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  • 1.
    Aherne, Olivia
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. CR Competence, Naturvetarvägen 14, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Ortiz, Roberto
    CR Competence, Naturvetarvägen 14, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Fazli, Magnus M
    Costerton Biofilm Center, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; SoftOx Solutions AS, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Effects of stabilized hypochlorous acid on oral biofilm bacteria2022In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Caries and periodontitis are amongst the most prevalent diseases worldwide, leading to pain and loss of oral function for those affected. Prevention relies heavily on mechanical removal of dental plaque biofilms but for populations where this is not achievable, alternative plaque control methods are required. With concerns over undesirable side-effects and potential bacterial resistance due to the use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), new antimicrobial substances for oral use are greatly needed. Here we have investigated the antimicrobial effect of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), stabilized with acetic acid (HAc), on oral biofilms and compared it to that of CHX. Possible adverse effects of stabilized HOCl on hydroxyapatite surfaces were also examined.

    METHODS: Single- and mixed-species biofilms of six common oral bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veillonella parvula, Parvimonas micra and Porphyromonas gingivalis) within a flow-cell model were exposed to HOCl stabilized with 0.14% or 2% HAc, pH 4.6, as well as HOCl or HAc alone. Biofilm viability was assessed in situ using confocal laser scanning microscopy following LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ staining. In-situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to study erosion of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by stabilized HOCl.

    RESULTS: Low concentrations of HOCl (5 ppm), stabilized with 0.14% or 2% HAc, significantly reduced viability in multi-species biofilms representing supra- and sub-gingival oral communities, after 5 min, without causing erosion of HA surfaces. No equivalent antimicrobial effect was seen for CHX. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed no significant differential suceptibility to stabilized HOCl.

    CONCLUSIONS: At low concentrations and with exposure times which could be achieved through oral rinsing, HOCl stabilized with HAc had a robust antimicrobial activity on oral biofilms, without causing erosion of HA surfaces or affecting viability of oral keratinocytes. This substance thus appears to offer potential for prevention and/or treatment of oral biofilm-mediated diseases.

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  • 2.
    Aidoukovitch, Alexandra
    et al.
    Lund University; Folktandvården Skåne.
    Bankell, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Nilsson, Bengt-Olof
    Lund University.
    Exogenous LL-37 but not homogenates of desquamated oral epithelial cells shows activity against Streptococcus mutans2021In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 466-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  The antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37 is detected in desquamated epithelial cells of human whole saliva, but the functional importance of this pool of hCAP18/LL-37 is not understood. Here, we assess the impact of homogenates of desquamated oral epithelial cells and exogenous, synthetic LL-37 on two oral bacteria: S. mutans and S. gordonii.

    Material and methods:  Desquamated epithelial cells of unstimulated whole saliva were isolated and cellular and extracellular levels of hCAP18/LL-37 analyzed by ELISA. Bacterial viability was determined by BacLight Live/Dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Results:  Desquamated oral epithelial cells harboured hCAP18/LL-37, and they spontaneously released/leaked the peptide to their medium. Exogenous, synthetic LL-37 showed cytotoxic activity against S. mutans but not S gordonii, suggesting that LL-37 acts differentially on these two types of oral bacteria. Homogenates of desquamated oral epithelial cells had no effect on S. mutans viability. Treatment with exogenous, synthetic LL-37 (8 and 10 μM) reduced S. mutans viability, whereas lower concentrations (0.1 and 1 µM) of the peptide lacked effect.

    Conclusions:  Desquamated oral epithelial cells contain hCAP18/LL-37, but their cellular levels of hCAP18/LL-37 are too low to affect S. mutans viability, whereas exogenous, synthetic LL-37 has a strong effect on these bacteria.

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  • 3.
    Bertl, Kristina
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Edlund Johansson, Pia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bruckmann, Corinna
    Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Leonhard, Matthias
    Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Stavropoulos, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Bacterial colonization of a power-driven water flosser during regular use: A proof-of-principle study2021In: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research, E-ISSN 2057-4347, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 656-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The present proof-of-principle study assessed whether daily use of a power-driven water flosser (Sonicare AirFloss; SAF) leads to bacterial colonization in the nozzle and/or the device, resulting in contaminated water-jet.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: In five participants, saliva samples at baseline and water-jet samples of devices used daily with bottled water for 3 weeks (test) were collected. Additionally, water-jet samples from devices used daily with bottled water extra-orally for 3 weeks (positive control) and from brand new devices (negative control), as well as samples from newly opened and 1- and 3-week opened water bottles were collected. Colony forming units (CFU) were recorded after 48 h culturing and 20 oral pathogens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction-based analysis.

    RESULTS: Distinct inter-individual differences regarding the number of detected bacteria were observed; water-jet samples of test devices included both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species, with some similarities to the saliva sample of the user. Water-jet samples from positive control devices showed limited number of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species, while the samples from negative control devices did not show any bacterial species. Very few aerobic bacteria were detected only in the 3-week-old bottled water samples, while samples of newly and 1-week opened water bottles did not show any bacterial growth.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present proof-of-principle study showed that daily use of a power-driven water flosser for 3 weeks resulted in bacterial colonization in the nozzle and/or device with both aerobic and anaerobic, not only oral, species, that are transmitted via the water-jet.

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  • 4.
    Boisen, Gabriella
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Neilands, Jessica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Acid tolerance in early colonizers of oral biofilms2021In: BMC Microbiology, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In caries, low pH drives selection and enrichment of acidogenic and aciduric bacteria in oral biofilms, and development of acid tolerance in early colonizers is thought to play a key role in this shift. Since previous studies have focussed on planktonic cells, the effect of biofilm growth as well as the role of a salivary pellicle on this process is largely unknown. We explored acid tolerance and acid tolerance response (ATR) induction in biofilm cells of both clinical and laboratory strains of three oral streptococcal species (Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mutans) as well as two oral species of Actinomyces (A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus) and examined the role of salivary proteins in acid tolerance development.

    METHODS: Biofilms were formed on surfaces in Ibidi® mini flow cells with or without a coating of salivary proteins and acid tolerance assessed by exposing them to a challenge known to kill non-acid tolerant cells (pH 3.5 for 30 min) followed by staining with LIVE/DEAD BacLight and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The ability to induce an ATR was assessed by exposing the biofilms to an adaptation pH (pH 5.5) for 2 hours prior to the low pH challenge.

    RESULTS: Biofilm formation significantly increased acid tolerance in all the clinical streptococcal strains (P < 0.05) whereas the laboratory strains varied in their response. In biofilms, S. oralis was much more acid tolerant than S. gordonii or S. mutans. A. naeslundii showed a significant increase in acid tolerance in biofilms compared to planktonic cells (P < 0.001) which was not seen for A. odontolyticus. All strains except S. oralis induced an ATR after pre-exposure to pH 5.5 (P < 0.05). The presence of a salivary pellicle enhanced both acid tolerance development and ATR induction in S. gordonii biofilms (P < 0.05) but did not affect the other bacteria to the same extent.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that factors such as surface contact, the presence of a salivary pellicle and sensing of environmental pH can contribute to the development of high levels of acid tolerance amongst early colonizers in oral biofilms which may be important in the initiation of caries.

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  • 5.
    Boisen, Gabriella
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Prgomet, Zdenka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Enggren, Gabriela
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Dahl, Hanna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Mkadmi, Cindy
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Limosilactobacillus reuteri inhibits the acid tolerance response in oral bacteria2023In: Biofilm, E-ISSN 2590-2075, Vol. 6, article id 100136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Probiotic bacteria show promising results in prevention of the biofilm-mediated disease caries, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The acid tolerance response (ATR) allows biofilm bacteria to survive and metabolize at low pH resulting from microbial carbohydrate fermentation. We have studied the effect of probiotic strains: Limosilactobacillus reuteri and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus on ATR induction in common oral bacteria. Communities of L. reuteri ATCC PTA5289 and Streptoccus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans or Actinomyces naeslundii in the initial stages of biofilm formation were exposed to pH 5.5 to allow ATR induction, followed by a low pH challenge. Acid tolerance was evaluated as viable cells after staining with LIVE/ DEAD & REG;BacLightTM. The presence of L. reuteri ATCC PTA5289 caused a significant reduction in acid tolerance in all strains except S. oralis. When S. mutans was used as a model organism to study the effects of additional probiotic strains (L. reuteri SD2112, L. reuteri DSM17938 or L. rhamnosus GG) as well as L. reuteri ATCC PTA5289 supernatant on ATR development, neither the other probiotic strains nor supernatants showed any effect. The presence of L. reuteri ATCC PTA5289 during ATR induction led to down-regulation of three key genes involved in tolerance of acid stress (luxS, brpA and ldh) in Streptococci. These data suggest that live cells of probiotic L. reuteri ATCC PTA5289 can interfere with ATR development in common oral bacteria and specific strains of L. reuteri may thus have a role in caries prevention by inhibiting development of an acid-tolerant biofilm microbiota.

