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  • 1. Bergström, Linda
    et al.
    Hartman, Göran
    Lindblom, Agneta
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Löfholm, Annika
    Melker, Catarina
    Skoglund, Per
    Ni kan räkna med oss: Matematik i Träningsskolan2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Hinsdale, Mary Jo
    et al.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Relational Pedagogy2023In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education / [ed] George Noblit, Oxford University Press, 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary relational theorists offer an alternative vision of pedagogy in a concerning era of teacher accountability. Internationally, teachers experience challenging educational environments that reflect troubled social histories across differences of socioeconomic class, race and ethnicity, gender, and ability status. Climate change, civil and economic instability, and war add global pressures that bring immigrant and refugee students into classrooms around the world. In the United States, histories of slavery, genocide, and indigenous removal continue to resound through all levels of education. Putting the teacher-student relationship at the heart of education offers a way to serve all students, allowing them to flourish in spite of the many challenges we face in the 21st century.

    Relational pedagogy is inspired by a range of philosophical writings: this article focuses on theorists whose work is informed by the concept of caring, as developed by Nel Noddings, with the critical perspective of Paulo Freire, or the ethics of Emmanuel Levinas. Although these approaches to ethical educational relations do not necessarily mesh together easily, the tensions among them can bear fruit that informs our pedagogy. After outlining the theoretical contours of relational pedagogy, we will turn to more recent empirical work in the field. New studies help us understand how to turn theory into classroom practices that will benefit all students.

  • 3.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    A Relational Taxonomy for the Teaching Profession2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of relational pedagogy (Bingham & Sidorkin, 2004) there is an existing problem; there is theory, mostly of philosophical nature, but it does not yet have an empirical confirmation. Hence, there is a lack of theories that can be applied in practice. This presentation is a theoretical contribution which problematises how the relational dimension of the teaching profession can be explored in a more systematic way. Based on a theoretical perspective on teaching called Pedagogical Relational Teachership (Ljungblad 2021) a new theoretical model is presented. It is a relational taxonomy consisting of analytic tools to inquiry the relational dimension of the teaching profession. The concept relational teachership is categorised into a model under the themes of Tact and Stance and then further organised into six smaller units. By using such relational analytic tools, the ongoing relational processes between teachers and students can be captured and illuminated, and support teachers to create trustful relationships to their students. The relational taxonomy can contribute to a deeper understanding of teachers´ relational capabilities and capacities and their professional development throughout their careers. The taxonomy is also an innovative model for higher education, since it mediates teacher activities based on empirical research about how successful teachers relate to their students, which is presented in a visible way for student teachers to perceive. Finally, the presentation discusses how this nuanced taxonomy can be applied in practice and research and cultivate teachers’ relational proficiencies in the 21st century. Bingham, C., & Sidorkin, A. (2004). No education without relation. Peter Lang. Ljungblad, A-L. (2021). Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT) – A multi-relational perspective. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 25,(7), 860-876.

  • 4. Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    En studie av hur barn använder siffror, tal och antal i en matematisk diskurs2003Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Ethical considerations and dilemmas in an ethnographic study: - in respect to participating children2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical considerations and dilemmas in an ethnographic study - In respect to participating children Today video recording is increasingly and more frequently used in practice based research. As a methodological tool it provides new opportunities to scrutinize interaction and communication between participants in the school practice. Therefore it generates new ethical questions into the field of doing research with children (Sargeant & Harcourt 2012). In this paper the experiences from an ethnographic study together with 100 children and four teachers are discussed. The aim of the study is to follow the teachers´ math education during a year and their relational work intertwined in education. To be able to get close to the interlocutors, I as a researcher moved around in the classroom and captured the interaction: a framework that prioritizes the situated and interactional accomplishment of practical action (Heath, Hindmarsh & Luff 2010). I will discuss ethical considerations and dilemmas connected to three phases of the PhD work: design phase, field work and the final writing phase. In the first and the last stage there is more time for the researcher to reflect upon ethical questions, but during the fieldwork the researcher might not be prepared for complex ethical situations that sometimes arise. Emerging fields of video-based research in social sciences give distinctive ways of producing data and opportunities to look upon the recording over and over again. The implications of being filmed can be hard for participating children and their parents to understand, to the full extent. In the beginning, during the design phase and while informing children and parents about the study, it is therefore important to clarify the implications of children’s involvement, as well as their rights to step out of the study. Another fruitful cooperation with children is giving them opportunity to erase parts of the recording, if a situation would emerge that could be of great stress to them. Just knowing this possible “way out” could give children power to act and control implications of being filmed to a greater extent. In the writing phase there is also more time for the researcher to reflect upon what data to use, analyze and last but not least how to present the result in an ethical and respectful way in relation to participating children. This is also a phase where support and discussion together with colleagues and supervisors might be of great importance. But during the field work the situation is more complex. Behind the camera the researcher is alone, anything can happen and the researcher needs to take immediate decisions of ethical and moral nature. Fundamental for research in which children are involved, is the CRC's rights (2000, 2007, Article 3 and 12) where the child's best interests and also the child's right to be heard and respected must be of primary consideration. As a researcher you constantly have to reflect upon your thinking and actions. Can I go this close right now with the camera? How are the children reacting? Does the filming distract them? Should I take a step back? In this paper, ethical experiences from the study are discussed. References Heath, C., Hindmarsh, J. & Luff, P. (2010). Video in Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications. Sargeant, J. & Harcourt, D. (2012). Doing Ethical Research with Children. Berkshire: Open University Press. UNICEF (2000). Barnkonventionen, FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter. UNICEF (2007). Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Right of the Child: Fully Revised Third Edition. Hodgkin, R., & Newell, P. Geneva: Switzerland.

