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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Hagerlid, M. (2023). Discursive Constructions of Race and Gender in Racial Hate Crime Targeting Women in Sweden. NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 31(1), 49-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discursive Constructions of Race and Gender in Racial Hate Crime Targeting Women in Sweden
2023 (English)In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research and official statistics alike identify women from racial minoritiesas a high-risk group for racial hate crime. Still, the construction of womenin racial hate crime remains largely unstudied and the current knowledgeon racial hate crime against women can at best be described as fragmentary. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the constructions ofrace and gender from the perspective of female victims of racial hatecrime. The study draws on intersectional theory and consists ofa discourse analysis based on nine interviews with women who havebeen targets of racial hate crime. The results show that the constructionof race in hate crimes targeting women differs distinctively from theconstruction of race in hate crimes targeting men. The female victims ofracial hate crime often find themselves entangled in racial power struggles between men: a power struggle in which men may show their statusvis-á-vis out-group men by sexually controlling or abusing women.Thereby, women’s bodies are used as a tool in racial status conflictsbetween groups of men, as identities, scripts, and stereotypes foundprimarily within conservatism and right-wing ideology are enacted onthe bodies of the victims.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
hate crime; gendered racism; racial hate crime; victimization; intersectional theory
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Health and society; Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-51507 (URN)10.1080/08038740.2022.2076738 (DOI)000796476800001 ()2-s2.0-85130519493 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-18 Created: 2022-05-18 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved
Hagerlid, M. & Granström, G. (2023). Hatbrott i rättsprocessen: En kunskapsöversikt om utvecklingen i Sverige 2002-2022. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hatbrott i rättsprocessen: En kunskapsöversikt om utvecklingen i Sverige 2002-2022
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2023. p. 40
Series
Rapporter och texter från juridiska institutionen vid Umeå universitet, ISSN 1652-0718 ; 7
Keywords
Hatbrott, rättsväsende, rättsprocess, brottsoffer
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62145 (URN)
Available from: 2023-08-28 Created: 2023-08-28 Last updated: 2023-10-17Bibliographically approved
Hagerlid, M. & Granström, G. (2023). Hate Crime Investigation and Sentencing in Sweden: What Have We Learned in the Past 20 Years?. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hate Crime Investigation and Sentencing in Sweden: What Have We Learned in the Past 20 Years?
2023 (English)In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Twenty years ago, the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention presented a report that highlighted serious problems with regard to identifying, investigating, and sentencing offenders for hate crimes. The same problems have also been described in international research from several other countries. Since then, several measures have been taken to remedy these problems, but it remains unknown whether these measures have been successful. The aim of the present study is therefore to trace developments over time, using Sweden as a case study, and to evaluate the extent to which the problems identified earlier have been remedied. The results show that the problems identified by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention still remain despite a continuous process of reform. Theoretical links and parallels to international research are discussed throughout the article.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
hate crime, hate crime investigation, police work
National Category
Law and Society Social Work
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62344 (URN)10.1007/s10610-023-09563-9 (DOI)001058280900001 ()2-s2.0-85169677061 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Hatbrott i rättsprocessen
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-09-13Bibliographically approved
Hagerlid, M. (2023). “If you dress like a whore you have to accept being treated like one”: An Interview Study About Women’s Experiencesof Misogynistic Hate Crime. Critical Criminology, 31(3), 653-668
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“If you dress like a whore you have to accept being treated like one”: An Interview Study About Women’s Experiencesof Misogynistic Hate Crime
2023 (English)In: Critical Criminology, ISSN 1205-8629, E-ISSN 1572-9877, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 653-668Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The inclusion of gender in hate crime legislation has been the subject of scholarly debatesince the 1990s, but only a handful of empirical studies have focused on victims’ experiences of gender-bias hate crime. Therefore, misogynistic hate crimes are primarily discussed as a theoretical or legal category of events. In this study, the aim is instead to shedlight on how female victims defne, describe, and are afected by their experiences ofgender-bias hate crime. In doing so, the study contributes insights into misogynistic hatecrimes as lived experiences, rather than as an abstract legal or theoretical concept.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
hate crime, misogyny, violence against women, misogynistic hate crime, hate
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-59267 (URN)10.1007/s10612-023-09687-8 (DOI)000984460900002 ()2-s2.0-85153037113 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-18 Created: 2023-04-18 Last updated: 2023-12-11Bibliographically approved
Hagerlid, M., Štulhofer, A., Redert, A., Jakić, I., Schoon, W., Westermann, M., . . . Löfgren, C. (2023). Obstacles for identifying sexual harassment in academia: Insights from five European countries. Sexuality Research & Social Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obstacles for identifying sexual harassment in academia: Insights from five European countries
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Sexuality Research & Social Policy, ISSN 1868-9884, E-ISSN 1553-6610Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Experiences of sexual harassment are common among university students. At the same time, research shows that victims and bystanders find it difficult to determine when an incident meets the criteria for sexual harassment. The aim of this study therefore was to obtain a richer and deeper understanding of the obstacles that university students encounter in identifying sexual harassment in the academic environment.

