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Hjalmers, Karin
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Berthelsen, H., Hjalmers, K. & Hakanen, J. (2014). Good work: the relations between social capital, influence at work and perceived quality of work (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), The 8th Novo symposium Sustainable Health Care Production Systems: . Paper presented at Novo symposium, Copenhagen, Denmark (2014) (pp. 15-15). : Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Good work: the relations between social capital, influence at work and perceived quality of work
2014 (English)In: The 8th Novo symposium Sustainable Health Care Production Systems, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark , 2014, p. 15-15Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction A model for Good Work, understood as positive and rewarding aspects of work, has previously been developed based on interviews including dentists working under different organizational systems. An overall finding was that a positive work climate with trustful relations and professional freedom was found important for being able to carry out high quality work. The aim of this presentation is to assess whether the central part of this model can be corroborated empirically. Material and methods All staff employed at public dentistry in two counties in Sweden received an email with a personal login to an electronic questionnaire. After two reminders a response rate of 78% and 81% respectively was obtained including a total of 610 respondents. Data from non-managerial dental hygienists and dentists with direct patient contact in their work were included in the analyses (N=198). The analyses are preliminary as data from more organizations are in the process of being collected. A scale was developed for perceived quality of the work done at the clinic. This scale was used as the dependent variable in a multiple linear hierarchical regression model. Independent variables: county, a scale developed to measure social support in relation to patient-work in addition to scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire on horizontal trust, community at the workplace and influence. The study has been approved by the Regional Ethics Board in Southern Sweden and is funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE). Results A significant difference in average for perceived quality of work was seen in relation to organization, but this difference disappeared in the final regression model. Being part of a work-related community, having trusted relations and a good support were all significantly associated with a positive assessment of the quality of work performed at the workplace, while influence did not contribute to further explanation. The final regression model explained 35% of the variance of the outcome. Conclusion The overall model for Good Work was corroborated concerning the relationship between social capital and valuation of quality of care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2014
Keywords
psychosocial work environment, quality of care, dentistry, social capital
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16637 (URN)10.11581/DTU:00000008 (DOI)18258 (Local ID)18258 (Archive number)18258 (OAI)
Conference
Novo symposium, Copenhagen, Denmark (2014)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Ordell, S., Söderfeldt, B., Hjalmers, K., Berthelsen, H. & Bergström, K. (2013). Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark (ed.). Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 71(6), 1443-1452
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark
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2013 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1443-1452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Background. In Sweden and Denmark, clinical dentistry is changing and public dentistry is in transition towards more market orientation. Dentists' overall job satisfaction is important for how public dentistry can fulfil the new expectations from patients, the public and politicians. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate what organizational factors were important for publicly employed salaried dentists' overall job satisfaction. Methods. A random sample of active, general dental practitioners (private and publicly employed) was selected in Denmark and in Sweden, and they received a postal questionnaire. The number of questionnaires was 1835 and the response rate was 68% (n = 1226). This study analysed only the publicly employed dentists. The sampling frame for the Swedish dentists was 431, response rate 68.9% (n = 297) and for the Danish ones 194, response rate 81.9% (n = 159). Multivariate regression was used with overall job satisfaction as a dependent variable. Results. Common organizational variables were important. The used model explained between 32% (Sweden) and 39% (Denmark) of the variance in overall job satisfaction. The only significant individual factor was less job satisfaction for Swedish dentists born outside Sweden. An organizational climate characterized by a focus on professional values was associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Among the Swedish dentists, number of colleagues and degree of influence were also important and among the Danish ones sufficient time for patients. Conclusions. Organizational factors had an impact on salaried publicly employed dentists' overall job satisfaction in both countries. The findings may have implications for other Human Service Organizations with employed professionals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2013
Keywords
dentists, public dentistry, organization, international comparison, psycho-social work environment