  • 6.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Greta Thunberg: a unique voice in a post truth era2023In: Childhood & Philosophy, ISSN 2525-5061, E-ISSN 1984-5987, Vol. 19, p. 01-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the turn of the millennium, a new phenomenon has arisen on the global stage, as girls have increasingly begun to raise their voices. In an effort to achieve new philosophical understandings of contemporary childhoods in a post-truth era, the present article examines this Girl Rising movement from an existential perspective. In doing so, the article aims to problematise children’s right to be heard and listened to, as enshrined in Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. More specifically, the article explores children as rights-holders and their rights-subject position and how these positions are supported (or not) by adults in different ways. Throughout the analysis, Greta Thunberg is used as a case study to illustrate the phenomenon under study. This new movement highlights children’s right to be heard as a valuable right. The defence of this view relies on the claim that at the heart of adult’s acknowledgement lies the uniqueness of each child and the implications of this uniqueness. Taking into consideration the realisation of children’s rights, powerful stakeholders who seek to silence children’s voices are also identified, as are worldwide adult acknowledgements intended to empower girls to exist ‘in’ and ‘with’ the world in a ‘grown-up’ way.

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  • 7.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Department of Education and Special Education, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Key Indicator Taxonomy of Relational Teaching2023In: Journal of Education for Teaching, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 785-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How teachers relate to their students when they teach can contribute to a deeper and more coherent relational understanding of teaching as an interpersonal profession. This article presents a key indicators' taxonomy of relational teaching. Within the theoretical perspective of teaching called Pedagogical Relational Teachership a taxonomy to inquiry the relational dimension of the teaching profession is developed. The concept of relational teaching is categorised into a model under the themes of Tact and Stance and then further organised into six smaller units. These six relational key indicators can be used by empirical researchers to capture and illuminate the ongoing relational processes between teachers and students on a micro-level, as well as support pre-service and in-service teachers to create sustainable and trustful relationships with their students. Finally, the article discusses how this nuanced taxonomy can be applied in practice and research to cultivate the relational proficiencies of teachers in the twenty-first century.

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  • 8.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Matematikens grunder: kvalitativ kartläggning2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Matteverktyg svenska-ukrainska2022Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    50 sidor som kompletterar de ordinarie matematikböckerna och hjälper eleverna med övergången från den konkreta matematiken till en mer abstrakt nivå. Bilderna på sidorna hjälper eleverna att förstärka sina inre bilder och underlättar på så sätt ett mer självständigt arbete. Bilderna består av tallinjer, klockor, enhetsbyten, termometrar, bråk, positioner, geometriska objekt etc. Materialet innehåller områden i matematik från åk 3 och uppåt. I Matteverktyg svenska – ukrainska består varje uppslag av två kort, till vänster på svenska och till höger på ukrainska. Eleverna kan på det här sättet se begreppen och bilderna i anslutning till varandra, vilket stärker eleverna i sitt lärande.

  • 10.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical Relational Teachership: A multi-relational perspective2018In: The future of education. Florence, Italy. Conference Proceedings, Florence, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today teachers’ relational proficiencies are increasingly seen as a reasonable and necessary prerequisite for didactic competence. However, the relational field is small and largely unexplored, and needs a more precise theoretical starting point. This paper presents a new theoretical multi-relational perspective, Pedagogical Relational Teachership, PeRT, which can support development of new knowledge about teachers’ relational proficiencies and how these can be established in school practice. PeRT is a theoretical perspective within the field of inclusive education, that addresses relational challenges in today´s and tomorrow’s school, focusing on interpersonal relationships and relational values. It is a radical alternative that explores teaching conditions to enable subjectification and how students can emerge as unique subjects. Within the field of relational pedagogy, Pedagogical Relational Teachership can be seen as a new branch. Through a relational oriented approach the searchlight is directed towards pupils’ participation in education. PeRT has a three-dimensional model highlighting interpersonal relationships at different levels within the educational system. The first dimension contains the child's rights, where four articles in the Children's Convention are indicative. The second dimension includes a model which highlights different aspects of relational teachership, as well as the relationship between teacher and students. This part of the model is inspired by Bronfenbrenner´s ecological theory focusing on qualities for children and young people growing in different environments. However, PeRT is a pedagogical perspective highlighting micro, meso and macro levels of interpersonal relationships within the educational system. The third dimension of the model makes visible a tool for relational and didactical aspects in teaching. In total, PeRT´s relational multi-dimensional model illustrates a relational teachership and provides an enhanced understanding of different educational environments. The model, and its various parts, can be used in teacher education as well as in research within pedagogy, didactics and special educational studies. In addition, PeRT can support schools and teachers in their quest to develop educational environments focusing on interpersonal relationships. Hence, PeRT is a new perspective that can support future empirical research on students´ participation and aspects of accessibility and equity.