Methods

Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with a total of 85 students at the bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral level in five European countries (Belgium, Croatia, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden) between 2020 and 2022. Thematic analysis was used to identify obstacles in identifying sexual harassment.

Results

The obstacles described by participants were found to fall into three main categories: (1) preconceived notions about what constitutes sexual harassment that did not necessarily concur with lived experiences, (2) navigating an often blurred or ambiguous line between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour and (3) the existence of competing interpretations of what had happened.

Conclusions

The results point to a gap between the participants’ lived experiences and their interpretations of them, which include difficulties positioning their experiences within their theoretical understanding of sexual harassment.

Policy Implications

Measures to counteract the obstacles faced by victims and bystanders in identifying sexual harassment in academia should target this cognitive gap, for instance by addressing the stereotypes that characterize preconceived notions about sexual harassment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Sexual harassment, sexual harassment in academia, prevention of sexual harassment
National Category
Social Work Law and Society Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Criminology; Arbete och organisation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62776 (URN)10.1007/s13178-023-00870-8 (DOI)001070338100001 ()2-s2.0-85171785846 (Scopus ID)
Projects
"Plötsligt kom där en hand" – erfarenheter och reflektioner om sexuella trakasserier bland studenter och doktorander
Funder
The Crafoord Foundation
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved
Hagerlid, M. (2022). Att handleda och inkludera normbrytande doktorander. Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL), 3(2), 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att handleda och inkludera normbrytande doktorander
2022 (Swedish)In: Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL), E-ISSN 2004-4097, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

As higher education is increasingly democratized by broadened recruitment, we can observe a larger proportion of students and faculty who challenge the norms of maleness, heteronormativity and whiteness thathave long characterized academic spaces. In this article, I present previous research and preliminary resultsfrom an ongoing study about doctoral student’s reflections about and experiences of sexual harassment. Thedoctoral students describe that an inclusion in the academic environment is a prerequisite for counteractingharassment and opening career paths for norm-breaking doctoral students. Therefore, the aim of thispresentation of preliminary results is to explore how doctoral supervisors can work proactively to includenorm-breaking doctoral students. 

Abstract [sv]

