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Forssell, R., Berthelsen, H. & Jönsson, S. (2024). Negotiating for influence and resources: A study of Swedish teachers' and principals' experiences of aggressive emails from parents. Educational Management Administration & Leadership
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negotiating for influence and resources: A study of Swedish teachers' and principals' experiences of aggressive emails from parents
2024 (English)In: Educational Management Administration & Leadership, ISSN 1741-1432, E-ISSN 1741-1440Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article focuses on teachers’ and principals’ experiences of aggressive emails in home–school collaborations with parents. Semi-structured interviews with 31 teachers and principals from primary, lower and upper secondary schools in Sweden were conducted. Three categories were identified in the material which illuminate the phenomenon of cyberaggression towards principals and teachers from parents: ‘aggressive emails as reactions to principals and teachers’ performances’, ‘aggressive emails as a way of imposing power’ and ‘aggressive emails as a source of anxiety, loss of joy, and decreased focus on core tasks’. The study concludes that cyberaggression in emails from parents is centred around the act of negotiating and that email communication opens up spaces for negotiation to take place. The study also concludes that email cyberaggression tends to be instrumental in character, intended to result in a specific outcome rather than to cause harm. However, cyberaggression influences professional practice and can create a vicious circle of administrative obligation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2024
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-66619 (URN)10.1177/17411432241242263 (DOI)001193820100001 ()2-s2.0-85189133521 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, grant no. 2016-07220AFA Insurance, Dnr 190182
Available from: 2024-04-04 Created: 2024-04-04 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Holm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2023). Can Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Bystander Behaviour in Workplace Bullying? A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Bullying Prevention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Bystander Behaviour in Workplace Bullying? A Longitudinal Study
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Bullying Prevention, ISSN 2523-3653Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Bystanders can affect workplace bullying by engaging in active or passive behaviours. However, there is a knowledge gapregarding how perceived work environment factors relate to bystander behaviour. The study aim was to investigate how job demands, and job resources are associated with bystander behaviour in workplace bullying. An online questionnaire wasdistributed to a sample of health care workers at two time points. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1144 respondents. Cross-lagged panel models were used to investigate associations between job demands, job resources, and bystander behaviours over time. The results showed that social support was positively related to active behaviours, whereas influence at work was negatively related to both active and passive behaviours. Perceived illegitimate tasks were negatively related to active and positively related to passive behaviours, whereas emotional demands had an unanticipated opposite pattern of relationships. The findings provide new information about how factors in the organisational and social work environment are associated with active and passive bystander behaviours in workplace bullying. Specifically, the results expand current understanding of workplace bullying by relating bystander behaviour to the organisational context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Workplace bullying, Bystander behaviour, Witness, Job demands–resources, Longitudinal study
National Category
Psychology Work Sciences
Research subject
Arbete och organisation; Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63202 (URN)10.1007/s42380-023-00200-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85174540586 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-00228
Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, S., Stavreski, H. & Muhonen, T. (2023). Förutsättningar för ett hållbart chefskap inom vården. In: Program och abstrakt: FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser. Paper presented at Forum för arbetslivsforskning, FALF 2023: Arbetets gränser, 14-16 juni 2023, Lunds universitet, Helsingborg (pp. 91-93). Lund: Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förutsättningar för ett hållbart chefskap inom vården
2023 (Swedish)In: Program och abstrakt: FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser, Lund: Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet , 2023, p. 91-93Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet, 2023
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Arbete och organisation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63161 (URN)
Conference
Forum för arbetslivsforskning, FALF 2023: Arbetets gränser, 14-16 juni 2023, Lunds universitet, Helsingborg
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-10-17Bibliographically approved
Holm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2023). How are witnessed workplace bullying and bystander roles related to perceived care quality, work engagement, and turnover intentions in the healthcare sector?: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 138, Article ID 104429.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How are witnessed workplace bullying and bystander roles related to perceived care quality, work engagement, and turnover intentions in the healthcare sector?: A longitudinal study