  • 11.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical Relational Teachership, (PeRT) - an approach to develop relational proficiencies2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a globalized, changing world the educational system needs to face conditions of uncertainty. One of the most prominent challenges for teachers is to enable student participation in relational teaching situations with their rapidly changing natures. Since the turn of the millennium, there has been an increased focus on teachers’ relational proficiencies, which concerns how a teacher enters into social relationships with respect for the individual student. International research reviews (Hattie, 2009) show that trustful teacher-student relationships are important for laying the foundation for students’ growth; despite this knowledge, there are few empirical studies which deepen the relational part of the teaching profession. At the same time as research reveals how teachers’ relational proficiencies are crucial for educational success, research also clarifies that the relational part of teaching can be learned and developed through continual daily interaction with students (Frelin, 2010; Ljungblad, 2016). Within the field of inclusive education, this paper presents a new theoretical multi-relational perspective, Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT) (Ljungblad, 2019), that can support the development of new knowledge about teachers’ relational proficiencies and how they can be established in school practice to develop trustful and respectful interpersonal relationships. Relational pedagogy (Bingham & Sidorkin, 2010; Aspelin, 2017) is an approach where teaching is to be understood relationally. Within this diverse source of research, PeRT is a relational perspective on teaching and education that has emerged as a new branch that can enrich and expand our understanding of relational processes and educational relationships. The construction, mediation, and development of knowledge within PeRT stems from a relational teaching perspective grounded in intersubjective traditions of philosophy. The concept relational teachership is an umbrella term for this theoretical perspective highlighting how teachers relate to their students in ways that create relational values like respect and trust. However, the field of relational pedagogy is small and largely unexplored, and needs a more precise theoretical starting point (Aspelin, 2017); thus, PeRT was created to inspire and support the development of teachers’ relational proficiencies in modern education. From a pedagogical perspective, PeRT uses a three-dimensional model highlighting interpersonal relationships at micro, meso, and macro levels within the educational system. Through a relational-oriented approach, the spotlight is directed towards students’ participation in their education. The first dimension of the model is based on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (United Nations, 1989) and the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994). The second dimension includes a model which highlights different aspects of relational teachership as well as the relationship between teachers and student. This part of the model is inspired by Bronfenbrenner´s (1979) ecological theory, which focuses on children’s growth in different environments. Bronfenbrenner describes his model as bioecological, which takes the child’s biological and psychological conditions into account. This differs from PeRT’s relational model, which highlights interpersonal relational processes within the educational system. The third dimension of the model presents a tool for relational and didactic aspects in teaching. Hence, in order to create an extended relational understanding of situated teaching, the didactic triangle is expanded by four relational questions of why, where, when and how, and forms the shape of a star. These relational questions highlight different aspects of the emergence of the student’s self (Biesta, 2007; Säfström, 2005) and problematise the conditions for how unique children can speak with their own voices. The Relational and Didactic Star has the potential to enlighten both relational values and didactic aspects of education in an enhanced relational understanding of different educational environments. To conclude, PeRT´s relational multi-dimensional model highlights the centrality of relationships at all levels in the education system. Method PeRT is founded on empirical classroom research exploring teacher-student relationships in today’s schools. In a micro-ethnographic study, Tact and Stance – A Relational Study About the Incalculable in Mathematics Teaching (Ljungblad, 2016), the spotlight was directed towards how teachers relate to students when they teach. The point of departure was the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (United Nations, 1989) and the right of children to participate in democratic educational relationships, in the sense that unique children are given the opportunity to speak with their own voices. The selection of four participating teachers was considered positive based on former students describing how these teachers meet students in a secure way that is conducive to development. Consequently, from a child’s perspective, there was something meaningful to explore in these educational environments. In the study, 100 children from compulsory schools, upper secondary schools and schools for children with learning disabilities participated. Among the participants there was a wide range of variations of physical and intellectual functionality: different learning difficulties, different diagnoses, visual impairments, as well as students with intellectual challenges and communication difficulties. Inspired by Biesta’s (2001, 2007) the incalculable as an alternative approach in the field of inclusion, the study empirically explored teaching, particularly its most complex dilemma situations. In the microanalysis, teachers’ pedagogical adaptability was captured in a movement, a gesture, a glance and a tone of voice, and this acknowledgement was understood in terms of pedagogical tact (Løvlie 2007). The findings show a similar pattern in how the four teachers related to their students, which is described as pedagogical tact and stance. The findings gave insight into how the teachers’ pedagogical tactfulness created space for the students’ unique voices to emerge. The main results show how the participating teachers created and maintained trustful and respectful teacher-student relationships. The concept of relational teachership, which originated from the pedagogical tact and stance of teachers, is introduced to emphasise the importance of relational proficiencies in education. In accordance with the empirical results verifying that successful relational teachership already exists in some educational environments, and based on the model for how the study empirically operationalised a relational perspective on teaching, a new multi-relational theoretical perspective, PeRT (Ljungblad, 2018, 2019), was created to support teachers’ relational proficiencies that nurture children´s being and becoming. Conclusion Modern education must address issues of diversity (United Nations, 1989; UNESCO, 1994). Given human diversity, all children have an equal right to participate in education of high quality, where they can speak with their unique voices and listen to the voices of others. In the field of inclusive education, PeRT can highlight relational challenges in today’s schools by focusing on interpersonal relationships and relational values. It is a radical alternative that explores teaching conditions to enable subjectification (Biesta, 2007), so that students can emerge as unique subjects. Children have a fundamental right to education and to participate in democratic educational relationships, democratic in the sense of emerging as a unique person (Ljungblad, 2016). Such a sustainable relationship allows a child to become somebody, because without a sense of self, a child is voiceless. PeRT is a relational approach to education that emphasizes respect for each unique child, and the child’s right to take part in education that enables their potential. This highlights an essential shift from child policy to child rights policy. Today, there is a need for new research, as well as theories and models that can contribute to the implementation and the realization of the CRC (United Nations, 1989). PeRT’s (Ljungblad, 2018, 2019) model can be used in teacher education as well as research within pedagogical, didactical and special educational studies. PeRT can also support schools and teachers in their quest to develop trustful and respectful teacher-student relationships and create new possibilities for socially vulnerable students. In conclusion, PeRT is an invitation to scholars and practitioners to use the multi-relational model as creative inspiration for seeking new knowledge and understanding about students participation in democratic educational relationships. Such cooperative relational work is an endeavour about how democracy is taking place. Nothing is more important to our mutual future.