I takt med att den högre utbildningen demokratiserats genom breddad rekrytering tar personer som brytermot akademins mansnorm, heteronorm och vithetsnorm allt större plats i den högre utbildningen. Dennatrend syns både i studentgrupper och bland universitetets forskare och lärare. I den föreliggande artikelndiskuteras dels tidigare forskning, dels preliminära resultat från en pågående studie om doktoranders reflektioner och erfarenheter av sexuella trakasserier inom akademin. Doktoranderna själva beskriver själva att eninkludering i den akademiska miljön är en grundläggande förutsättning för att förebygga trakasserier ochöppna karriärvägar för normbrytande doktorander. Därför är syftet med den här presentationen av prelimära 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2022
Keywords
broadened recruitment, norm critical pedagogy, supervision, minorities in academia, doctoral students., breddad rekrytering, normkritisk pedagogik, handledning, minoriteter i akademin, doktorand
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-55359 (URN)10.24834/jotl.3.2.758 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-10-12 Created: 2022-10-12 Last updated: 2023-08-30Bibliographically approved
Mellgren, C., Hagerlid, M. & Ivert, A.-K. (2021). For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types (ed.). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(3-4), NP1512-1536NP
Open this publication in new window or tab >>For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types
2021 (English)In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 36, no 3-4, p. NP1512-1536NPArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders’ hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students’ exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non–hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non–hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
hate crime, victimization, Sweden, consequences
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15034 (URN)10.1177/0886260517746131 (DOI)000620257300041 ()29295032 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042603226 (Scopus ID)24168 (Local ID)24168 (Archive number)24168 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Hagerlid, M. (2021). Swedish Women’s Experiences of Misogynistic Hate Crimes: The Impact of Victimization on Fear of Crime. Feminist Criminology, 16(4), 504-525
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish Women’s Experiences of Misogynistic Hate Crimes: The Impact of Victimization on Fear of Crime
2021 (English)In: Feminist Criminology, ISSN 1557-0851, E-ISSN 1557-086X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 504-525Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this study is to fill a knowledge gap regarding misogynistic hate crimes, since only one previous study has focused on victims’ experiences. Drawing from a sample of 1,767 female students, the results show that women with experiences of misogynistic hate crimes are more likely to be subjected to sexual harassment, repeat victimization, and to have been targeted by strangers. They consistently report higher levels of fear of crime by comparison with both non-bias victims and non-victims. Finally, the results support the thesis that misogynistic hate crime, like other forms of hate crime, has a message effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
victimization, hate crime, misogyny, policing, fear of crime
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-18225 (URN)10.1177/1557085120957731 (DOI)000569781400001 ()2-s2.0-85090859824 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-09-14 Created: 2020-09-14 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, M., Ivert, A.-K. & Mellgren, C. (2018). Does having friends with experiences of hate crime increase fear among women, sexual minorities, and Muslims?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does having friends with experiences of hate crime increase fear among women, sexual minorities, and Muslims?
2018 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-17670 (URN)
Available from: 2020-07-03 Created: 2020-07-03 Last updated: 2021-04-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, M. (2018). Hate crime victimization: consequences and interpretations (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Malmö universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hate crime victimization: consequences and interpretations
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The field of hate crime studies is a young one and as such it is characterized by a high proportion of explorative and inductive studies. This methodological approach is well founded when a field is unfolding as they often generate theoretical conclusions or assumptions. Since I began working with the present dissertation in 2013, I have observed an increased tendency towards deductive studies testing the conclusions and assumptions made by field pioneers. The present dissertation is part of this branch and has two primary aims; 1) to test field assumptions and 2) develop present theoretical frameworks on causes and consequences of hate crime.In Article 1, me and my co-author examine the assumption that hate crime victimization result in higher levels of fear in comparison to non-bias crime. The assumption is tested by comparing fear of crime, behavioral adaptations and place-based worry among students with an immigrant and/or national minority background. The results show that hate crime victims reported significantly higher levels of fear of crime in comparison to non-victims and non-bias victims. However, there were few significant differences in behavioral adaptations and place-based worry. From interviews with hate crime victims we learned that place-based worry is not primarily associated with the physical characteristics of a certain area, but geographical concentrations of racist attitudes. Moreover, the behavioral adaptations that the interview participants used to avoid future victimization were often based upon de-identification. From these results we can conclude that traditional measures of place-based worry and behavioral adaptations does not adequately capture consequences of hate crime.In Article 2, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that police reporting is lower among victims of hate crime that target more than one of their identity categories. Contrarily to the assumption, we find that victims of hate crime with multiple motives report their experiences to the police to a higher extent in comparison to victims of hate crime with single motives. We also found that participants with several intersecting group identities endowed with stigma were more likely to be targets of hate crime with multiple motives, but not more likely to experience repeat victimization. These results support the branch of intersectional theory holding that group belongings primarily influence the expressions of violence rather than the risk of being subjected to violence.In Article 3, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that hate targets the identity of the victim and thereby attack the core of the victim’s self. We found that hate crime targets a negative stereotype associated with the perceived identity of the victim. Consequently, interview participants did not regard hate crime as a direct attack on their selves as they did not identify with the negative stereotype. However, hate crime remain a violation of the self as it denies the victims self-representation. The results also showed that the meaning-making regarding hate crime victimization is reflexive as the participants used earlier experiences when assigning meaning to incidents. This process was also recursive as new incidents lead to re-interpretations of previous experiences. In sum, the participants developed and negotiated their experiences of hate crime over time.In Article 4, me and my co-authors examine the assumption that vicarious victims respond in similar ways as direct victims since hate crime signal the presence of threat beyond the initial victim, sometimes referred to as the in terrorem effect. We examine the in terrorem effect by comparing fear of crime between non-victims, vicarious victims of hate crime, and direct victims of hate crime in three communities; women, Muslims and sexual minorities. The results showed that direct victims were generally more afraid of crime in comparison to non-victims in all communities. Though not all differences were significant, the reaction pattern among non-victims, vicarious victims and direct victims in the studies commu-nities showed the pattern of a stair, with the lowest rates among non-victims and the highest rates among direct victims. These results thereby contradict the proposed pattern of the in terrorem effect in which vicarious victims and direct victims are held to react in similar ways.In sum, the results of the present dissertation call for a more complex understanding of both individual and community effects of hate crime. The theoretical development and integration in Chapter 3 along with the results of Articles 1-4 results in hypotheses for future research on causes and consequences of hate crime in Chapter 6.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö universitet, 2018. p. 75
Series
Malmö University Health and Society Dissertations, ISSN 1653-5383 ; 2018:5
Keywords
Hate crime, Criminology, Victimology
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-7354 (URN)10.24834/2043/24837 (DOI)24837 (Local ID)9789171049179 (ISBN)9789171049162 (ISBN)24837 (Archive number)24837 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3124-8204

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