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  • 6.
    Cecchinato, Francesca
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Atefyekta, Saba
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Andersson, Martin
    Jimbo, Ryo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Modulation of the nanometer pore size improves magnesium adsorption into mesoporous titania coatings and promotes bone morphogenic protein 4 expression in adhering osteoblasts2016In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 32, no 7, p. E148-E158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Mesoporous (MP) titania films used as implant coatings have recently been considered as release systems for controlled administration of magnesium to enhance initial osteoblast proliferation in vitro. Tuning of the pore size in such titania films is aimed at increasing the osteogenic potential through effects on the total loading capacity and the release profile of magnesium. Methods. In this study, evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) was used with different structure-directing agents to form three mesoporous films with average pore sizes of 2 nm (MP1), 6 nm (MP2) and 7 nm (MP3). Mg adsorption and release was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The film surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of different Mg release on osteogenesis was investigated in human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) using pre-designed osteogenesis arrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR Results. Results showed a sustained release from all the films investigated, with higher magnesium adsorption into MP1 and MP3 films. No significant differences were observed in the surface nanotopography of the films, either with or without the presence of magnesium. MP3 films (7 nm pore size) had the greatest effect on osteogenesis, up-regulating 15 bone-related genes after 1 week of hFOB growth and significantly promoting bone morphogenic protein (BMP4) expression after 3 weeks of growth Significance. The findings indicate that the increase in pore width on the nano scale significantly enhanced the bioactivity of the mesoporous coating, thus accelerating osteogenesis without creating differences in surface roughness. (C) 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  • 7.
    Chavez de Paz, Luis E.
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bergenholtz, Gunnar
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Strains of Enterococcus faecalis differ in their ability to coexist in biofilms with other root canal bacteria2015In: International Endodontic Journal, ISSN 0143-2885, E-ISSN 1365-2591, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 916-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM To investigate the relationship between protease production and the ability of Enterococcus faecalis strains to coexist in biofilms with other bacteria commonly recovered from infected root canals. METHODOLOGY: Biofilms with bacteria in mono-, dual- and four-species communities were developed in flow chambers. The organisms used were Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces naeslundii and E. faecalis strains, GUL1 and OG1RF. Biovolume and species distribution were examined using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with confocal microscopy and image analysis. The full proteome of the E. faecalis strains was studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Spots of interest were identified using tandem mass spectroscopy and quantified using Delta 2D software. RESULTS: All bacteria formed biofilms and an anova analysis revealed that the biofilm biomass increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) between 6 and 24 h. L. salivarius, S. gordonii and A. naeslundii formed mutualistic biofilm communities, and this pattern was unchanged when E. faecalis GUL1 was included in the consortium. However, with OG1RF, L. salivarius and S. gordonii were outcompeted in a 24-h biofilm. Proteomic analysis revealed that OG1RF secreted higher levels of proteases, GelE (P = 0.02) and SprE (P = 0.002) and a previously unidentified serine protease (P = 0.05), than GUL1. CONCLUSIONS: Different strains of E. faecalis can interact synergistically or antagonistically with a consortium of root canal bacteria. A possible mechanism underlying this, as well as potential differences in virulence, is production of different levels of proteases, which can cause detachment of neighbouring bacteria and tissue damage.

  • 8. Conlon, Brian
    et al.
    Geoghegan, Joan
    Waters, Elaine
    McCarthy, Hannah
    Rowe, S
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Schaeffer, Carolyn
    Foster, Timothy
    Fey, Paula
    O'Gara, James P
    Role for the A Domain of Unprocessed Accumulation-Associated Protein (Aap) in the Attachment Phase of the Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Phenotype2014In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 196, no 24, p. 4268-4275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin or the cell wall-anchored accumulation-associated protein (Aap) mediates cellular accumulation during Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm maturation. Mutation of sortase, which anchors up to 11 proteins (including Aap) to the cell wall, blocked biofilm development by the cerebrospinal fluid isolate CSF41498. Aap was implicated in this phenotype when Western blots and two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis revealed increased levels of the protein in culture supernatants. Unexpectedly, reduced levels of primary attachment were associated with impaired biofilm formation by CSF41498 srtA and aap mutants. In contrast to previous studies, which implicated Aap proteolytic cleavage and, specifically, the Aap B domains in biofilm accumulation, the CSF41498 Aap protein was unprocessed. Furthermore, aap appeared to play a less important role in the biofilm phenotype of S. epidermidis 1457, in which the Aap protein is processed. Anti-Aap A-domain IgG inhibited primary attachment and biofilm formation in strain CSF41498 but not in strain 1457. The nucleotide sequences of the aap gene A-domain region and cleavage site in strains CSF41498 and 1457 were identical, implicating altered protease activity in the differential Aap processing results in the two strains. These data reveal a new role for the A domain of unprocessed Aap in the attachment phase of biofilm formation and suggest that extracellular protease activity can influence whether Aap contributes to the attachment or accumulation phases of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype

  • 9.
    Davies, J
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, G
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Adhesion of streptococci to oral mucosa. 9th European Oral Microbiology Workshop.2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Davies, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Herrman, Annkatrin
    Russell, Wayne
    Svitacheva, Naila
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Respiratory tract mucins: structure and expression patterns2002In: Novartis Foundation symposium, ISSN 1528-2511, E-ISSN 1935-4657, Vol. 248, p. 27776-93Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Goblet cells produce mainly MUC5AC, but also MUC5B and some MUC2 in apparently ‘irritated’ airways. MUC5B dominates in the submucosal glands although a little MUC5AC and MUC7 are usually present. MUC4 originates from the ciliated cells. After separation into a gel and a sol phase, lysozyme and lactoferrin are enriched in the salivary gel phase suggesting that mucus may act as a matrix for ‘protective’ proteins on the mucosal surface. A salivary MUC5B N-terminal fragment consistent with a cleavage event in the D’ domain was de-tected with antibodies against various N-terminal peptide sequences suggesting that assembly of MUC5B occurs through a mechanism similar to that of the von Willebrand factor. Identification of additional cleavage sites C-terminal to the D’ domain suggests that most of the N-terminal low-glycosylated part of MUC5B may be removed without affecting the oligomeric nature of the mucin. Possibly, the generation of mucins with different macromolecular properties through proteolytic ‘processing’ is one way of adapting the mucus polymer matrix to meet local physiological demands. Monomeric mucins that appear to turn over rapidly in the airway epithelium have been identified using radiolabelled mucin precursors. ‘Shedding’ of such mucins after microbe attachment may prevent colonization of epithelial surfaces.

  • 11.
    Davies, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Adhesion capacity of Streptococcus gordonii– effects of an srtA mutation (Malmö)2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Davies, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Kirkham, Sara
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Svitacheva, Naila
    Thornton, David
    MUC16 is produced in tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands and is present in secretions from normal human airway and cultured bronchial epithelial cells2007In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 1357-2725, E-ISSN 1878-5875, Vol. 39, p. 1943-1954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gel-forming MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins have been identified as major components of human airway mucus but it is not known whether additional mucin species, possibly with other functions, are also present. MUC16 mucin is a well known serum marker for ovarian cancer, but the molecule has also been found on the ocular surface and in cervical secretions suggesting that it may play a role on the normal mucosal surface. In this investigation, the LUM16-2 antiserum (raised against a sequence in the N-terminal repeat domain) recognized MUC16 in goblet and submucosal gland mucous cells as well as on the epithelial surface of human tracheal tissue suggesting that the mucin originates from secretory cells. MUC16 mucin was present in ‘normal’ respiratory tract mucus as well as in secretions from normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. MUC16 from NHBE cells was a high-molecular-mass, monomeric mucin which gave rise to large glycopeptides after proteolysis. N- and C-terminal fragments of the molecule were separated on gel electrophoresis showing that the MUC16 apoprotein undergoes a cleavage between these domains, possibly in the SEA-domain as demonstrated for other transmembrane mucins; MUC1 and MUC3. After metabolic labeling of NHBE cells, most of the secreted monomeric, high-molecular-mass [35S] sulphate-labelled molecules were immunoprecipitated with the OC125 antibody indicating that MUC16 is the major [35S] sulphate-labelled mucin in NHBE cell secretions.

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  • 13.
    Davies, Julia R
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Field, James
    University of Cardiff, Cardiff, UK.
    Dixon, Jonathan
    University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Manzanares-Cespedes, Maria-Cristina
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Vital, Sibylle
    Université de Paris, AP-HP, Paris, France.
    Paganelli, Corrado
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Akota, Ilze
    Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.
    Quinn, Barry
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Association of Dental Education in Europe, Dublin, Ireland.
    Roger-Leroi, Valerie
    Clermont Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Murphy, Denis
    Association of Dental Education in Europe, Dublin, Ireland.
    Gerber, Gabor
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, Hungary.
    Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie
    Clermont Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    ARTICULATE: A European glossary of terms used in oral health professional education2023In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 209-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The Erasmus+O-Health-EDU project aims to gain a comprehensive view of oral health professional (OHP) education in Europe, through the development of web-based surveys and online toolkits. A glossary to facilitate a common language through which academic teams could cooperate and communicate more accurately was identified as a key need within the project. The aim of ARTICULATE was thus to create a shared language, with a European focus, for terms and concepts used in the field of OHP education.

    METHODS: The methodology was developed from those published for construction of other glossaries with a circular and iterative process: the creation of content and definitions by a group of experts in OHP education, the testing of "fitness for purpose" of the content, and stakeholder consultation. All creation steps were followed by refinements based on testing results and stakeholder comments. The final glossary was then launched as an online resource including a built-in mechanism for user feedback.

    RESULTS: The scope and structure of the glossary were mapped out at a workshop with 12 dental education experts from 7 European countries. A total of 328 terms were identified, of which 171 were finally included in ARTICULATE. After piloting with a close group of other colleagues, the glossary was opened for external input. Thirty European Deans or Heads of Education assessed the definition of each term as "clear" or "not clear." A total of 86 definitions were described as "clear" by all individuals. Terms deemed unclear by at least one individual were revisited and changes made to 37 of the definitions. In conjunction with the launch of the glossary, a range of stakeholder organisations were informed and asked to participate in an open global consultation by providing feedback online. Since its launch in June 2021, the ARTICULATE website (https://o-health-edu.org/articulate) has had an average of 500 visits/month. To promote community ownership, forms embedded on the ARTICULATE webpage allow users to give feedback and suggest new terms. A standing taskforce will meet regularly to consider amendments and make changes to ensure that the glossary remains a relevant and up-to-date resource over time.

    CONCLUSION: ARTICULATE is a unique, evolving, online glossary of terms relating to OHP education, created as a resource for all interested OHP educators. The glossary is a key output of the O-Health-Edu project, which relies on a comprehensive vision of OHP education to address the future oral health needs of the European population.