  • 12.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Department of Education and Special Education, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT): a multi-relational perspective2021In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 860-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a theoretical relational perspective of education, Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT), which supports the development of new knowledge about teachers’ relational proficiencies to create opportunities for students to participate in their education and to emerge as unique individuals and speak with their own voices. Within the field of inclusive education, it is a relational approach where teaching is to be understood relationally. The fundamental bases in this inclusive perspective on education are the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Salamanca Statement. The concept of relational teachership is elaborated on to emphasise the importance of teachers’ relational proficiencies in the classroom. The article also clarifies how PeRT includes a multi-dimensional model to illuminate relational processes and relationships on different levels within the educational system. PeRT is a relational approach for scholars and practitioners, which can be seen as a new beginning and an invitation to a relational pathway that explores participation, accessibility and equity.

  • 13.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical Relational Teachership, PeRT: A multi-relational perspective.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical Relational Teachership, PeRT: An Approach to Develop Relational Proficiencies and Sustainable Relationships2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the United Nations sustainable goals by 2030, for a better and more sustainable future for all, are closely related to education such as quality education and reduced inequalities. Children's rights (UN, 1989) in education, with the reproduction of obvious inequalities within and across schools, are reflected in the discussion about inclusion. In discussing children's rights in modern education, inclusion can be seen as a core value of democracy (Biesta, 2001). Within the field of inclusion, this paper presents a theoretical relational perspective, Pedagogical Relational Teachership, PeRT, (Ljungblad, 2019) which can support development of new knowledge about teachers' relational proficiencies. PeRT addresses relational challenges in today's and tomorrow's school, focusing on interpersonal relationships and relational values. It is a radical alternative that explores teaching conditions to enable subjectification and how students can emerge as unique subjects. Through a relational oriented approach, the searchlight is directed towards pupils' participation in education. The concept of relational teachership is elaborated on to emphasise the importance of teachers' relational proficiencies in the classroom. PeRT has a three-dimensional model highlighting interpersonal relationships at different levels within the educational system. The first dimension contains the child's rights, where four articles in the Children's Convention are indicative. The second dimension includes a model which highlights different aspects of relational teachership, as well as the relationship between teacher and students. This part of the model is inspired by Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory focusing on qualities for children and young people growing in different environments. However, PeRT is a relational perspective highlighting micro, meso and macro levels of interpersonal relationships within the educational system. The third dimension of the model makes visible a tool for relational and didactical aspects in teaching. In total, PeRT's relational multi-dimensional model illustrates a relational teachership and provides an enhanced relational understanding of situated teaching. The model, and its various parts, can be used in teacher education as well as in research within pedagogy, didactics and special educational studies. In addition, PeRT can support novice and experienced teachers in their quest to develop sustainable interpersonal teacher-student relationships. Furthermore, PeRT is a relational perspective that can support future empirical research on participation, accessibility and equity.

  • 15.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT): Reimagining Student-Teacher Relationships To Foster Equitable Participation In Classrooms2021Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Takeaway: In today’s globalized world, it is imperative that all students are able to use their unique voices and actively participate in conversations. In order to foster meaningful participation in the classroom, educators need to develop strong and trusting relationships with their students. Challenging the notion of what it means to be inclusive provides educators with the opportunity to re-imagine modern education by prioritizing relationships and placing human values at the center of the teaching and learning experience.

