with an adequate Sr ion release, a relevant antimicrobial effect, as well as a biofilm inhibition potential against S. aureus-but not E. coli-was observed at both early and late timepoints. Future studies should assess the antimicrobial potential of Ti functionalized with Sr against multispecies biofilms associated with peri-implantitis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
strontium, dental implant, titanium surfaces, antimicrobial, peri-implantitis
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44876 (URN)10.3390/coatings11070810 (DOI)000676217400001 ()2-s2.0-85110314199 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-17 Created: 2021-08-17 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Havsed, K., Stensson, M., Jansson, H., Carda-Diéguez, M., Pedersen, A., Neilands, J., . . . Mira, A. (2021). Bacterial Composition and Metabolomics of Dental Plaque From Adolescents. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 11, Article ID 716493.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bacterial Composition and Metabolomics of Dental Plaque From Adolescents
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 11, article id 716493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Supragingival dental plaque samples were collected from 40 Swedish adolescents, including 20 with caries lesions (CAR) and 20 caries-free (CF). Fresh plaque samples were subjected to an ex vivo acid tolerance (AT) test where the proportion of bacteria resistant to an acid shock was evaluated through confocal microscopy and live/dead staining, and the metabolites produced were quantified by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR). In addition, DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced by Illumina sequencing, in order to characterize bacterial composition in the same samples. There were no significant differences in AT scores between CAR and CF individuals. However, 7 out of the 10 individuals with highest AT scores belonged to the CAR group. Regarding bacterial composition, Abiotrophia, Prevotella and Veillonella were found at significantly higher levels in CAR individuals (p=0.0085, 0.026 and 0.04 respectively) and Rothia and Corynebacterium at significantly higher levels in CF individuals (p=0.026 and 0.003). The caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans was found at low frequencies and was absent in 60% of CAR individuals. Random-forest predictive models indicate that at least 4 bacterial species or 9 genera are needed to distinguish CAR from CF adolescents. The metabolomic profile obtained by NMR showed a significant clustering of organic acids with specific bacteria in CAR and/or high AT individuals, being Scardovia wiggsiae the species with strongest associations. A significant clustering of ethanol and isopropanol with health-associated bacteria such as Rothia or Corynebacterium was also found. Accordingly, several relationships involving these compounds like the Ethanol : Lactate or Succinate : Lactate ratios were significantly associated to acid tolerance and could be of predictive value for caries risk. We therefore propose that future caries risk studies would benefit from considering not only the use of multiple organisms as potential microbial biomarkers, but also their functional adaptation and metabolic output.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
NMR, Rothia, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), acid tolerance, caries risk (assessment), dental caries, metabolomics (OMICS), microbiome
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44983 (URN)10.3389/fcimb.2021.716493 (DOI)000684641700001 ()34395316 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85112476194 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-20 Created: 2021-08-20 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
Bacterial acid tolerance – a new target for fluoridated milk; Malmö UniversityLipoprotein modifications by periodontal pathogens; Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces
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