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  • 14.
    Davies, Julia R
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Adhesion capacity of Streptococcus gordonii– effects of an srtA mutation (Toronto)2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Davies, Julia R
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Kad, Trupti
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Neilands, Jessica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Kinnby, B
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Prgomet, Zdenka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Khalaf, Hazem
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Polymicrobial synergy stimulates Porphyromonas gingivalis survival and gingipain expression in a multi-species subgingival community.2021In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis in subgingival microbial communities, resulting from increased inflammatory transudate from the gingival tissues, is an important factor in initiation and development of periodontitis. Dysbiotic communities are characterized by increased numbers of bacteria that exploit the serum-like transudate for nutrients, giving rise to a proteolytic community phenotype. Here we investigate the contribution of interactions between members of a sub-gingival community to survival and development of virulence in a serum environment-modelling that in the subgingival pocket.

    METHODS: Growth and proteolytic activity of three Porphyromonas gingivalis strains in nutrient broth or a serum environment were assessed using A600 and a fluorescent protease substrate, respectively. Adherence of P. gingivalis strains to serum-coated surfaces was studied with confocal microscopy and 2D-gel electrophoresis of bacterial supernatants used to investigate extracellular proteins. A model multi-species sub-gingival community containing Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus constellatus, Parvimonas micra with wild type or isogenic mutants of P. gingivalis was then created and growth and proteolytic activity in serum assessed as above. Community composition over time was monitored using culture techniques and qPCR.

    RESULTS: The P. gingivalis strains showed different growth rates in nutrient broth related to the level of proteolytic activity (largely gingipains) in the cultures. Despite being able to adhere to serum-coated surfaces, none of the strains was able to grow alone in a serum environment. Together in the subgingival consortium however, all the included species were able to grow in the serum environment and the community adopted a proteolytic phenotype. Inclusion of P. gingivalis strains lacking gingipains in the consortium revealed that community growth was facilitated by Rgp gingipain from P. gingivalis.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the multi-species consortium, growth was facilitated by the wild-type and Rgp-expressing strains of P. gingivalis, suggesting that Rgp is involved in delivery of nutrients to the whole community through degradation of complex protein substrates in serum. Whereas they are constitutively expressed by P. gingivalis in nutrient broth, gingipain expression in the model periodontal pocket environment (serum) appeared to be orchestrated through signaling to P. gingivalis from other members of the community, a phenomenon which then promoted growth of the whole community.

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  • 16.
    Davies, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Identification of novel LPXTG-linked surface proteins from Streptococcus gordonii2009In: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 155, p. 1977-1988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface adhesion plays an essential part in the survival of the commensal organism Streptococcus gordonii in the oral cavity as well as during opportunistic infections such as endocarditis. At least two types of cell surface protein involved in adhesion are found on the surface of Gram-positive bacteria: those anchored via an LPXTG motif by the enzyme sortase A (SrtA) and those associated with the cell surface by, as yet, unknown mechanisms. In srtA(-) mutants, LPXTG-containing proteins have been shown to be released rather than cross-linked to the cell wall. We have therefore used 2D gel electrophoresis of released proteins from an srtA(-) mutant as well as the wild-type strain, followed by peptide identification by MS, to identify a set of novel proteins predicted to be present on the surface of S. gordonii DL1. This includes two large LPXTG-linked proteins (SGO_0707 and SGO_1487), which both contain tandemly repeated sequences similar to those present in known fibrillar adhesins. A 5'-nucleotidase and a protein with a putative collagen-binding domain, both containing LPXTG motifs, were also identified. Anchorless proteins with known chaperone, stress response and elongation factor functions, apparently responsible for bacterial binding to keratinocytes and saliva-coated surfaces in the absence of the LPXTG-linked adhesins, were also associated with the cell surface. These data reveal a range of proteins to be present on the S. gordonii DL1 cell surface, the expression of which plays an important role in adhesion to epithelia and which represent likely candidates for novel virulence factors in S. gordonii.

  • 17.
    Davies, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Thornton, David
    Gel-forming and cell-associated mucins: preparation for structural and functional studies2012In: Mucins: methods and protocols / [ed] Michael A. McGuckin, David J. Thornton, Humana Press, 2012, p. 27-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Secreted and transmembrane mucins are important components of innate defence at the body's mucosal surfaces. The secreted mucins are large, polymeric glycoproteins, which are largely responsible for the gel-like properties of mucus secretions. The cell-tethered mucins, however, are monomeric but are typically composed of two subunits, a larger extracellular subunit which is heavily glycosylated while the smaller more sparsely glycosylated subunit has a short extracellular region, a single-pass transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. These two families of mucins represent high-molecular-weight glycoproteins containing serine and threonine-rich domains that are the attachment sites for large numbers of O-glycans. The high-M ( r ) and high sugar content have been exploited for the separation of mucins from the majority of components in mucus secretions. In this chapter, we describe current and well-established methods (caesium chloride density-gradient centrifugation, gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography, and agarose gel electrophoresis) for the extraction and purification of gel-forming and cell-surface mucins which can subsequently be used for a variety of structural and functional studies.

  • 18.
    Dixon, Jonathan
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Sheffield, England..
    Field, James
    Cardiff Univ, Cardiff, Wales..
    Vital, Sibylle
    Univ Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    van Harten, Maria
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.;Assoc Dent Educ Europe, Dublin, Ireland..
    Roger-Leroi, Valerie
    Clermont Auvergne Univ, Clermont Ferrand, France..
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Manzanares-Cespedes, Maria-Cristina
    Univ Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Akota, Ilze
    Riga Stradins Univ, Riga, Latvia..
    Murphy, Denis
    Assoc Dent Educ Europe, Dublin, Ireland..
    Paganelli, Corrado
    Univ Brescia, Brescia, Italy..
    Gerber, Gabor
    Semmelweis Egyet, Budapest, Hungary..
    Quinn, Barry
    Assoc Dent Educ Europe, Dublin, Ireland.;Univ Liverpool, Liverpool, England..
    Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie
    Clermont Auvergne Univ, Clermont Ferrand, France..
    O-HEALTH-EDU: A viewpoint into the current state of Oral Health Professional education in Europe: Part 1: Programme-level data2024In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Current legislation leaves Oral Health Professional (OHP) education open to wide interpretation and may result in significant variation in educational practice and resultant professional attributes across Europe. Data regarding the current state of OHP education across Europe is limited. The aim of Part 1 of this series is to provide programme-level data for Primary Dental Degree Programmes, Dental Hygiene and Postgraduate Education.Methods: A 91-item questionnaire was developed following the Delphi method. The questionnaire and the Articulate glossary of OHP education terms were developed concurrently to facilitate a common understanding of language. Piloting was performed in multiple stages and included institutions internal and external to the research group. The questionnaire was uploaded online and converted to a data hub, allowing dental schools to control their own data and update the data provided whenever they wish. All ADEE member schools (n = 144) were invited to provide data. Forty questions relating to school details, Primary Dental Degree Programmes, Dental Hygiene and Postgraduate Education were included in this part of the series.Results: Seventy-one institutions from 25 European countries provided data between June 2021 and April 2023, which represents a response rate of 49.3% of ADEE members. Programme-level data for Primary Dental Degree Programmes, Dental Hygiene and Postgraduate Education is presented including programme length, funding, languages and fees, student numbers and demographics, student admission and selection processes and permission to practice after graduation.Conclusion: This series of papers, as far as the authors are aware, are the first attempts to build a comprehensive picture of the current state of OHP education in Europe. A comprehensive view of the state of OHP education in Europe is not yet available but the O-Health-Edu data hub provides a means for all education providers in Europe to contribute data to reach this goal. It is anticipated that the data hub will be updated and built upon over time to continually establish a clearer picture of the state of OHP education in Europe.

  • 19. Dixon, Jonathan
    et al.
    Manzanares-Cespedes, Cristina
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Vital, Sibylle
    Gerber, Gabor
    Paganelli, Corrado
    Akota, Ilze
    Greiveldinger, Alyette
    Murphy, Denis
    Quinn, Barry
    Roger-Leroi, Valerie
    Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie
    Field, James
    O-HEALTH-EDU: A scoping review on the reporting of oral health professional education in Europe.2021In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 56-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The variability in oral health professional education is likely to impact on the management of oral health needs across Europe. This scoping review forms the initial part of a larger EU-funded collaborative Erasmus + project, 'O-Health-Edu'. The aim of this scoping review is to investigate how oral health professional education in Europe is reported.

    METHODS: The PRISMA and Arksey & O'Malley methodological frameworks for scoping reviews were used to guide reviewers in answering the research question "How is oral health professional education reported in Europe?". The search strategy encompassed published literature searches, internet searches and further searching of relevant documents from educational organisations, regulators and professional bodies. Once the search strategy was developed, it was sent to key stakeholders for consultation. Sources were reviewed by two authors (JD, JF) and included in the review if they reported on oral health professional education in Europe.

    RESULTS: A total of 508 sources were retrieved from all of the searches. A total of 405 sources were excluded as they did not report on the topic of interest, leaving 103 sources that reported on oral health professional education in Europe. Handsearching the references of published sources lead to a further 41 sources being screened, of which, 15 were included. In total, 33 duplications were removed and the final number of included sources was 85. The average year of publication for the included sources was 2007, with sources most commonly published in journals dedicated to dental education. Surveys represented the most common form of reporting. From the data obtained, four broad themes of reporting were evident: dental education at a programme level, dental education at a discipline level, other oral health professional education, and postgraduate education and continuous professional development.

    CONCLUSION: The reporting of dental and oral health professional education in Europe is limited. Whilst there are many useful documents that provide guidelines on dental education, there is limited knowledge on how education is implemented and delivered. There is a greater need for comprehensive educationally driven programme-level data on oral health professional education across Europe.