  • 16.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical Tactfulness: A fundament in inclusive mathematics education2020In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 4, p. 60-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within the field of inclusive mathematics education, this article presents empirical research from a microethnographic study exploring teacher-student relationships. More specifically, the searchlight was aimed at how math teachers relate to their students when they teach. The classroom study is based on a rich empirical data set collected during a year of field work: video-recorded math lessons, observations and dialogues and interviews in six classes. Four math teachers participated together with 100 students from compulsory school, upper secondary school and schools for children with learning disabilities. Based on a relational perspective on teaching, Pedagogical Relational Teachership, PeRT, (Ljungblad, 2018, 2019) a microanalysis was carried out, about how the teacher’s acknowledgement to students emerged in interpersonal, face-to-face communication. Through a relational turn in mathematics education, exploring interpersonal relationships, an extended relational understanding of situated teaching was acquired. The results illuminated how teachers’ pedagogical tactfulness emerged as a pedagogical fundament in inclusive educational environment. The results also highlighted a moment of specific importance in mathematics education: at that second, when the incalculable (Biesta, 2001, 2007) emerges, the teachers refrain from assessment and, instead, listen and create a space for the students to speak with their unique voices. Over time, such a relational teachership creates trustful and respectful teacher-student relationships.

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  • 17.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical Tactfulness in Inclusive Education2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The findings from a microethnografic study is presented. Four math teachers and one hundred students from compulsory, upper secondary and special schools participated. The teachers were selected by former students as good teachers. Microanalyses of teacher-student interactions show how the teachers’ pedagogical tactfulness can meet unique children.

  • 18.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pedagogisk taktfullhet - ett fundament i inkluderande undervisning2021Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna forskningsutblick undersöker forskaren Ann-Louise Ljungblad lärare och deras pedagogiska taktfullhet på nära håll. När lärare taktfullt lyssnar in och samtidigt tar ansvar för den pedagogiska situationen, skapas både tillitsfulla relationer till eleverna och en inkluderande undervisningsmiljö.

  • 19.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Relationellt lärarskap: och pedagogiska möten2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läraryrkets relationella dimensioner är något som hittills haft en undanskymd roll inom lärarutbildningen. Ändå är välfungerande lärare-elevrelationer en grundläggande del av en lyckad undervisning. I Relationellt lärarskap - pedagogiska möten får vi följa fyra lärare som möter sina elever på ett särskilt utvecklande sätt. Genom att filma lärarna på nära håll har författaren kunnat observera betydelsefulla relationella aspekter av det som sker mellan lärare och elever, ansikte mot ansikte. I boken får vi se hur lärarna relaterar till sina elever och hur de skapar tillit och respekt. Lärarnas sätt att relatera till sina elever beskrivs som pedagogisk takt och hållning, vilket är en grundläggande pedagogisk dimension av att vara och verka som lärare. Lärarna skapar pedagogiska möten där läraren som person möter eleven som person. De klarar dessutom undervisningens svåraste dilemmasituationer utan att eleverna blir bärare av undervisningens problem. Författaren utvecklar därmed en fördjupad förståelse för vad ett relationellt lärarskap innebär i praktiken. I boken representeras också ett multirelationellt perspektiv på undervisning och utbildning - Pedagogiskt Relationellt Lärarskap - PeRL.

  • 20.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Relationellt lärarskap: om att möta skillnad och unika barn i matematikundervisningen.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Takt och hållning: en relationell studie om det oberäkneliga i matematikundervisningen2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This microethnographic classroom study takes its point of departure in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. It examines opportunities and obstacles for children to participate in democratic educational relationships, which in this context refers to the emergence of the students’ selves as unique persons. The microethnography explores how the teacher-student relationship is embodied in teaching, in communicational flow as well as when communicational dilemmas arise. Through a relational turn an increased understanding of situated teaching is being sought, by exploring interpersonal educational relationships. Four mathematics teachers and 100 students from compulsory and upper secondary schools and schools for children with learning disabilities have participated. Video-documentary methods have been used to closely follow and record the teachers in the teaching situation. A meaning-making dialogue was constructed afterwards where the teachers had the opportunity to view the recorded video sequences, and to articulate their interpersonal communication. The aim, from a relational perspective, is to provide extended understanding and knowledge of the teachers’ acknowledgement to students in situated teaching. The classroom study shows empirically how teachers relate to students and contributes to knowledge within the relational field, of value for both student teachers and teachers in practice. The study contributes to the field of inclusion by empirically exploring what Biesta describes as the incalculable. Teachers’ acknowledgement to students is explored by micro-analysis when, in a relational creating of meaning, the teachers search for Who the student is. The teachers create pedagogical meetings that embody a curiosity for unique children. The result highlights a moment of particular importance; at that second, when the new and incalculable emerges in the teaching moment, the teacher refrains from assessment, and listens and creates a space for the student to speak with her or his unique voice. In line with Lövlie’s tact the momentary teacher’s glance, tone of voice and gestures emerge as a sensuous aesthetic improvisation. The teacher’s pedagogical tact when meeting unique children can be understood as an incalculable tact, which cannot be planned. A pedagogical art form becomes visible as a creative process in teaching and reveals how the teacher’s pedagogical tact and tactfulness can create a space for the emergence of the student’s self. Hence, the teacher’s pedagogical tact can meet the incalculable and is of great importance in mathematics teaching. The study also provides an understanding that there are no relational differences between teachers’ pedagogical tact in relation to students’ different ages, different levels or different types of schooling. By highlighting existential dimensions, of what co-existence and co-operation as a teacher imply relationally, the microethnography brings out an essential pedagogical dimension for all teachers. The results further show the importance of respectful and trusting teacher-student relationships. The teachers have an open and tolerant pedagogical stance, where what the students bring forth that is new is embraced and can pass into the dialogue. Hence, in the maintaining of a teacher-student relationship a constant tactful act of balance is required from the teacher, in each situation. In the moment, a responsible stance appears where the teacher takes responsibility for both teaching and for their relationship to the student. Thus, students do not end up carriers of the difficulties of teaching. The study points toward the incalculable as a relational alternative, an unfinished process that teachers must live each day – a lived ethic. In accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the results of this study indicate a pedagogical responsible stance providing unique children opportunities to participate in democratic educational relationships.