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 138, article id 104429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundWorkplace bullying is widespread in the healthcare sector and the negative effects are well known. However, less attention has been paid to bystanders who witness bullying in the workplace. Bystanders can affect the bullying process by engaging in active, passive, or destructive behaviors. There is a need to study work-related and organizational consequences of witnessing bullying and bystander behaviors.ObjectiveThe aim was to explore how witnessed workplace bullying and bystander behaviors are associated with work-related and organizational consequences, such as perceived quality of care, work engagement, and turnover intentions, among healthcare workers over time.DesignLongitudinal design. An online questionnaire was administered twice over the course of six months.Setting(s)Employees in the healthcare sector in Sweden, such as physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses, responded to the questionnaire.Participants1144 participants provided longitudinal data.MethodsStructural equation modeling was used to explore the associations between witnessed bullying, bystander behavior, work-related and organizational factors over time.ResultsWitnessed workplace bullying (B = − 0.18, 95 % CI [− 0.23 to − 0.12]) and the bystander outsider role (B = − 0.24, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.19]) were statistically significantly related to a decrease in perceived quality of care. Work engagement was statistically significantly predicted by all three bystander roles over time; positively by the defender role (B = 0.11, 95 % CI [0.05–0.17]), and negatively by the outsider role (B = − 0.23, 95 % CI [− 0.29 to − 0.16]), and the assistant role (B = − 0.32, 95 % CI [− 0.41 to − 0.24]). The outsider role (B = 0.12, 95 % CI [0.02–0.22]), the assistant role (B = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.03–0.30]), and witnessed workplace bullying (B = 0.18, 95 % CI [0.08–0.29]), all positively predicted increased turnover intentions at a subsequent time point.ConclusionsIn addition to the direct negative impact workplace bullying has on those targeted by it, witnessing bullying and taking different bystander roles can have work-related and organizational consequences by influencing perceived care quality, employees' work engagement, and their intention to leave the organization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Bystander Care quality Healthcare Turnover intentions Witness Work engagement Workplace bullying
National Category
Psychology Work Sciences
Research subject
Organisational studies; Arbete och organisation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56913 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2022.104429 (DOI)000914216200001 ()36577260 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147457631 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-00228
Available from: 2022-12-27 Created: 2022-12-27 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
Holm, K., Cowen Forssell, R. & Jönsson, S. (2023). Preliminära effekter av en arbetsplatsintervention som syftar till att främja hövlighet och respekt i organisationer. In: Program och abstrakt: FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser. Paper presented at FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser, 14-16 juni 2023, Helsingborg (pp. 58). Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preliminära effekter av en arbetsplatsintervention som syftar till att främja hövlighet och respekt i organisationer
2023 (Swedish)In: Program och abstrakt: FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser, Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet , 2023, p. 58-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Historiska institutionen, Lunds universitet, 2023
National Category
Psychology Work Sciences
Research subject
Arbete och organisation; Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-60863 (URN)
Conference
FALF 2023 Arbetets gränser, 14-16 juni 2023, Helsingborg
Funder
AFA Insurance, 210121
Available from: 2023-06-16 Created: 2023-06-16 Last updated: 2023-06-29Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, S., Muhonen, T. & Stavreski, H. (2023). Strukturella, organisatoriska och individuella förutsättningar för ett hållbart chefskap. Malmö universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strukturella, organisatoriska och individuella förutsättningar för ett hållbart chefskap
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö universitet, 2023. p. 30
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-58607 (URN)10.24834/1742289 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-03-09 Created: 2023-03-09 Last updated: 2023-03-09Bibliographically approved
Holm, K., Cowen Forssell, R., Jönsson, S. & Björk, J. (2023). Testing the effects of an intervention aimed to increase civility in Swedish workplaces. In: The future is now - the changing world of work: Book of abstracts. Paper presented at EAWOP - 21st European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, 24-27 May 2023, Katowice, Poland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing the effects of an intervention aimed to increase civility in Swedish workplaces
2023 (English)In: The future is now - the changing world of work: Book of abstracts, 2023Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research goals and why the work was worth doing