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  • 20.
    Dixon, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie
    Clermont Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    van Harten, Maria
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, Association for Dental Education in Europe, Dublin, Ireland.
    Roger-Leroi, Valerie
    Clermont Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Vital, Sibylle
    Université Paris Cite, Paris, France.
    Paganelli, Corrado
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Akota, Ilze
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Manzanares-Cespedes, Maria Cristina
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Murphy, Denis
    Association for Dental Education in Europe, Dublin, Ireland.
    Gerber, Gabor
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, Hungary.
    Quinn, Barry
    Association for Dental Education in Europe, Dublin, Ireland, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Field, James
    Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    O-Health-Edu : A viewpoint into the current state of oral health professional education in Europe: Part 2: Curriculum structure, facilities, staffing and quality assurance2024In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Oral health professional (OHP) education is likely to vary across Europe in accordance with an EU directive that is open to broad interpretation. It is not clear how OHP curricula are structured or delivered across Europe. The objectives of Part 2 of this paper series are: (i) to provide an overview of common practices in curriculum structure, the availability of facilities, staffing (faculty) and quality assurance processes and (ii) to consider how the existing programme structures align to stakeholder guidance documents.

    METHODS: A total of 27 questions from a 91-item questionnaire were used for this manuscript. The questionnaire was developed following the Delphi method to establish consensus from a group of experts. Members of the research team and colleagues from other countries in Europe completed a multi-step piloting process. An online data hub was created to allow the respondents to be data controllers and respond to the questionnaire. ADEE member schools (n = 144) were invited to provide data.

    RESULTS: Totally, 71 institutions from 25 European countries provided data between June 2021 and April 2023, which represents a response rate of 49.3% of ADEE members. Data on curriculum approaches, teaching methods, integration of topics of interest, clinical education, staff-student ratios, access to facilities and new technologies, teaching staff (faculty) and quality assurance processes are presented for Primary Dental Degree Programmes.

    CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this series of papers are the first attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of OHP education in Europe. Results showed that the majority of European dental programmes are engaged in providing innovative and scientifically grounded education in order to develop quality future OHPs. Nevertheless, significant variability in the delivery of clinical education across the European OHP schools was notable in this dataset. A comprehensive view of the state of OHP education in Europe is not yet available but the O-Health-Edu data hub provides a means for all education providers in Europe to contribute data to reach this goal. It is anticipated that the data hub will be updated and built upon over time to continually establish a clearer picture of the state of OHP education in Europe.

  • 21.
    Dorkhan, Marjan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Chávez de Paz, Luis E.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Skepö, Marie
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Effects of saliva or serum coating on adherence of Streptococcus oralis strains to titanium2012In: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 158, no 2, p. 390-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of dental implants to treat tooth loss has increased rapidly over recent years. 'Smooth' implants showing high long-term success rates have successively been replaced by implants with rougher surfaces, designed to stimulate rapid osseointegration and promote tissue healing. If exposed in the oral cavity, rougher surfaces may promote bacterial adhesion leading to formation of microbial biofilms which can induce peri-implant inflammation. Streptococcus oralis is an early colonizer of oral surfaces and has been recovered from titanium surfaces in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence of clinical strains of S. oralis to titanium with smooth or moderately rough surface topography and to determine the effect of a saliva- or serum-derived coating on this process. Adherence was studied using a flow-cell system with confocal laser scanning microscopy, while putative adhesins were analysed using proteomics of bacterial cell wall proteins. This showed that adherence to moderately rough was greater than to smooth surfaces. Serum did not promote binding of any studied S. oralis strains to titanium whereas a saliva-coating increased adherence in two of three strains tested. The high level of adherence to the moderately rough surfaces was maintained even in the presence of a saliva coating. The S. oralis strains that bound to saliva expressed an LPXTG-linked protein which was not present in the non-adherent strain. Thus strains of S. oralis differ in their capacity to bind to saliva-coated titanium and we propose that this is due to differential expression of a novel adhesin.

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  • 22.
    Dorkhan, Marjan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hall, Jan
    Uvdal, Per
    Sandell, Anders
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Crystalline anatase-rich titanium can reduce adherence of oral streptococci2014In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 751-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Titanium implants in the oral cavity are covered with a saliva-derived pellicle to which early colonizing microorganisms such as Streptococcus oralis can bind. The protein profiles of salivary pellicles on titanium have not been well characterized and the proteins of importance for binding are thus unknown. Biofilm bacteria exhibit different phenotypes from their planktonic counterparts and contact with salivary proteins may be one factor contributing to the induction of changes in physiology. We have characterized salivary pellicles from titanium surfaces and investigated how contact with uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces affects metabolic activity in adherent cells of S. oralis. METHODS: Salivary pellicles on smooth titanium surfaces were desorbed and these, as well as purified human saliva, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. A parallel plate flow-cell model was used to study binding of a fresh isolate of S. oralis to uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces. Metabolic activity was assessed using the BacLight CTC Vitality Kit and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results analyzed using Student's t-test or ANOVA. RESULTS: Secretory IgA, α-amylase and cystatins were identified as dominant proteins in the salivary pellicles. Selective adsorption of proteins was demonstrated by the enrichment of prolactin-inducible protein and absence of zinc-α₂-glycoprotein relative to saliva. Adherence of S. oralis to titanium led to an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the population after 2 hours. In the presence of a salivary pellicle, this effect was enhanced and sustained over the following 22 hour period. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that adherence to smooth titanium surfaces under flow causes an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the early oral colonizer S. oralis, most likely as part of an adaptation to the biofilm mode of life. The effect was enhanced by a salivary pellicle containing sIgA, α-amylase, cystatins and prolactin-inducible protein which was, for the first time, identified as an abundant component of salivary pellicles on titanium. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effect of surface contact on metabolic activity as well as to identify the salivary proteins responsible for enhancing the effect.

  • 23.
    Dorkhan, Marjan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Salivary pellicles on titanium and their effect on metabolic activity in Streptococcus oralis2013In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 13, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Titanium implants in the oral cavity are covered with a saliva-derived pellicle to which early colonizing microorganisms such as Streptococcus oralis can bind. The protein profiles of salivary pellicles on titanium have not been well characterized and the proteins of importance for binding are thus unknown. Biofilm bacteria exhibit different phenotypes from their planktonic counterparts and contact with salivary proteins may be one factor contributing to the induction of changes in physiology. We have characterized salivary pellicles from titanium surfaces and investigated how contact with uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces affects metabolic activity in adherent cells of S. oralis. METHODS: Salivary pellicles on smooth titanium surfaces were desorbed and these, as well as purified human saliva, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. A parallel plate flow-cell model was used to study binding of a fresh isolate of S. oralis to uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces. Metabolic activity was assessed using the BacLight CTC Vitality Kit and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results analyzed using Student's t-test or ANOVA. RESULTS: Secretory IgA, α-amylase and cystatins were identified as dominant proteins in the salivary pellicles. Selective adsorption of proteins was demonstrated by the enrichment of prolactin-inducible protein and absence of zinc-α₂-glycoprotein relative to saliva. Adherence of S. oralis to titanium led to an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the population after 2 hours. In the presence of a salivary pellicle, this effect was enhanced and sustained over the following 22 hour period. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that adherence to smooth titanium surfaces under flow causes an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the early oral colonizer S. oralis, most likely as part of an adaptation to the biofilm mode of life. The effect was enhanced by a salivary pellicle containing sIgA, α-amylase, cystatins and prolactin-inducible protein which was, for the first time, identified as an abundant component of salivary pellicles on titanium. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effect of surface contact on metabolic activity as well as to identify the salivary proteins responsible for enhancing the effect.

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  • 24.
    Dorkhan, Marjan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay
    Hall, Jan
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Adherence of human oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts to nano-structured titanium surfaces2014In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 14, no 75, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A key element for long-term success of dental implants is integration of the implant surface with the surrounding host tissues. Modification of titanium implant surfaces can enhance osteoblast activity but their effects on soft-tissue cells are unclear. Adherence of human keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts to control commercially pure titanium (CpTi) and two surfaces prepared by anodic oxidation was therefore investigated. Since implant abutments are exposed to a bacteria-rich environment in vivo, the effect of oral bacteria on keratinocyte adhesion was also evaluated. METHODS: The surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of adhered cells and binding strength, as well as vitality of fibroblasts and keratinocytes were evaluated using confocal scanning laser microscopy after staining with Live/Dead Baclight. To evaluate the effect of bacteria on adherence and vitality, keratinocytes were co-cultured with a four-species streptococcal consortium. RESULTS: SEM analysis showed the two anodically oxidized surfaces to be nano-structured with differing degrees of pore-density. Over 24 hours, both fibroblasts and keratinocytes adhered well to the nano-structured surfaces, although to a somewhat lesser degree than to CpTi (range 42-89% of the levels on CpTi). The strength of keratinocyte adhesion was greater than that of the fibroblasts but no differences in adhesion strength could be observed between the two nano-structured surfaces and the CpTi. The consortium of commensal streptococci markedly reduced keratinocyte adherence on all the surfaces as well as compromising membrane integrity of the adhered cells. CONCLUSION: Both the vitality and level of adherence of soft-tissue cells to the nano-structured surfaces was similar to that on CpTi. Co-culture with streptococci reduced the number of keratinocytes on all the surfaces to approximately the same level and caused cell damage, suggesting that commensal bacteria could affect adherence of soft-tissue cells to abutment surfaces in vivo.

