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  • 1. Wodak, Ruth
    Discourse and European Integration2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating theories about discourse with social science theories allows to grasp the dynamic and fluid co-construction of European identities, both top-down and bottom-up. Such interdisciplinary approaches are able to systematically deconstruct the everyday workings of European institutions, or support our understanding of the impact of traditional and social media in their production and reproduction of pro-European or Eurosceptic sentiments and attitudes. In this chapter, I first present some important characteristics of Discourse Studies (DS) and Critical Discourse Studies (CDS), specifically of the Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA). I then, secondly, summarize the most relevant discursive research strands on European integration. Thirdly, I illustrate the interdisciplinary nexus of discourse-oriented European studies with a case study on the mediatization and politicization of the refugee crisis in Austria, from 2015-2016

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  • 2. Faist, Thomas
    The Socio-Natural Question: How Migration Reproduces Inequalities in an Age of Climate Change2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-border migration is one of several ways by which people have adapted to both the slow-onset and fast-onset environmental changes of the Anthropocene, the epoch in which human practices have resulted in significant global consequences for the world’s ecosystems. In order to trace inequalities and their politicization we need systematic studies of how migration emerges from complex interplays of social (political, economic, cultural) and environmental processes. So far, two generations of scholarship have characterized the climate change – migration debate. The first generation theorized migration as a mechanistic response to climate change. While the second generation conceptualized climate-related migration as adaptation in relationship and human security by placing agency at the core, the focus on the “resilient migrant” has occluded both the effects of climate change on different categories of people with respect to social inequalities and has not fully dealt with the analogy between the ‘exploitation of humans by humans’ and the ‘exploitation of nature by capitalism’. This analysis traces the evolution of concepts in the debates on climate-related migration and presents selected social mechanisms of (re)production of social inequalities in the climate change-migration nexus.

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  • 3. King, Russell
    et al.
    Vullnetari, Julie
    Interrelationships between gender, care and migration: Albania during and after communism2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the interrelationships between gender, family structures and intra-family care arrangements during two markedly different periods of Albania’s recent history: the communist era dominated by the autocratic statesocialist regime of Enver Hoxha, and the post-communist period dominated by a kind of reactive free-for-all capitalism and high rates of both internal and international migration. Since 1990 Albania has accumulated a ‘stock’ of more than 1.4 million emigrants, mostly living in Greece and Italy. Families have been torn apart by this mass emigration – both husbands from their wives and children, and older generations left behind or ‘orphaned’ by their migrant children. All this contrasts with family, residential and care arrangements during the communist period when not only were families generally living in compact and close proximity, but also a minimum of state welfare was available to support vulnerable and isolated individuals. However, internal migration was part of state economic and social planning, and some families which fell foul of the regime were split up and sent into internal exile. The paper provides a valuable lesson in historicising regimes of gender, family and care across dramatically contrasting social models.

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  • 4. King, Russell
    et al.
    Lulle, Aija
    Mueller, Dorothea
    Vathi, Zana
    Visiting friends and relatives and its links with international migration: a three-way comparison of migrants in the UK2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose in this paper is to explore the various types of interrelationship between two mobility forms – migration on the one hand, and visiting friends and relatives ‘back home’ (and maybe elsewhere) on the other. The link between visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and migration has until recently been overlooked by migration scholars. It was essentially the 1990s ‘transnational turn’ in migration studies which highlighted more explicitly the to-and-fro mobilities that migrants engaged in with their homelands. Fast and cheap air travel has facilitated this intense VFR mobility. Taking a wider view, we argue that VFR travel is not a marginal aspect of migrants’ lives but is in fact constitutive of contemporary migration and diaspora dynamics. The first part of the paper maps out a typology of the multiple linkages between VFR travel and international migration; this is a complex task given the variety both of forms of migration and of types of VFR mobility. From this we aim to reconceptualise VFR travel as an essential element of most migration, and to draw out some of the economic and personal power geometries implicated in diverse forms of VFR travel and capability. We then examine three contrasting case-studies of VFR patterns amongst three different migrant groups in the United Kingdom: young Germans who are back-and-forth ‘free movers’ traversing shallow cultural and economic barriers to enjoy what they perceive as an exciting and cosmopolitan life in London; Kosovan refugees whose return visits were initially constrained by their exile status but whose VFR travels have since taken on a touristic aspect; and Latvian labour migrants in Guernsey whose to-and-fro mobility is partly driven by family ties and partly constrained by economic factors and the residence and housing restrictions on this Channel Island.