  • 22. Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    The Digit as an Artefact in the Mathematical Discourse2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Gothenburg university.
    The Importance of the Social Relationship in Teaching Mathematics: an Ethical Choice to Meet Pupils´ Differences.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    The relational dimension of the school leader profession2023In: RCEN 2023 Conference: abstracts of presentations, 2023, p. 24-25Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Relational Dimension of the School Leader Profession 

    An ethnographic study was carried out at the Oak school, situated in a segregated area in Sweden, where the school leader and the teachers handle major pedagogical and social challenges. With a clear focus on changes in teaching and learning, the school leader decided to face the challenges by developing a distributed leadership (Gronn, 2000), which needs to be based on trust (Liljenberg, 2016). Viewing leadership from a relational perspective enables the visualisation of interpersonal relationships (Gergen, 2009). With a focus on school development, the aim of the study was to explore the complexity in developing a distributed leadership over time. From a relational perspective (Ljungblad, 2021) a specific aim was to explore how the school leader relate to her personnel, face to face, in everyday practice, which is presented in this presentation. The school leader was shadowed one day a week during a year, enabling a profound data production. The field work consisted of observations of spontaneous meetings with the personnel. An observation scheme based on pedagogical tact (Ljungblad, 2023) was used for detailed observations of the interaction in scheduled meetings. In the end of the day the school leader participated in meaning making dialogues (Ljungblad, 2016) about events during the day. Furthermore, 32 semi-structured interviews with the school leader and the teachers were conducted. 

     

    The Key Indicator Taxonomy of Relational Teaching (Ljungblad, 2022) was used as an analytic tool for analysing the school leader’s way of relating to the personnel on a micro-level. The Taxonomy consists of six key indicators and the characteristics of each key indicator were analysed. The results are presented under the themes incalculable tact, con-tact, pedagogical tactfulness, responsible considerations, curiosity and pathfinder. A general pattern in the results highlight a school leader’s tactful balancing act in developing the school organization, with the necessity to constantly balance organizational factors and interpersonal values. Over time, in the collaboration between the school leader and the personnel a trustful climate emerged. At the same time the school enhanced its performances. Hence, the results underline the importance of trusting leadership, which creates opportunities for teachers to act and operate freely, face new challenges, grow and contribute to the school to their full potential. To conclude, the results give insight into that a relational leadership has to be lived every day, face to face. In line with this insight, the findings elucidated the vulnerability within interdependent professional relationships where the school leader and the personnel mutually needed to find ways to trust each other while working in the incalculable processes of school development. 

    References

    Gergen, K. (2009). Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Gronn, P. (2002). “Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis.” The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), 423–451.

    Liljenberg, M. (2016). “Teacher leadership modes and practices in a Swedish context – a case study.” School Leadership & Management, 36(1), 21–40.

    Ljungblad, A-L. (2023). The Relational Dimension of the Teaching profession. NY: Peter Lang.

    Ljungblad, A-L. (2022 accepted). Key Indicator Taxonomy of Relational Teaching, Journal of Education for Teaching.

    Ljungblad, A-L. (2021). “Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT) – a multi-relational perspective.” International Journal of Inclusive Education, 25(7), 860–876.

    Ljungblad, A.-L. 2016. Takt och hållning – en relationell studie om det oberäkneliga i matematikundervisningen [Tact and Stance – A relational study about the incalculable in mathematics teaching]. PhD diss., Gothenburg Studies in Educational Sciences, 381. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. 

     

  • 25.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    The Relational Dimension of the Teaching Profession2023 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In The Relational Dimension of the Teaching Profession, we follow four teachers who meet their students in a particularly evolving way. Deploying what is described as pedagogical tact and stance, the author has filmed teachers in order to observe how they create pedagogical meeting spaces wherein the teachers and students meet as people, thus developing an understanding of trustful, relational teaching in practice.The relational dimension of the teaching profession is something that has hitherto played a hidden role in teacher education. Nevertheless, well-functioning teacher-student relationships are a fundamental part of successful teaching. Including a multi-relational perspective on teaching and education (Pedagogical Relational Teachership, or, PeRT) as well as a taxonomy with an observation scheme for student teachers and researchers, this book is aimed at teacher students at undergraduate and advanced levels and is also suitable for teachers in practice.