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  • 25.
    Field, James
    et al.
    Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Dixon, Jonathan
    The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Quinn, Barry
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Murphy, Denis
    Association for Dental Education in Europe, Dublin, Ireland.
    Vital, Sibylle
    Universite Paris Cite, Paris, France.
    Paganelli, Corrado
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Akota, Ilze
    Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.
    Gerber, Gabor
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, Hungary.
    Roger-Leroi, Valerie
    University of Clermont-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Manzanares-Cespedes, Maria Cristina
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie
    University of Clermont-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    O-Health-Edu: A vision for oral health professional education in Europe.2023In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 382-387Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This consensus paper reports on the process of developing a renewed vision for Oral Health Professional (OHP) education across Europe, and forms part of a larger EU-funded collaborative Erasmus+ project, "O-Health-Edu." The vision aligns with the World Health Organisation milestones (2016) and resolutions (2021), and EU4Health programme (2020) objectives - and projects 20 years into the future, to 2040. This longitudinal vision takes a multi-stakeholder perspective to deliver OHP education that acts in the best interests of both students and patients, and sits within the context of a wider strategy for general health. Included, it is an infographic to help communicate the vision to various stakeholders of OHP education.

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  • 26. Field, James
    et al.
    Kavadella, Agyro
    Szep, Susanne
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    DeLap, Ellis
    Manzanares-Cespedes, Maria Cristina
    The Graduating European Dentist: Domain III: Patient- Centred Care2017In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 21, no Supplement 1, p. 18-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper outlines the areas of competence and learning outcomes of “The Graduating European Dentist” that specifically relate to patient- centred care. This ap-proach is becoming increasingly prominent within the literature and within policy documents. Whilst working to an evidence base is critical, dentists must also be aware of the scientific basis that underpins the treatment they provide. The evaluation pro-cess, which supports treatment planning, also requires dentists to be able to listen, collate, and record pertinent information effectively. In addition, the ability to account for a patient’s social, cultural and linguistic needs (cultural competence) will result in a practitioner who is able to treatment plan for patient- centred care.

  • 27.
    Fransson, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Dentine sialoprotein and Collagen I expression after experimental pulp capping in humans using Emdogain(R) Gel2011In: International Endodontic Journal, ISSN 0143-2885, E-ISSN 1365-2591, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To characterize the hard tissue formed in human teeth experimentally pulp capped either with calcium hydroxide or with Emdogain®Gel (Biora AB, Malmö, Sweden) – , a derivative of enamel matrix (EMD), using two markers for dentine; dentine sialoprotein (DSP) and type 1 collagen (Col I). Formation of hard tissue following pulp capping in these teeth has previously been observed and reported. Methodology Affinity-purified rabbit anti-Col I and anti-DSP polyclonal antibodies were used to stain histological sections from 9 pairs of contra-lateral premolars, that had been experimentally pulp amputated and randomly capped with EMDgel or calcium hydroxide. The teeth were extracted 12 weeks after being pulp capped. Results In the calcium hydroxide treated teeth DSP was seen in the new hard tissue which formed a bridge. DSP was also seen in the newly formed hard tissue in the EMDgel treated teeth. Proliferated pulp tissue partly filled the space initially occupied by EMDgel and DSP-stained hard tissue was observed alongside exposed dentine surfaces as well as in isolated masses within the proliferated pulp tissue, although the new hard tissue did not cover the pulp exposure. DSP staining was also seen in the cells lining the hard tissue in both groups. Col I staining was seen in the newly formed hard tissue in both groups. Conclusions The new hard tissue formed after pulp capping with EMDgel or calcium hydroxide contained DSP and Col I, considered to be markers for dentine.

  • 28.
    Fransson, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    DSP and collagen 1 expression in newly formed hard tissue after pulp capping in humans.2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Fransson, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    DSP and Collagen I Expression After Pulp Capping in Humans2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of hard tissue following treatment of pulp exposures has been observed in both clinical and experimental studies. However it is not known if such tissue has the functions of primary dentin which are likely to be important in protecting the pulp from the oral environment. Objectives: To study the expression of two relatively specific markers for dentin; dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and type 1 collagen (Col I) in human teeth experimentally pulp capped either with Emdogain®Gel (Biora AB, Malmö, Sweden) - a derivative of enamel matrix (EMD) in a propylene glycol alginate vehicle, or with calcium hydroxide. Methods: Nine pairs of contra-lateral premolars scheduled for extraction on orthodontic grounds were experimentally pulp amputated and capped with EMDgel or calcium hydroxide. After 12 weeks the teeth were extracted, prepared for light microscopic examination and stained using affinity-purified rabbit anti-Col I and anti-DSP polyclonal antibodies. Results: In the EMDgel treated teeth, new tissue partly filled the space initially occupied by the gel and hard tissue was formed alongside exposed dentin surfaces and in patches in the adjacent pulp tissue. In the calcium hydroxide treated teeth, the new hard tissue was formed as a bridge. DSP staining was seen in the newly formed hard tissue and in the cells lining it in both groups but was more marked in the EMDgel treated teeth. Col I staining was seen in the newly formed hard tissue in both groups. Conclusion: The expression of DSP and Col I suggests that the new hard tissue formed after pulp capping with EMDgel or calcium hydroxide is dentin. Supported by Biora AB, Malmö, Sweden, the European Society of Endodontology and the Swedish Dental Society.

  • 30.
    Fransson, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Effects of bacterial products on the activity of odontoblast-like cells and their formation of type 1 collagen2014In: International Endodontic Journal, ISSN 0143-2885, E-ISSN 1365-2591, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 397-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study how products released from different bacteria in a deep carious lesion affect the metabolic activity of odontoblast-like cells and their ability to produce the major organic component of dentine, collagen 1. METHODOLOGY: MDPC-23 cells were exposed to supernatants from biofilm cultures of strains isolated from the deepest part of a carious lesion as well as from a clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used for comparison. Cell activity was assessed using an methyl-thiazolyl-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and collagen 1 levels were determined by ELISA. RESULTS:The lesion microflora was dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Neither extracellular products from the isolates nor LPS affected the activity of the MDPC-23 cells, whereas extracellular products from E. faecalis and LTA significantly reduced total cell activity (P < 0.01). Enterococcus faecalis had an inhibitory effect upon collagen 1 production by the cells, whereas no such effect or even a slight stimulatory effect was seen for the isolates from the deep carious lesion. CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that culture supernatants from E. faecalis reduced the metabolic activity of odontoblast-like cells as shown using the MTT assay. No effect was seen for supernatants from biofilms of bacteria recovered from a deep carious lesion. Different bacteria varied in their effects upon collagen 1 production suggesting that the nature of the bacterial species in a carious lesion may have a direct influence upon the ability of the odontoblasts to produce tertiary dentine.

  • 31. Fröjd, Victoria
    et al.
    Chávez de Paz, Luis Eduardo
    Andersson, Martin
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    In situ analysis of multispecies biofilm formation on customized titanium surfaces2011In: Molecular Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2041-1006, E-ISSN 2041-1014, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies to identify surfaces that enhance the incorporation of dental implants into bone and soft-tissue have been undertaken previously. However, to succeed in the clinical situation, an implant surface must not support development of microbial biofilms with a pathogenic potential. As a first step in investigating this, we used two-species and three-species biofilm models with 16S ribosomal RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the effect of surface characteristics on biofilm formation by species that can colonize titanium implants in vivo: Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii and Lactobacillus salivarius. Surfaces blasted with Al(2) O(3) (S(a) = 1.0-2.0 μm) showed a seven-fold higher bacterial adhesion after 2 h than turned surfaces (S(a) = 0.18 μm) whereas porous surfaces, generated by anodic oxidation (S(a) = 0.4 μm), showed four-fold greater adhesion than turned surfaces. Hence, increased roughness promoted adhesion, most likely through protection of bacteria from shear forces. Chemical modification of the blasted and oxidized surfaces by incorporation of Ca(2+) ions reduced adhesion compared with the corresponding non-modified surfaces. After 14 h, biofilm growth occurred in the three-species model but not in the two-species consortium (containing S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii only). The biofilm biovolume on all surfaces was similar, suggesting that the influence of surface characteristics on adhesion was compensated for by biofilm development.

  • 32. Fröjd, Victoria
    et al.
    Linderbäck, Paula
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Chávez de Paz, Luis
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Effect of nanoporous TiO2 coating and anodized Ca2+ modification of titanium surfaces on early microbial biofilm formation2011In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The soft tissue around dental implants forms a barrier between the oral environment and the peri-implant bone and a crucial factor for long-term success of therapy is development of a good abutment/soft-tissue seal. Sol-gel derived nanoporous TiO2 coatings have been shown to enhance soft-tissue attachment but their effect on adhesion and biofilm formation by oral bacteria is unknown. METHODS: We have investigated how the properties of surfaces that may be used on abutments: turned titanium, sol-gel nanoporous TiO2 coated surfaces and anodized Ca2+ modified surfaces, affect biofilm formation by two early colonizers of the oral cavity: Streptococcus sanguinis and Actinomyces naeslundii. The bacteria were detected using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization together with confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Interferometry and atomic force microscopy revealed all the surfaces to be smooth (Sa≤0.22 μm). Incubation with a consortium of S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii showed no differences in adhesion between the surfaces over 2 hours. After 14 hours, the level of biofilm growth was low and again, no differences between the surfaces were seen. The presence of saliva increased the biofilm biovolume of S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii ten-fold compared to when saliva was absent and this was due to increased adhesion rather than biofilm growth. CONCLUSIONS: Nano-topographical modification of smooth titanium surfaces had no effect on adhesion or early biofilm formation by S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii as compared to turned surfaces or those treated with anodic oxidation in the presence of Ca2+. The presence of saliva led to a significantly greater biofilm biovolume but no significant differences were seen between the test surfaces. These data thus suggest that modification with sol-gel derived nanoporous TiO2, which has been shown to improve osseointegration and soft-tissue healing in vivo, does not cause greater biofilm formation by the two oral commensal species tested than the other surfaces.