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15615 (URN)10.3109/00016357.2013.767933 (DOI)000326678700014 ()23972204 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84887237797 (Scopus ID)16011 (Local ID)16011 (Archive number)16011 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Berthelsen, H., Söderfeldt, B., Harris, R., Hyld Pejtersen, J., Bergström, K., Hjalmers, K. & Ordell, S. (2011). Collegial Support and Community with Trust in Swedish and Danish dentistry (ed.). Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 69(6), 343-354
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial Support and Community with Trust in Swedish and Danish dentistry
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2011 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives. The aim of the study was to better understand the associations between work factors and professional support among dentists (Collegial Support) as well as the sense of being part of a work community characterized by trust (Community with Trust). Methods. A questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the members of dental associations in Sweden and Denmark in 2008. The response rate was 68%. Two models with the outcome variables Collegial Support and being part of a Community with Trust were built using multiple hierarchical linear regression. Demographic background factors, work factors, managerial factors and factors relating to objectives and to values characterizing climate of the practice were all introduced as blocks into the models. Results. A different pattern emerged for Collegial Support than for Community with Trust, indicating different underlying mechanisms. The main results were: (I) Female, married/cohabitant, collegial network outside the practice, common breaks, formalized managerial education of leader and a climate characterized by professional values, which were positively associated with Collegial Support, while number of years as a dentist and being managerially responsible were negatively associated. (II) Common breaks, decision authority and a climate characterized by professional values were positively associated with Community with Trust. Conclusion. A professionally-oriented practice climate and having common breaks at work were strongly associated with both outcome variables. The study underlined the importance of managing dentistry in a way which respects the professional ethos of dentists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2011
Keywords
Positive social relations, psychosocial work environment, workplace, job resources
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15883 (URN)10.3109/00016357.2011.568966 (DOI)000296154400004 ()21426268 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-80155135596 (Scopus ID)13039 (Local ID)13039 (Archive number)13039 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Hjalmers, K., Berthelsen, H. & Söderfeldt, B. (2010). Goda relationer och kvalitet viktigast för arbetsglädjen (ed.). Tandläkartidningen (12), 74-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Goda relationer och kvalitet viktigast för arbetsglädjen
2010 (Swedish)In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, no 12, p. 74-76Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Goda patientrelationer och möjlighet att utföra kvalitetsarbete i en bra arbetsmiljö. Det är viktigast för att tandläkare ska känna arbetsglädje, visar en studie på avdelningen för samhällsodontologi vid odontologiska fakulteten i Malmö.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15469 (URN)11177 (Local ID)11177 (Archive number)11177 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Berthelsen, H., Hjalmers, K., Pejtersen, J. H. & Söderfeldt, B. (2010). Good Work for dentists - a qualitative analysis (ed.). Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 38(2), 159-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Good Work for dentists - a qualitative analysis
2010 (English)In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study explores dentists' perceptions of Good Work in the meaning of positive and rewarding aspects in their work in contrast to a traditional problem-centred focus on work life. Methods: Nine informants were selected among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners to obtain variation as to country of origin, gender, age and clinical work experience. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim in the original language. Statements concerning positive aspects of work were used for systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis, as modified by Malterud, generalizing descriptions reflecting aspects of Good Work. Selection of participants continued until saturation of the emerging categories was achieved. Results: The core of Good Work emanates from the clinical encounter: from the relation with the patient and from the opportunity to carry out high quality odontological handicraft. Social relations at the workplace, as well as organizational values and conditions were perceived as influencing the opportunities to achieve the rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. Conclusions: The results implicate a need for developing a work-environmental model with intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards when dealing with human service organizations. At policy level it is necessary to address the professional culture.

Keywords
Dentistry, Health care, Human service organization, Phenomenology, Psychosocial working environment
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15377 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0528.2009.00517.x (DOI)000275511000008 ()20059489 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77949459988 (Scopus ID)10157 (Local ID)10157 (Archive number)10157 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Hjalmers, K. (2010). Organizational ergonomics: reflections and guidelines (ed.). Paper presented at European Society of Dental Ergonomics (ESDE), Ghent, Belgium (2010). Paper presented at European Society of Dental Ergonomics (ESDE), Ghent, Belgium (2010).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational ergonomics: reflections and guidelines
2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Abstract of oral presentation.