Over the past two decades, research has demonstrated that workplace incivility is a ubiquitous work environment issue, which can have deleterious consequences for both individuals and organizations (Schilpzand et al., 2016; Cortina et al., 2017). Workplace incivility refers to low-intensity rude behavior in the workplace (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). The effects of incivility can be far-reaching, as it may spread in the workplace (Foulk et al., 2016; Holm et al., 2021). 

One promising avenue to address incivility has been the use of civility interventions. Actively promoting civility in the workplace may reduce the risk for incivility, and increase civility and respect (Leiter et al., 2011; 2012). However, recent research has shown less consistent results of civility interventions when applied in other cultural contexts than North America (e.g., Sawada et al., 2021), or in other workplaces than hospitals (e.g., Grantham, 2019). More information is therefore needed on the effects of implementing civility interventions in the workplace, particularly exploring mechanisms and moderators in the intervention process. The aim of the present study is to test the effects of an intervention aimed to increase civility in Swedish workplaces.

 

Theoretical background

The present study is based on the principles developed in the Civility, Respect and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) intervention (Osatuke et al., 2013).  CREW was developed by the United States Department of Veteran Affairs in 2005. CREW was a culture-based workplace intervention promoting civility in the workplace in the departments’ VA-hospitals, with documented successful outcomes (Osatuke et al., 2009). Two research studies tested the effect of the CREW intervention in hospitals in North America, showing both short- and long-term effects of the intervention on workplace behavior, attitudes, and absence (Leiter et al., 2011; 2012). However, little is still known about how civility interventions operate in other contexts than hospitals, and which mechanisms or boundary conditions that influence the impact of civility interventions.  

 

Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention

The present study has a quasi-experimental waitlist-control design. Participating workplaces are assigned to one of two conditions, an intervention condition or waitlist. The intervention group participates in a series of monthly workshops during the period of September 2022 – January 2023. The workshops address topics such as workplace culture, with the aim to promote workplace civility and reduce the risk of workplace incivility. The waitlist serves as the control group. Pre- and post-surveys are conducted to investigate possible effects of the intervention on measures of workplace (in)civility, norms for civility, social work environment factors, as well as work-related well-being. 

 

Results (expected)

Baseline survey data have currently been gathered from about 200 individuals across 13 workplaces in a Swedish municipality. The intervention group is currently undergoing the workshop series. The follow up post-survey is planned for January of 2023. When post-measures have been completed, possible change in measures of workplace civility, norms for civility, and workplace incivility will be explored. Change in social work environment factors, as well as work-related well-being, will also be explored. The intervention is expected to result in increased civility and norms for civility, as well as reduced incivility over time. 

 

Limitations

Workplaces were not assigned to the intervention or control condition via cluster randomization. Instead, it was based on practical aspects such as feasibility and scheduling in the participating organizations. Moreover, the follow-up measure is carried out only a few weeks after completion of the final workshop. Possible effects on behavior or well-being may take longer time to develop. Lastly, the measures are self-reported by participants.

 

Conclusions – research and or practical implications/Originality/Value

Results from the post-measure surveys will be presented at the congress. The originality of the project lies in exploring the effects of an updated version of a civility intervention, in a context outside of hospital settings in North America. The study will also provide information about potential mechanisms and moderators involved in the intervention process. Practically, the knowledge that results from the study could be of use in future attempts to improve the social work environment in workplaces by working with the workplace culture.

 

Relevance to the Congress Theme

The study is relevant to several of the congress themes, e.g. 6. Group dynamics, 8. Organizational design and development, 15. Stress and dysfunction, and 18. Well-being.

 

Relevant UN SDGs

Goal 3. Good health and well-being

Goal 8. Decent work and economic growth

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Organisational studies; Arbete och organisation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-59745 (URN)
Conference
EAWOP - 21st European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, 24-27 May 2023, Katowice, Poland
Funder
AFA Insurance, 210121
Available from: 2023-05-30 Created: 2023-05-30 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, S. (Ed.). (2023). The 1st work science meeting, Malmö University, Book of abstact. Paper presented at The 1st work science meeting, Malmö University, September 29, 2023. Malmö: Malmö universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The 1st work science meeting, Malmö University, Book of abstact
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2023. p. 16
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63285 (URN)10.24834/isbn.9789178774302 (DOI)978-91-7877-430-2 (ISBN)
Conference
The 1st work science meeting, Malmö University, September 29, 2023
Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2022). Att vara en hjälpande eller stjälpande åskådare till arbetsplatsmobbning – vilken roll spelar organisationen?. In: FALF 2022 - Framtidens arbete – arbetets framtid: Book of abstracts. Paper presented at FALF 2022 - Framtidens arbete – arbetets framtid, Mälardalens högskola, 13–15 juni 2022 (pp. 43-44).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att vara en hjälpande eller stjälpande åskådare till arbetsplatsmobbning – vilken roll spelar organisationen?
2022 (Swedish)In: FALF 2022 - Framtidens arbete – arbetets framtid: Book of abstracts, 2022, p. 43-44Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Fokus för denna presentation är arbetsrelaterad mobbning och den organisatoriska kontextens betydelse för varför åskådare till mobbning agerar eller att inte agerar. Presentationen bygger på en studie accepterad för publicering i Research in Health and Nursing 2021, (Jönsson & Muhonen).  