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  • 33. Hall, Jan
    et al.
    Neilands, Jessica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Ekestubbe, Annika
    Friberg, Bertil
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    A randomized, controlled, clinical study on a new titanium oxide abutment surface for improved healing and soft tissue health2019In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 21, no Suppl 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A newly developed, anodized titanium oxide surface containing anatase has been reported to have antimicrobial properties that could reduce bacterial adherence to abutments. Purpose: To investigate if abutments with the anodized surface improve healing and soft tissue health in a randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: Test abutments with a nanostructured anodized surface were compared with control machined titanium abutments. In total, 35 subjects each received a pair of test and control abutments. The primary endpoint was reduction of biofilm formation at test abutments at the 6‐week follow‐up. Secondary endpoints included several soft tissue assessments. qPCR for gene markers was used to indirectly evaluate healing and soft tissue health. Results: No significant differences in biofilm formation were observed between test and control abutments, but soft tissue bleeding upon abutment removal was significantly lower for test abutments compared with control abutments (P = 0.006) at 6 weeks. Keratinized mucosa height was significantly greater at test abutments compared with control abutments at the 6‐week, 6‐month, and 2‐year follow‐ups. Significant gene expression differences indicated differences in healing and tissue remodeling. Conclusions: Abutments with an anodized and nanostructured surface compared with a conventional, machined titanium surface had no significant effect on bacterial colonization and proteolytic activity but were associated with better soft tissue outcomes such as a lower bleeding index at abutment removal and consistently greater height of keratinized mucosa throughout the 2‐year follow‐up, suggesting improved surface‐dependent peri‐implant healing and soft tissue health.

  • 34.
    Hix Janssens, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Shinde, Sudhirkumar
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Abouhany, Rahma
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Neilands, Jessica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Sellergren, Börje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Microcontact-Imprinted Optical Sensors for Virulence Factors of Periodontal Disease2023In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, no 17, p. 15259-15265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodontitis (gum disease) is a common biofilm-mediated oral condition, with around 7% of the adult population suffering from severe disease with risk for tooth loss. Moreover, periodontitis virulence markers have been found in atherosclerotic plaque and brain tissue, suggesting a link to cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s diseases. The lack of accurate, fast, and sensitive clinical methods to identify patients at risk leads, on the one hand, to patients being undiagnosed until the onset of severe disease and, on the other hand, to overtreatment of individuals with mild disease, diverting resources from those patients most in need. The periodontitis-associated bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis, secrete gingipains which are highly active proteases recognized as key virulence factors during disease progression. This makes them interesting candidates as predictive biomarkers, but currently, there are no methods in clinical use for monitoring them. Quantifying the levels or proteolytic activity of gingipains in the periodontal pocket surrounding the teeth could enable early-stage disease diagnosis. Here, we report on a monitoring approach based on high-affinity microcontact imprinted polymer-based receptors for the Arg and Lys specific gingipains Rgp and Kgp and their combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor technology for quantifying gingipain levels in biofluids and patient samples. Therefore, Rgp and Kgp were immobilized on glass coverslips followed by microcontact imprinting of poly-acrylamide based films anchored to gold sensor chips. The monomers selected were N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM), N-hydroxyethyl acrylamide (HEAA) and N-methacryloyl-4-aminobenzamidine hydrochloride (BAM), with N,N′-methylene bis(acrylamide) (BIS) as the crosslinker. This resulted in imprinted surfaces exhibiting selectivity towards their templates high affinity and selectivity for the templated proteins with dissociation constants (Kd) of 159 and 299 nM for the Rgp- and Kgp-imprinted, surfaces respectively. The former surface displayed even higher affinity (Kd = 71 nM) when tested in dilute cell culture supernatants. Calculated limits of detection for the sensors were 110 and 90 nM corresponding to levels below clinically relevant concentrations.

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  • 35. James, Field
    et al.
    Walmsley, Damien
    Paganelli, Corrado
    McLoughlin, Jacinta
    Szep, Susanne
    Kavadella, Agyro
    Manzanares Cespedes, Maria Cristina
    DeLap, Ellis
    Levy, Gerard
    Gallagher, Jennifer
    Roger-Leroi, Valérie
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The Graduating European Dentist: Contemporaneous Methods of Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Dental Undergraduate Education2017In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 21, no Supplement 1, p. 28-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often the case that good teachers just “intuitively” know how to teach. Whilst that may be true, there is now a greater need to understand the various processes that underpin both the ways in which a curriculum is delivered, and the way in which the students engage with learning; curricula need to be designed to meet the changing needs of our new graduates, providing new, and robust learning opportunities, and be communicated effectively to both staff and students. The aim of this document is to draw together robust and contemporaneous methods of teaching, learning and as- sessment that help to overcome some of the more traditional barriers within dental undergraduate programmes. The methods have been chosen to map specifically to The Graduating European Dentist, and should be considered in parallel with the benchmarking process that educators and institutions employ locally.

  • 36.
    Kindblom, Christian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Salivary proteins promote proteolytic activity in Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 and Streptococcus mutans2012In: Molecular Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2041-1006, E-ISSN 2041-1014, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major function of the salivary pellicle on oral surfaces is to promote colonization of the commensal microbiota by providing binding sites for adherence. Streptococcus mitis is an early colonizer of the oral cavity whereas Streptococcus mutans represents a later colonizer. To survive and grow, oral bacteria produce enzymes, proteases and glycosidases, which allow them to exploit salivary proteins as a nutrient source. In this study, adherence and proteolytic activity of S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans were investigated in a flow-cell model in the presence of different populations of surface-associated salivary proteins. Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 adhered well to surfaces coated with both a MUC5B-enriched fraction and a pool of low-density proteins containing MUC7, amylase, cystatin, gp340, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme and statherin, whereas adherence of S. mutans to these proteins was poor. In environments of MUC5B or the low-density proteins, both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans showed high levels of proteolytic activity. For S. mitis in the MUC5B environment, most of this activity may be attributable to contact with the molecules in the fluid phase although activity was also enhanced by adherence to surface-associated MUC5B. These data suggest that although they differ in their capacity to adhere to surface-associated salivary proteins, in the natural environment exploitation of saliva as a nutrient source can contribute to survival and colonization of the oral cavity by both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans.

  • 37. Lafitte, Geraldine
    et al.
    Söderman, Olle
    Turesson, Krister
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    PFG-NMR diffusometry: A tool for investigating the structure and dynamics of noncommercial purified pig gastric mucin in a wide range of concentrations2007In: Biopolymers, ISSN 0006-3525, E-ISSN 1097-0282, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, Pulsed Field Gradient-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, a powerful noninvasive tool for studying the dynamics and structure of complex gels, has been used to measure diffusion of probe molecules in aqueous solutions/gels of noncommercial purified pig gastric mucin (PGM), in a concentration range up to 5 wt %. Complementary data were obtained from rheology measurements. The combination of techniques revealed a strong pH dependency of the structure of the PGM samples while changes in concentration, ionic strength, and temperature appeared to induce less pronounced alterations. Viscosity was found to vary in a nonmonotonous way with pH, with the more viscous solutions found at intermediate pH. We propose that this finding is due to a reduced charge density at lower pH, which is expected to continuously increase the relative importance of hydrophobic associations. The results suggest a loose network of expanded fully charged PGM molecules with considerable mobility at neutral pH (pH 7.4). At intermediate pH (pH 4), a three-dimensional expanded network is favored. At pH 1, the charge density is low and microphase separation occurs since hydrophobic associations prevail. This leads to the formation of clusters concentrated in PGM molecules separated by regions depleted in PGM. The results obtained increase our knowledge about the gastric mucosal layer, which in vivo contains mucin in the same concentration range as that of the samples investigated here.

  • 38. Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Wingårdh, Karin
    Berggård, Tord
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lögdberg, Lennart
    Strand, Sven-Erik
    Åkerström, Bo
    Distribution of iodine 125-labeled alpha1-microglobulin in rats after intravenous injection2001In: Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, ISSN 0022-2143, E-ISSN 1532-6543, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 28-kd plasma protein α1-microglobulin is found in the blood of mammals and fish in a free, monomeric form and as high-molecular-weight complexes with molecular masses above 200 kd. In this study, iodine 125–labeled free and high-molecular weight rat α1-microglobulin (a mixture of α1-microglobulin/α1-inhibitor-3 and α1-microglobulin/fibronectin complexes) were injected intravenously into rats. The distribution of the proteins was measured by using scintillation camera imaging. Both forms of 125I-labeled α1-microglobulin were rapidly cleared from the blood, with a half-life of 2 and 16 minutes for the initial and late phase, respectively, for free α1-microglobulin; and a half-life of 3 and 130 minutes for the initial and late phase, respectively, for the complexes. After 45 minutes, 6%, 16%, 27%, 13%, and 34% of the free 125I-labeled α1-microglobulin and 18%, 21%, 6%, 10%, and 42% of the 125I-labeled α1-microglobulin complexes were found in the blood, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, liver, and the remainder of the body, respectively. The local distribution of injected 125I-labeled α1-microglobulin in intestines and kidneys was investigated by microscopy and autoradiography. In the intestine, both forms were distributed in the basal layers, villi, and luminal contents. The results also suggested intracellular labeling of epithelial cells. Well-defined local regions containing higher concentrations of injected protein could be seen in the intestine. In the kidneys, both forms were found mostly in the cortex. Free 125I-labeled α1-microglobulin was found predominantly in epithelial cells of a subset of the tubules, whereas the 125I-labeled complexes were more evenly distributed. Intracellular labeling was indicated for both α1-microglobulin forms. The results thus indicate a rapid transport of 125I-labeled α1-microglobulin from the blood to most tissues. (J Lab Clin Med 2001;137:165-75).