Abstract [en]

Background: Studies on the physical and psychosocial work situation for dentists constitute the background for ongoing studies about positive, healthy and rewarding aspects in dentists’ work life, to find ways of achieving a sustainable work life. We investigate organizational differences in public and private dentistry in Sweden and Denmark. Organizational ergonomics combines elements of both the physical and the psychosocial work situation and focuses on a good work situation with high efficiency. A condition for achieving this is that the dentists feel well. My research earlier has focused on the reality and the ideals for Swedish female unpromoted general practice dentists (GPDs) (material 1), working in the Public Dental Health Service (PDHS). In Sweden, more than half of all dentists are employed in the PDHS, where the female GPDs without a managerial function constitute the largest group. These dentists had serious work-environmental problems. The difference was marked between their ideal work situation and reality. They felt a lack of influence, with the greatest difference between ideals and reality of all measured indicators. When comparing these dentists with other human service groups, including oral and maxillofacial surgeons (mostly men, material 2), we have shown that the female dentists felt worse than the others. The strongest component in the dentists’ work was “moral values and skill discretion”, which confirms Hasenfeld’s theory of Human Service Organizations. Materials: Four materials were used. 1. A questionnaire about psychosocial work environment and healthy work to all female unpromoted GPDs in a region of Sweden. Response rate 94 %. (Hjalmers K. Diss. 2006) 2. A questionnaire concerning psychosocial work environment to all personnel at oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics in Sweden. Response rate 86 %. (Pilgård G. Diss. 2009) 3. Nine semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a phenomenological approach about overall job satisfaction with GPDs from Sweden and Denmark. (Berthelsen H, Hjalmers K. 2008) 4. A questionnaire about the multidimensional concept of overall job satisfaction to 1835 GPDs, randomly sampled from the Swedish/Danish dental associations. Response rate 68 %. (Söderfeldt B, Hjalmers K, Berthelsen H, Bergström K, Ordell S. 2008) Results and Conclusions: There were several differences for dentists working in public/private/Swedish /Danish dentistry, e.g. as to the perception of overall job satisfaction, professional autonomy, and how the job affected their health. The dentists’ emphasis on moral values confirms the character of dentistry as primarily human service work and not industrial work, and should be considered when organizing dentists’ work. The overall job satisfaction emanates from the patient relation, and from the possibility to perform high quality handicraft, thus involving both moral values and skill discretion. Support from colleagues is important. About 50 % of the Swedish public, 60 % of the Swedish private and 75 % of both the public and private Danish dentists, thought they would continue working until the normal age of retirement. To achieve a sustainable, complete working life, it is really important that dentists have decision authority over their work situation and feel overall job satisfaction.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-12313 (URN)11292 (Local ID)11292 (Archive number)11292 (OAI)
Conference
European Society of Dental Ergonomics (ESDE), Ghent, Belgium (2010)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Bergström, K., Söderfeldt, B., Berthelsen, H., Hjalmers, K. & Ordell, S. (2010). Overall job satisfaction among dentists in Sweden and Denmark: A comparative study, measuring positive aspects of work (ed.). Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 68(6), 344-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overall job satisfaction among dentists in Sweden and Denmark: A comparative study, measuring positive aspects of work
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2010 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 344-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. Human service work differs from industrial work, which should be considered when organizing work. Previous research has shown organizational differences in the perceptions of work, often with a focus on negative aspects. The aim of this study was to analyse the overall job satisfaction among private- and public-practising dentists in Sweden and Denmark. This also implied a description of the questionnaire Swedish and Danish Dentists' Perceptions of Good Work about opportunities and positive and rewarding aspects of work. Material and methods. A questionnaire covering the multidimensional concept of good work was developed. A total of 1835 dentists randomly sampled from the dental associations were sent a questionnaire in November 2008. A special non-response study was performed. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a measure of overall job satisfaction, comparing four organizational subgroups. Results. The average net response rate was 68% (n = 1226). The special non-response study of the Danish private practitioners showed more males, managers and dentists with more working hours than the respondents. PCA of three satisfaction questions showed a stable one-factor solution. There were differences in job satisfaction, with Danish public dentists ranked highest in overall job satisfaction and Swedish public dentists lowest. Conclusions. There were organizational differences in the perception of job satisfaction. Further analysis of how the human service is organized in the different groups is needed.

Keywords
Eudaimonia, good work, human services, patient relation, rewards
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15795 (URN)10.3109/00016357.2010.514719 (DOI)000282895600005 ()20818915 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77958064128 (Scopus ID)10832 (Local ID)10832 (Archive number)10832 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Berthelsen, H., Söderfeldt, B., Bergström, K., Pejtersen, J. H., Hjalmers, K. & Ordell, S. (2009). Decision Authority among Dentists from Denmark and Sweden (ed.). In: (Ed.), Abstract book: . Paper presented at NOVO Symposium Sustainable Nordic Health Care Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark (2009).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision Authority among Dentists from Denmark and Sweden