  • 26.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Department of Education and Special Education, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Berhanu, Girma
    Department of Education and Special Education, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    A Change in Interpersonal Relational Capital: Through mentoring relationships and homework activities in a university setting2020In: International Journal of Special Education, ISSN 0827-3383, E-ISSN 1917-7844, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 5-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an innovative project revolving around student participa- tion in homework activities. The theoretical framework is relational pedago- gy with a focus on student-mentor relationships in a university setting. The authors used semi-structured interviews combined with observations of the interactions between the participants. The findings are analysed at a micro- and meso-level, based on an interpersonal relational perspective on teaching, Peda- gogical Relational Teachership (PeRT). The popular claim that homework time is positively related to scholastic achievements gains was observed. The findings from this study add to the general knowledge of how participants perceive their school activities and future careers. Furthermore, relational values like connecting, belonging, trusting, including and confidence-building emerged be- tween students and mentors over time. The examination of the mentor-student relationships highlights how a new interpersonal relational capital launched a movement with a possible change in social position, in terms of entering future university studies. The article discusses the results at a societal level in relation to equity and young people’s possibilities of participating in future universi- ty studies. Since the study shows the positive aspects of ‘enriching’ activities supporting immigrant youth in homework activities at university facilities, we encourage other institutions of higher education to open up their premises for similar projects, in order to improve engagement, raise achievement levels and enhance inclusiveness in the larger social fabric.

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  • 27.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Gothenburg university.
    Berhanu, Girma
    A Change in Relational Capital: Through mentoring relationships and homework activities for disadvantaged and new arrival youth in a university setting.2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our conference presentation dwells on an innovative project revolving around disadvantaged students’ (the majority with immigrant background) participation in homework activities. The theoretical framework is relational pedagogy with a focus on student-mentor relationships in a university setting. The authors used semi-structured interviews combined with observations of the interactions between the participants. The findings are analysed at a micro- and meso-level, based on an interpersonal relational perspective on teaching, Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT) (Ljungblad, 2016, 2019). The popular claim that homework time is positively related to scholastic achievements gains was observed. The findings from this study add to the general knowledge of how participants perceive their school activities and future careers. Furthermore, relational values like connecting, belonging, trusting, including and confidence building emerged between students and mentors over time. The examination of the mentor-student relationships highlights how a relational bonding creates a new interpersonal relational capital that launch a movement with a possible change in social position, in terms of entering future university studies. The results are discussed at a societal level in relation to equity and young people’s possibilities of participating in future university studies. Since the study shows the positive aspects of ‘enriching’ activities supporting immigrant youth in homework activities at university facilities, we encourage other institutions of higher education to open up their premises for similar projects, in order to improve engagement, raise achievement levels and enhance inclusiveness in the larger social fabric.

  • 28.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Gothenburg university.
    Berhanu, Girma
    A Change of Interpersonal Relational Capital: Achieving equity through mentoring relationships and homework activities2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Change of Interpersonal Relational Capital: Achieving equity through mentoring relationships and homework activities Ann-Louise Ljungblad, Senior lecturer at the Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Ann-louise.ljungblad@gu.se https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8148-9172 Girma Berhanu, professor at the Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Girma.berhanu@ped.gu.se Our presentation considers the role of relational values in the aspirations for higher education of a group of ethnic minority and socially disadvantaged students, many with special educational needs. Drawing on data from an ethnographic case study of an underperforming junior secondary school, we conclude by tentatively suggesting the importance of relational and social capital at different educational strata that can broaden new life opportunities. Research indicate that there is disproportional representation in special education in Sweden. Members of minority ethnic groups (particularly where these groups have migrant status), males, and children from poorer homes are at greater risk than their peers of being placed in special education. This study is part of a larger project to investigate the effect of ‘enriching’ activities such as community development in the form of helping immigrant youth in schoolwork (home works) in order to raise motivation, achievement levels and enhance inclusiveness in the larger social fabric. The aim of this study is to explore interpersonal relational aspects, between participating pupils and mentors. The research questions are: Why do pupils and mentors actively choose to attend homework support? What does the interaction look like between pupils and mentors? What values do the participants see in the activities? The project is successful in many ways and has attracted media attention. The analysis in the present study based on interpersonal relationships shows even a minimum support, in the form of homework and extracurricular activities, can make a difference in the pupils’ school performance and wellbeing. The project appears to reinforce positive towards education and most of the previous participants are currently in upper high schools and pursuing their choice of study/career path. The data presented in this research appears to suggest that students are able to generate new relational and social capital in their own right. Referens Ainsworth, J. W. (2002), “Why does it take a village? The mediation of neighborhood effects on educational achievement”, Social Forces, Vol. 81 No. 1, pp. 117–152. Allan, J. and Persson, B. (2018), “Social capital and trust for inclusion in school and society”, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 1–11.https://doi.org/10.1177/1746197918801001 Bang, H. J., Suárez-Orozco, C., Pakes, J. and O’Connor, E. (2009), “The importance of homework in determining immigrant students’ grades in schools in the USA context”, Educational Research, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 1–25. Bauer, T., Epstein, G. and Gang, I. (2005), “Enclaves, language, and the location choice of migrants”, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp. 649–662. Beach, D. and Dyson, A. (2016), Developing equity in cold climates, London, Tufnell Press. Grönqvist, H. (2006), “Ethnic enclaves and the attainments of immigrant children”, European Sociological Review, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp. 369-382. Kerr, K., Dyson, A. and Raffo, C. (2014), Education, disadvantage and place. Making the local matter, Bristol, CT, Polity Press. Ljungblad, A-L. (2019), “Pedagogical Relational Teachership (PeRT) – A multi-relational perspective.” , International Journal of Inclusive Education. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13603116.2019.1581280 Noam, G., Biancarosa, G. and Dechausay, N. (2002), Afterschool Education. Approaches to an Emerging Field. Cambridge, MA, Harvard Educational Publishing Group. OECD. (2016), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Results from PISA 2015. Access date 2018-10-23. https://www.oecd.org/pisa/PISA-2015-Sweden.pdf. UNICEF. (2018), An Unfair start. Inequality in children’s education in rich countries. Innocent Report Card 15, UNICEF Office of Research. Woolcock, M. (2001), The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 11–17.