  • 39.
    Lima, Bruno P.
    et al.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Johnstone, Karen F.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Hall, Jeffrey W.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Streptococcus gordonii Poised for Glycan Feeding through a MUC5B-Discriminating, Lipoteichoic Acid-Mediated Outside-In Signaling Circuit2022In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 204, no 6, article id e00118-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many oral bacteria employ cell wall-anchored adhesins to bind to the salivary films coating the teeth and mucosal surfaces. Surface binding prevents clearance and facilitates catabolism of salivary film glycoproteins. We asked whether Streptococcus gordonii adhesin expression changes in response to surface salivary cues using a eukaryote-like, outside-in recognition and signaling circuit. To determine whether the cues were discriminated, S. gordonii was tested during cell adhesion and biofilm formation on a MUC5B-rich or lower-molecular-mass salivary fraction or an uncoated abiotic surface. Cells were recovered and analyzed for differences in gene expression and proteins in cell wall fractions. In salivary-free conditions, planktonic S. gordonii presented three prominent cell wall LPXTG-motif proteins, SGO_1487, SGO_0890, and MbpA (mucin-binding protein A; SGO_0707). During biofilm formation on MUC5B-coated surfaces, MbpA, a MUC5B-binding protein, and key genes in the tagatose and quorum-sensing pathways were strongly promoted. The response to MUC5B required the two-component system (TCS), streptococcal regulator of adhesins sensor and regulator (SraSR, SGO_1180/81), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and the homologous paired adhesins, SspA and SspB (SspAB). LTA appears to link the outside signal (MUC5B) to intramembrane SraSR. Tagatose pathway gene expression may poise cells to metabolize MUC5B glycans and, with a quorum-sensing gene (luxS), may direct formation of a consortium to facilitate glycan cross-feeding by S. gordonii. We now show that a Gram-positive bacterium discriminates specific surface environmental cues using an outside-in signaling mechanism to apparently optimize colonization of saliva-coated surfaces. IMPORTANCE All organisms throughout the tree of life sense and respond to their surface environments. To discriminate among mucosal surface environmental cues, we report that Streptococcus gordonii recognizes a high-molecular-weight mucin glycoprotein, MUC5B, using the paired adhesins SspAB and lipoteichoic acid; the latter bridges the outside signal to an intramembrane two-component system to transcriptionally regulate a MUC5B-specific adhesin and genes that may facilitate glycan catabolism. All organisms throughout the tree of life sense and respond to their surface environments. To discriminate among mucosal surface environmental cues, we report that Streptococcus gordonii recognizes a high-molecular-weight mucin glycoprotein, MUC5B, using the paired adhesins SspAB and lipoteichoic acid; the latter bridges the outside signal to an intramembrane two-component system to transcriptionally regulate a MUC5B-specific adhesin and genes that may facilitate glycan catabolism.

  • 40. Lima, Bruno P
    et al.
    Kho, Kelvin
    Nairn, Brittany L
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Chen, Ruoqiong
    Steffes, Amanda
    Vreeman, Gerrit W
    Meredith, Timothy C
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Streptococcus gordonii type I lipoteichoic acid contributes to surface protein biogenesis2019In: mSphere, E-ISSN 2379-5042, Vol. 4, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an abundant polymer of the Gram-positive bacterial cell envelope and is essential for many species. Whereas the exact function of LTA has not been elucidated, loss of LTA in some species affects hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, and cell division. Using a viable LTA-deficient strain of the human oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii, we demonstrated that LTA plays an important role in surface protein presentation. Cell wall fractions derived from the wild-type and LTA-deficient strains of S. gordonii were analyzed using label-free mass spectroscopy. Comparisons showed that the abundances of many proteins differed, including (i) SspA, SspB, and S. gordonii 0707 (SGO_0707) (biofilm formation); (ii) FtsE (cell division); (iii) Pbp1a and Pbp2a (cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling); and (iv) DegP (envelope stress response). These changes in cell surface protein presentation appear to explain our observations of altered cell envelope homeostasis, biofilm formation, and adhesion to eukaryotic cells, without affecting binding and coaggregation with other bacterial species, and provide insight into the phenotypes revealed by the loss of LTA in other species of Gram-positive bacteria. We also characterized the chemical structure of the LTA expressed by S. gordonii Similarly to Streptococcus suis, S. gordonii produced a complex type I LTA, decorated with multiple d-alanylations and glycosylations. Hence, the S. gordonii LTA appears to orchestrate expression and presentation of cell surface-associated proteins and functions.IMPORTANCE Discovered over a half-century ago, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an abundant polymer found on the surface of Gram-positive bacteria. Although LTA is essential for the survival of many Gram-positive species, knowledge of how LTA contributes to bacterial physiology has remained elusive. Recently, LTA-deficient strains have been generated in some Gram-positive species, including the human oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii The significance of our research is that we utilized an LTA-deficient strain of S. gordonii to address why LTA is physiologically important to Gram-positive bacteria. We demonstrate that in S. gordonii, LTA plays an important role in the presentation of many cell surface-associated proteins, contributing to cell envelope homeostasis, cell-to-cell interactions in biofilms, and adhesion to eukaryotic cells. These data may broadly reflect a physiological role of LTA in Gram-positive bacteria.

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  • 41. Ljunggren, Stefan
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Karlsson, Helen
    Starkhammar Johansson, Carin
    Palm, Eleonor
    Nayeri, Fariba
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lönn, Johanna
    Modified lipoproteins in periodontitis: a link to cardiovascular disease?2019In: Bioscience Reports, ISSN 0144-8463, E-ISSN 1573-4935, Vol. 39, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disorders. A key event in the development of atherosclerosis is accumulation of modified lipoproteins within the arterial wall. We hypothesise that patients with periodontitis have an altered lipoprotein profile towards an atherogenic form. Therefore, the present study aims at identifying modifications of plasma lipoproteins in periodontitis. Lipoproteins from ten female patients with periodontitis and gender- and age-matched healthy controls were isolated by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Proteins were separated by 2D gel-electrophoresis and identified by map-matching or by nano-LC followed by MS. Apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I (ApoA-I) methionine oxidation, Oxyblot, total antioxidant capacity and a multiplex of 71 inflammation-related plasma proteins were assessed. Reduced levels of apoJ, phospholipid transfer protein, apoF, complement C3, paraoxonase 3 and increased levels of α-1-antichymotrypsin, apoA-II, apoC-III were found in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from the patients. In low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/very LDL (VLDL), the levels of apoL-1 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) as well as apo-B fragments were increased. Methionine oxidation of apoA-I was increased in HDL and showed a relationship with periodontal parameters. α-1 antitrypsin and α-2-HS glycoprotein were oxidised in LDL/VLDL and antioxidant capacity was increased in the patient group. A total of 17 inflammation-related proteins were important for group separation with the highest discriminating proteins identified as IL-21, Fractalkine, IL-17F, IL-7, IL-1RA and IL-2. Patients with periodontitis have an altered plasma lipoprotein profile, defined by altered protein levels as well as post-translational and other structural modifications towards an atherogenic form, which supports a role of modified plasma lipoproteins as central in the link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

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  • 42. McLoughlin, Jacinta
    et al.
    Zijlstra-Shaw, Sandra
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Field, James
    The Graduating European Dentist: Domain I: Professionalism2017In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 21, no Supplement 1, p. 11-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper outlines the areas of competence and learning outcomes of “The Graduating European Dentist” that specifically relate to Professionalism. Professionalism is a commitment to a set of values, behaviours and relationships, which underpin the trust that the public hold in dental care professionals. Shortcomings within this domain are often responsible for patient dissatisfaction, concern and complaint—and emphasis is placed on the importance of embedding these values from an early stage within the curriculum.

  • 43.
    Neilands, Jessica
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bikker, Floris J
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Parvimonas micra stimulates expression of gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis in multi-species communities2019In: Anaerobe, ISSN 1075-9964, E-ISSN 1095-8274, Vol. 55, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental biofilms are complex ecosystems containing many bacterial species that live in mutualistic relationships. These interactions can profoundly affect the virulence properties of the community. In this study we investigated how the production of gingipains, virulence factors from Porphyromonas gingivalis important in periodontal disease, was affected by other commonly found members of the sub-gingival microbiome. To mimic the subgingival microbiome, multispecies consortia (P. gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus cristatus, with or without Parvimonas micra) as well as dual species consortia (P. gingivalis with P. micra, S. oralis or F. nucleatum) were constructed and maintained anaerobically in 10% serum for up to seven days. The number of P. gingivalis was determined by plating on Brucella agar and the gingipain specific fluorogenic substrate BikKam-10 was used to investigate gingipain activity. The effect of secreted products from P. micra on gingipain activity was investigated by adding supernatants from P. micra to P. gingivalis cultures. The most prominent secreted proteins in the supernatant were identified using mass spectrometry. P. gingivalis was unable to grow in serum, either alone or in the presence of S. oralis or F. nucleatum. In contrast, with P. micra growth was significantly enhanced and this was associated with an increase in gingipain activity. In the multi-species consortia, the presence of P. micra caused a 13-fold increase in gingipain activity. Exposure of P. gingivalis to supernatants from P. micra for 24 hours caused a 3-fold increase in gingipain activity. This effect was reduced by 43% after heat-treatment of the supernatant. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that several of the most prominent proteins in the P. micra supernatant were glycolytic enzymes. The results from this study suggests that gingipains are produced in response to a P. micra derived signaling molecule that is most likely a protein. This is the first time it has been shown that P. micra can affect P. gingivalis virulence properties. This is likely to be of significance for the development of be of periodontitis since these two microorganisms are often found together in the subgingival biofilm.

  • 44.
    Neilands, Jessica
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Boisen, Gabriella
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Robertsson, Carolina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Formation and Analysis of Mono-species and Polymicrobial Oral Biofilms in Flow-Cell Models2023In: Bacterial Pathogenesis: Methods and Protocols,, Springer, 2023, p. 33-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral microbiota, which is known to include at least 600 different bacterial species, is found on the teethand mucosal surfaces as multi-species communities or biofilms. The oral surfaces are covered with a pellicleof proteins absorbed from saliva, and biofilm formation is initiated when primary colonizers, which expresssurface adhesins that bind to specific salivary components, attach to the oral tissues. Further developmentthen proceeds through co-aggregation of additional species. Over time, the composition of oral biofilms,which varies between different sites throughout the oral cavity, is determined by a combination ofenvironmental factors such as the properties of the underlying surface, nutrient availability and oxygenlevels, and bacterial interactions within the community. A complex equilibrium between biofilm communities and the host is responsible for the maintenance of a healthy biofilm phenotype (eubiosis). In the faceof sustained environmental perturbation, however, biofilm homeostasis can break down giving rise todysbiosis, which is associated with the development of oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis.In vitro models have an important part to play in increasing our understanding of the complex processesinvolved in biofilm development in oral health and disease, and the requirements for experimental system,microbial complexity, and analysis techniques will necessarily vary depending on the question posed. In thischapter we describe some current and well-established methods used in our laboratory for studying oralbacteria in biofilm models which can be adapted to suit the needs of individual users. 