Arbetsrelaterad mobbning skiljer sig från den mobbning som vi ser bland barn och ungdomar. Mobbning som sker på arbetsplatsen, mellan vuxna, är ofta mer subtil och inte lika lätt att identifiera. Studier visar att exponering för mobbning på arbetsplatsen har allvarliga konsekvenser för de anställdas psykiska hälsa, till exempel depression eller utbrändhet.1 Utöver psykiska effekter vet vi också att mobbning kan påverka den fysiska hälsan, till exempel genom muskelsmärta eller huvudvärk2, samt minskat välbefinnande, såsom negativ påverkan på individers allmänna tillfredsställelse.3

Inom forskningen har det under långt tid varit fokus på enbart två aktörer: den eller de som utsätter (förövare) och den eller de som är utsatta (offer). Det är inte förrän på 2000-talet som en tredje aktör uppmärksammats, nämligen åskådaren.4 Att vara vittne till hur en eller flera kolleger far illa på arbetsplatsen riskerar att negativt påverka den egna hälsan. Studier har visat att bevittnandet av mobbning kan upplevas som en stressfaktor i arbetet och kan på så vis påverka många fler personer än den som direkt är utsatt. Termen åskådare används för att beskriva den individ som bevittnat mobbning men som inte enbart är att betrakta som ett passivt vittne utan som en individ med möjlighet att agera.5 Det handlar alltså om att man som åskådare har ett val, att agera eller inte agera i relation till den bevittnade situationen.6

Syfte

Syftet med den aktuella studien var att undersöka den organisatoriska kontextens betydelse för åskådares beteende vid bevittande av arbetsplatsmobbning inom hälso- och sjukvården.

Metod

Kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med 32 anställda (läkare, sjuksköterskor, undersköterskor och fysioterapeuter) inom en av Sveriges regioner. Data samlades in mellan mars 2019 och september 2020 och analyserades med tematisk analys.

Resultat

Vid analysen identifierades tre övergripande teman: åskådarens beteenden, organisatoriska faktorer, och sociala faktorer. Deltagarna i studien upplevde ofta att åskådarna, både kollegor och chefer, var passiva i sitt agerande. De menar också att organisatoriska faktorer såsom dysfunktionell organisationskultur och brister i ledningen påverkade hur åskådaren valde att agera i de olika mobbningssituationerna. I relation till sociala faktorer var det bland annat rädsla för negativa konsekvenser, bristande medvetenhet om vad som pågick, eller ett ursäktande av mobbingbeteendet som påverkade agerandet.

Diskussion

Studier har visat att när det gäller att förebygga och förhindra trakasserier och mobbning på arbetsplatsen är åskådares beteende och ingripanden av stor betydelse.7 Att fokusera på åskådares roller och agerande kan exempelvis vara fördelaktigt när man utformar olika metoder eller interventioner med syfte att minska de negativa konsekvenserna av mobbning. Att även inkludera åskådarna i en mobbningssituation innebär ett mer holistiskt angreppssätt där man slutar betrakta mobbning som en fråga på individnivå och i stället ser mobbning som en fråga för hela organisationen. Genom detta perspektivskifte möjliggörs alternativa sätt att arbeta med att förebygga förekomsten av mobbning. 

National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63138 (URN)
Conference
FALF 2022 - Framtidens arbete – arbetets framtid, Mälardalens högskola, 13–15 juni 2022
Available from: 2023-10-13 Created: 2023-10-13 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, S. (2022). Att vara åskådare till arbetsplatsmobbning: den organisatoriska kontextens betydelse. In: Ennergberg E. & Håkansson P. G. (Ed.), Plats för vem? Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering.: . Nordic Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att vara åskådare till arbetsplatsmobbning: den organisatoriska kontextens betydelse
2022 (Swedish)In: Plats för vem? Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering. / [ed] Ennergberg E. & Håkansson P. G., Nordic Academic Press, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Academic Press, 2022
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Organisational studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-57501 (URN)9789189361317 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2023-01-23Bibliographically approved
Projects
Cyberbullying at work; Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA)Organisational and social safety climate in human service organisations – Developing proactive approaches and tools for research, practice and intervention; Malmö UniversityWitnessing workplace bullying; Malmö University; Publications
Holm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2023). Can Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Bystander Behaviour in Workplace Bullying? A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Bullying PreventionHolm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2023). How are witnessed workplace bullying and bystander roles related to perceived care quality, work engagement, and turnover intentions in the healthcare sector?: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 138, Article ID 104429. Jönsson, S. (2022). Att vara åskådare till arbetsplatsmobbning: den organisatoriska kontextens betydelse. In: Ennergberg E. & Håkansson P. G. (Ed.), Plats för vem? Om arbetets inkludering och exkludering.: . Nordic Academic PressHolm, K., Jönsson, S. & Muhonen, T. (2022). Witnessing Workplace Bullying: Antecedents and Consequences related to the Organizational Context of the Health Care Sector. In: 13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022, Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at 13th International Association on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Conference, September 20-24, 2022 (pp. 87-88). Jönsson, S. (2022). Åskådare till arbetsrelaterad mobbning: roller och agerande i ett organisatoriskt sammanhang. Ny Juridik (2)
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2207-0996

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