  • 29. Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Matematik och respekt - i praktiken2012Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Specialpedagogiska skolmyndigheten.
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Matematik och respekt: Matematikens mångfald och lyssnandets konst2012Book (Other academic)
  • 31. Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Matematik som språkkurs.2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Gothenburg university.
    Rinne, Ilona
    Gothenburg university.
    Pedagogical tact makes visible the complexity in the relational dimension of the teacher profession2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the two past decades, in the field of relational pedagogy, the teacher-student relationship has been explored as an interpersonal relationship. The presentation is based on an article (Ljungblad & Rinne, 2021) which illustrates how pedagogical tact (Lövlie, 2007; van Manen, 1991, 2015) as an analytical tool can highlight new opportunities in classroom research, by visualising the relational dimension of teachers’ work. The results are based on a comparative analysis of two classroom studies in which the notion of pedagogical tact has been used (Ljungblad, 2016; Rinne, 2014). The analysis shows that pedagogical tact as an analytical tool can take us beyond the taken for granted assumption about teaching as an easy profession. The results reveal how the teacher seeks con-tact with the student. By exploring the relational and interpersonal aspects of teaching, existential dimensions of the teaching profession can be illuminated, and relational values which are of importance for students’ growth can be visualised. In conclusion, the article discusses how pedagogical tact can contribute to the creation of human subjectification as a counterweight to students being objectified. Such a relational voice highlights relational values and the awareness of humanity.

  • 33.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rinne, Ilona
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pedagogisk takt synliggör komplexiteten i läraryrkets relationella dimension2020In: Nordisk tidsskrift for pedagogikk og kritikk, E-ISSN 2387-5739, Vol. 6, p. 158-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedagogical tact makes visible the complexity in the relational dimension of the teacher profession

    During the two past decades, in the field of relational pedagogy, the teacher-student relationship has been overshadowed by measurements and rationality. The aim of this article is to illustrate how pedagogical tact (Lövlie, 2007; van Manen, 1991, 2015) as an analytical tool can highlight new opportunities in classroom research, by visualising the relational dimension of teachers’ work. The results are based on a comparative analysis of two classroom studies in which the notion of pedagogical tact has been used (Ljungblad, 2016; Rinne, 2014). Intersubjectivity is a crucial dimension in both studies. The analysis shows that pedagogical tact as an analytical tool can take us beyond the taken for granted assumption about teaching as an easy profession. The results reveal how the teacher seeks con-tact with the student. By exploring the relational and interpersonal aspects of teaching, existential dimensions of the teaching profession can be illuminated, and relational values which are of importance for students’ growth can be visualised. In conclusion, the article discusses how pedagogical tact can contribute to the creation of human subjectification as a counterweight to students being objectified. Such a relational voice highlights existential values and the awareness of humanity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Roos, Helena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Att skapa tillgänglighet till matematik – vilka är de pedagogiska utmaningarna?: [ ingår i Lärportalens modul Matematik - Specialpedagogik, Matematikdidaktik och specialpedagogik, Del 1: Tillgänglighet till matematik, årskurs 4-6 ]2018Other (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 35.
    Roos, Helena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Att skapa tillgänglighet till matematik – vilka är de pedagogiska utmaningarna?: [ ingår i Lärportalens modul Matematik - Specialpedagogik, Matematikdidaktik och specialpedagogik, Del 1: Tillgänglighet till matematik, årskurs 7-9 ]2018Other (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 36.
    Roos, Helena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Att skapa tillgänglighet till matematik – vilka är de pedagogiska utmaningarna?: [ ingår i Lärportalens modul Matematik - Specialpedagogik, Matematikdidaktik och specialpedagogik, Del 1: Tillgänglighet till matematik, årskurs 1-3 ]2018Other (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 37.
    Walfridsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Danderyds Sjukhus AB.
    Ljungblad, Ann-Louise
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Roos, Helena
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet.
    Specific mathematical difficulties – diagnosis and pedagogical and didactic actions2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a presentation of an interdisciplinary project to investigate how diagnosis of specific mathematical difficulties and pedagogical and didactic actions for students who meet the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of dyscalculia (World Health Organization, 2022) can be developed and linked together to result in a more equal and health-promoting life situation for this group of students. 

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