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2009 (English)In: Abstract book, 2009Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Karasek and Theorell define job control as the worker's control over work tasks and performance during the working day. This study aims to analyze differences in job control as decision authority over aspects of the work, among general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark (17% of the eligible population). The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Components Analysis was applied to eight items about influence. Based on the resulting two factors, additive indices were established to measure decision authority: “influence on scheduling appointments” (2 items) and “general influence” (6 items). ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test was used for comparison between groups based on nationality and sector for dentists with/without managerial responsibility. For analyses without equal variances, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Results: Influence on scheduling appointments: In both Denmark and Sweden, dentists from the public sector reported lower influence on scheduling appointments than private practitioners (p≤0.01). Comparing dentists from the same sector showed no significant differences between the countries, neither after controlling for managerial responsibility. Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Influence in general: For dentists without leadership tasks, similar patterns were seen. In contrast, Swedish dentists with managerial responsibility reported higher general influence than their Danish colleagues (p≤0.01). Independently of gender and nationality, private managers had higher general influence than their public counterpart (p≤0.01). Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Conclusion and perspective: Differences in decision authority were found between general dental practitioners working in the public and the private sector in both countries. The results may reflect different management cultures as well as different structural organization of the work. In light of changes in demands made on health care professionals it is important to secure decision authority in order to keep work balance as well as quality in care. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16658 (URN)9109 (Local ID)9109 (Archive number)9109 (OAI)
Conference
NOVO Symposium Sustainable Nordic Health Care Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark (2009)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Berthelsen, H., Söderfeldt, B., Pejtersen, J. H., Hjalmers, K. & Bergström, K. (2009). DECISION AUTHORITY AMONG DENTISTS FROM DENMARK AND SWEDEN (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Congress of the European Association of Dental Public Health(EADPH), Tromsö, Norway (2009).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DECISION AUTHORITY AMONG DENTISTS FROM DENMARK AND SWEDEN
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2009 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Karasek and Theorell define job control as the worker's control over work tasks and performance during the working day. This study aims to analyze differences in job control as decision authority over aspects of the work, among general dental practitioners from Denmark and Sweden. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 1835 general dental practitioners, randomly selected from the dental associations in Sweden and Denmark (17% of the eligible population). The response rate was 68% after two reminders. Principal Components Analysis was applied to eight items about influence. Based on the resulting two factors, additive indices were established to measure decision authority: “influence on scheduling appointments” (2 items) and “general influence” (6 items). ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test was used for comparison between groups based on nationality and sector for dentists with/without managerial responsibility. For analyses without equal variances, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Results: Influence on scheduling appointments: In both Denmark and Sweden, dentists from the public sector reported lower influence on scheduling appointments than private practitioners (p≤0.01). Comparing dentists from the same sector showed no significant differences between the countries, neither after controlling for managerial responsibility. Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Influence in general: For dentists without leadership tasks, similar patterns were seen. In contrast, Swedish dentists with managerial responsibility reported higher general influence than their Danish colleagues (p≤0.01). Independently of gender and nationality, private managers had higher general influence than their public counterpart (p≤0.01). Dentists with managerial responsibility had higher influence than employed dentists (p≤0.001). Conclusions: Differences in decision authority were found between general dental practitioners working in the public and the private sector in both countries. The results may reflect different management cultures as well as different structural organization of the work. The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University and The Danish Dental Association for financial support.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16634 (URN)9112 (Local ID)9112 (Archive number)9112 (OAI)
Conference
Congress of the European Association of Dental Public Health(EADPH), Tromsö, Norway (2009)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Bergström, K., Söderfeldt, B., Berthelsen, H. & Hjalmers, K. (2009). EXPLORING POSITIVE PERCEPTIONS OF DENTAL WORK IN SWEDEN AND DENMARK (ed.). Paper presented at Congress of the European Association of Dental Public Health (EADPH), Tromsö, Norway (2009). Paper presented at Congress of the European Association of Dental Public Health (EADPH), Tromsö, Norway (2009).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EXPLORING POSITIVE PERCEPTIONS OF DENTAL WORK IN SWEDEN AND DENMARK
2009 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Dentistry is an example of human service work, involving cognitively, emotionally and technically demanding tasks. These tasks are potentially implicative of negative as well as positive personal effects. The aim was to study work enjoyment, satisfaction with work, and good working life, comparing Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners. Materials and methods: In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected sample of practicing dentists in Sweden (n=900) and Denmark (n=937). The study was approved by the Swedish regional ethical board. Distribution analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison between the groups Swedes/Danes, private-/public practitioners, and dentists with/without management responsibility. Results: Response rate was 68%, whereas 51% were Swedes and 49% Danes. Sixty percent had management responsibility and 40% had not. Further, 58% were private and 37% were public practitioners. Frequency analysis showed that almost three fourths of the dentists experienced a high or a very high degree of (1) work enjoyment (73%), (2) of satisfaction with their work as a whole (72%) and (3) of a good working life (74%). The items (1) and (2) showed differences between all three groups: Danes, private practitioners and dentists with management responsibility scored higher than their counterparts (p≤0.05). Item (3) showed similar results (p≤0.05), except for the comparison Danes/Swedes, which was non-significant. Conclusions: The initial results corroborate that Danish and Swedish dentists have positive perceptions of their work. The differences between the three groups are to be further studied to track potential correlations promoting positive perceptions of work. Funding: The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Malmö University, The Danish Dental Association.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16736 (URN)9099 (Local ID)9099 (Archive number)9099 (OAI)
Conference
Congress of the European Association of Dental Public Health (EADPH), Tromsö, Norway (2009)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Projects
Organisation och ett gott arbete - hållbart arbetsliv i vårdarbete. Exemplet tandvård i Sverige och Danmark.; Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA) (Closed down 2017-12-31)
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