  • 45.
    Neilands, Jessica
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Troedsson, Ulrika
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sjödin, Torgny
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The effect of delmopinol and fluoride on acid adaptation and acid production in dental plaque biofilms2014In: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 318-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of delmopinol and fluoride alone or in combination on acid adaptation and acid production in plaque biofilm bacteria in vitro. DESIGN: The effect of delmopinol and fluoride on acid adaptation was tested by exposing the biofilm bacteria, grown in a mini-flow cell system under static conditions, to pH 5.5 overnight in the presence of 0.16 mM delmopinol, 1 mF NaF or a combination of both. The following day, acid adaptation was evaluated by exposing the cells to an acid challenge for 2h at a pH known to kill non-adapted cells (pH 2.5). The cells were stained using LIVE/DEAD BacLight Viability stain and the number of viable (acid tolerant) cells was determined using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Control cells were treated in the same manner but without the exposure to delmopinol or fluoride. How delmopinol and fluoride affected acid production was assessed by measuring the pH-drop after glucose pulsing in the presence of delmopinol and/or different concentrations of fluoride. RESULTS: Fluoride alone or in combination with delmopinol affected the acid adaptation and significantly reduced the acid tolerance of the plaque biofilm. This effect was more pronounced when the two compounds were combined. Delmopinol alone did not affect acid adaptation. A combination of delmopinol and fluoride also reduced acid production at concentrations where neither of the compounds in isolation had an effect. CONCLUSION: Fluoride and delmopinol can work synergistically to affect acid adaptation and acid production in plaque biofilm bacteria.

  • 46.
    Neilands, Jessica
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Kinnby, Bertil
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hall, Jan
    Friberg, Bertil
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bacterial profiles and proteolytic activity in peri-implantitis versus healthy sitesBacterial profiles and proteolytic activity in peri-implantitis versus healthy sites2015In: Anaerobe, ISSN 1075-9964, E-ISSN 1095-8274, Vol. 35, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peri-implantitis is a biofilm-induced destructive inflammatory process that, over time, results in loss of supporting bone around an osseointegrated dental implant. Biofilms at peri-implantitis sites have been reported to be dominated by Gram-negative anaerobic rods with a proteolytic metabolism such as, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Tannerella, as well as anaerobic Gram-positive cocci. In this study, we hypothesized that protease activity is instrumental in driving bone destruction and we therefore compared the microbial composition and level of protease activity in samples of peri-implant biofluid (PIBF) from 25 healthy subjects (H group) and 25 subjects with peri-implantitis (PI group). Microbial composition was investigated using culture techniques and protease activity was determined using a FITC-labelled casein substrate. The microbial composition was highly variable in subjects both in the H and PI groups but one prominent difference was the prevalence of Porphyromonas/Prevotella and anaerobic Gram positive cocci which was significantly higher in the PI than in the H group. A subgroup of subjects with peri-implantitis displayed a high level of protease activity in the PIBF compared to healthy subjects. However, this activity could not be related to the presence of specific bacterial species. We propose that a high level of protease activity may be a predictive factor for disease progression in peri-implantitis. Further longitudinal studies are however required to determine whether assessment of protease activity could serve as a useful method to identify patients at risk for progressive tissue destruction.

  • 47. Nordman, Henrik
    et al.
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Lindell, Gert
    De Bolos, Carmé
    Real, Francisco
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Gastric MUC5AC and MUC6 are large oligomeric mucins which differ in size, glycosylation and tissue distribution2002In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 364, p. 191-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastric MUC5AC and MUC6 mucins were studied using polyclonal antibodies. Immunohistochemistry showed MUC5AC to originate from the surface epithelium, whereas MUC6 was produced by the glands. Mucins from the surface epithelium or glands of corpus and antrum were purified using CsCl/4M guanidinium chloride density-gradient centrifugation. MUC5AC appeared as two distinct populations at 1.4 and 1.3 g/ml, whereas MUC6, which was enriched in the gland tissue, appeared at 1.45 g/ml. Reactivity with antibodies against the Le(b) structure (where Le represents the Lewis antigen) followed the MUC5AC distribution, whereas antibodies against the Le(y) structure and reactivity with the GlcNAc-selective Solanum tuberosum lectin coincided with MUC6, suggesting that the two mucins are glycosylated differently. Rate-zonal centrifugation of whole mucins and reduced subunits showed that both gastric MUC5AC and MUC6 are oligomeric glycoproteins composed of disulphide-bond linked subunits and that oligomeric MUC5AC was apparently smaller than MUC6. A heterogeneous population of 'low-density' MUC5AC mucins, which were smaller than the 'high-density' ones both before and after reduction, reacted with an antibody against a variable number tandem repeat sequence within MUC5AC, suggesting that they represent precursor forms of this mucin. Following ion-exchange HPLC, both MUC5AC and MUC6 appeared as several distinct populations, probably corresponding to 'glycoforms' of the mucins, the most highly charged of which were found in the gland tissue.

  • 48. Nylander, Åsa
    et al.
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Senadheera, Dilani B.
    Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Persson, Karina
    Structural and functional analysis of the N-terminal domain of the Streptococcus gordonii adhesin Sgo07072013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e63768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The commensal Streptococcus gordonii expresses numerous surface adhesins with which it interacts with other microorganisms, host cells and salivary proteins to initiate dental plaque formation. However, this Gram-positive bacterium can also spread to non-oral sites such as the heart valves and cause infective endocarditis. One of its surface adhesins, Sgo0707, is a large protein composed of a non-repetitive N-terminal region followed by several C-terminal repeat domains and a cell wall sorting motif. Here we present the crystal structure of the Sgo0707 N-terminal domains, refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The model consists of two domains, N1 and N2. The largest domain, N1, comprises a putative binding cleft with a single cysteine located in its centre and exhibits an unexpected structural similarity to the variable domains of the streptococcal Antigen I/II adhesins. The N2-domain has an IgG-like fold commonly found among Gram-positive surface adhesins. Binding studies performed on S. gordonii wild-type and a Sgo0707 deficient mutant show that the Sgo0707 adhesin is involved in binding to type-1 collagen and to oral keratinocytes.

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  • 49. Ohlin, Acke
    et al.
    Mattsson, Emma
    Mörgelin, Matthias
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Corvec, Stephane
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Riesbeck, Kristian
    Titanium granules pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide inhibit growth of bacteria associated with post-operative infections in spine surgery2018In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 2463-2468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Post-operative infections are relatively common after posterior spine surgery, and there are several observations reflecting different infection complications related to various metals implanted. Here, we selected an array of different bacterial species that are often found in infections associated with orthopaedic implants and tested for inhibition by hydrogen peroxide-treated titanium (Ti-peroxy). METHODS: To study the possibility of using Ti-peroxy as an antimicrobial prophylaxis, we developed a protocol for standardized susceptibility testing of bacteria. RESULTS: Importantly, we found that the resulting Ti-peroxy was highly antimicrobial against all aerobic species tested, among others, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proteus mirabilis was slightly more resistant than, for example, Klebsiella pneumoniae and enterococci. In contrast, anaerobic bacteria Cutibacterium acnes and Parvimonas micra were equally susceptible compared to staphylococci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the Ti-peroxy is a promising perioperative antimicrobial strategy that may be highly effective for prevention of post-operative infections. We therefore suggest application of hydrogen peroxide to implants prior to implantation. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic supplementary material.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Olsson, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Holst, KE
    Schröder, Ulla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Dental pulp capping: effect of Emdogain Gel on experimentally exposed human pulps2005In: International Endodontic Journal, ISSN 0143-2885, E-ISSN 1365-2591, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Emdogain Gel (Biora AB, Malmo, Sweden), consisting of a enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) vehicle, on experimentally exposed human pulps and to register postoperative symptoms. METHODOLOGY: Nine pairs of contralateral premolars scheduled for extraction on orthodontic indications were included. Following a superficial pulp amputation performed with a small (016) diamond bur, either EMDgel or a mix of calcium hydroxide and sterile saline was placed at random in contact with the pulp wound. The subjects made records of symptoms and were also interviewed about pain/discomfort by a blinded examiner. After 12 weeks the teeth were extracted, prepared and subjected to light microscopic examination in which the inflammation and newly formed hard tissue in the pulp were analysed. Immunohistochemistry was performed using affinity-purified rabbit anti-EMD polyclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Postoperative symptoms were less frequent in the EMDgel-treated than in the calcium hydroxide-treated teeth, especially during the first six weeks. In the EMDgel-treated teeth, new tissue partly filled the space initially occupied by the gel and hard tissue was formed alongside the exposed dentine surfaces and in patches in the adjacent pulp tissue. EMD was detected in the areas where new hard tissue had been formed. The wound area of the EMDgel-treated teeth exhibited inflammation in the majority of the teeth whereas less inflammation was seen in the calcium hydroxide-treated teeth where the hard tissue was formed as a bridge. CONCLUSIONS: In the EMDgel-treated teeth, postoperative symptoms were less frequent and the amount and pattern of hard tissue formation were markedly different than in the teeth treated with calcium hydroxide. However, the operative procedure and the formulation with EMD in a PGA vehicle do not seem to be effective for the formation of a hard tissue barrier.

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