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  • 5. Taras, Raymond
    The end to immigration by a thousand cuts?: on Europe's bureaucratic gatekeepers2012Book (Other academic)
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  • 6. Kaya, Ayhan
    From welfarism to prudentialism: euro-turks and the power of the weak2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to shed light upon the dynamics of community construction by migrants of Turkish origin, or what I call Euro-Turks, and their descendants residing in European countries such as Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.1 A retrospective analysis of the dynamics of community construction among the Euro-Turks reveals that they have always been engaged in producing and reproducing communities deriving from various needs. The construction of communities is sometimes a response to social-economic deprivation, sometimes to the form of affiliation with the homeland, and sometimes to the transition of the welfare state into post-social prudentialist state. This paper claims that Euro-Turks have become more occupied with the construction and articulation of ethno-cultural and religious communities in the last two decades due to the ascendancy of culturalist and civilizationist discourse along with neo-liberal forms of governmentality (Foucault, 1979) essentializing ethnic, cultural and religious boundaries, and generating an Islamophobic, migrantphobic and xenophobic climate in the west. As Wendy Brown (2010: 33) rightly stated the civilizationist discourse brought two disparate images together in order to produce a single figure of danger justifying exclusion and closure: “the hungry masses” and “cultural-religious aggression toward Western values.” The growing stream of citizenship tests, attitude tests, zero-tolerance policy towards unqualified migrants, and negative public opinion vis-a-vis migrants, in general, results in that the European countries are recently inclined to be more assimilationist vis-a-vis Muslim origin migrant populations, who are perceived to be hostile toward Western values. Social, political and economic changes at global level have brought about the revitalization of an Islamophobic discourse in a way that leads to the redefinition of community boundaries through nationalist and religious lines. “I fear that we are approaching a situation resembling the tragic fate of Christianity in northern Africa in Islam’s early days”, these are the words of a German Lutheran Bishop uttered in 2006 (Carle, 2006). Migrants of Muslim origin are increasingly represented by the advocates of the ‘clash of civilizations’ thesis as members of a “precarious transnational society” in which people only want to ‘stone women’, ‘cut throats’, ‘be suicide bombers’, ‘beat their wives’ and ‘commit honour crimes’. These prejudiced perceptions about Islam and Muslim migrants have been reinforced by the impact of previous events ranging from the Iranian Revolution to the Cartoon Crisis in Denmark in 2006, or from the Arab – Israel war in 1973 to the notorious book by German economist Thilo Sarrazin (2010), who was likely to explain the integration problems of migrants of Muslim origin through genetic factors. This working paper argues that Muslim origin migrants in general, and Euro-Turks in particular, tactically become more engaged in constructing communities to protect themselves against the evils of the contemporary world as well as to pursue an alternative form of politics for the purpose of raising their claims in public. It will also be claimed that what distinguishes the ways in which communities are being reproduced by migrant-origin individuals since the early 1990s is that the reconfiguration of welfare policies by the neo-liberal states is no longer directed towards ‘society’, but towards ‘communities’. In other words, while migrants used to construct their own communities to protect themselves against the detrimental effects of the outside world such as 5 capitalism, racism, exclusion, poverty and xenophobia, the construction of those communities is now being encouraged by the neo-liberal states within the framework of a prudentialist form of governmentality. Hence, the work will discuss the main parameters of the politics of honour and search for purity posed by various Muslim origin migrants and their descendants to tackle with the structural constraints of exclusion, poverty and Islamophobia. However, it will also be argued there are Euro-Turks with appropriate education and qualification, who attempt to abandon their communities in order to mobilize themselves upward.

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  • 7. Kaya, Ayhan
    Islamophobia as a form of governmentality: Unbearable weightiness of the politics of fear2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the contemporary literature on Islamophobia in Europe, through the lens of immigration issues, socio-economic status and civic participation of Muslim origin migrants and their descendants as well as international constraints. In addition to critically reviewing the current state of knowledge and debate about Islamophobia through the literature, the paper seeks to address the most recent data, survey findings and public discourses available about the current state of Islamophobia in Europe. In the process, some references will also be made to the current rise of Islamophobia in the United States and its differences with the European context. Describing Islamophobia as a form of governmentality in Foucaultian sense, I shall argue that it operates as a form of cultural racism in Europe, which has become apparent together with the process of securitizing and stigmatizing migration and migrants in the age of neo-liberalism. Furthermore, I shall also claim that the growing Islamophobic form of governmentality has produced unintended consequences on both minorities and majorities in a way that has so far led to the political and social instrumentalization of Islam by Muslim origin minorities, and to the deployment of an antimulticulturalist discourse by the majority societies in the west.

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  • 8. Hiebert, Daniel
    et al.
    Sherrell, Kathy
    The integration and inclusion of newcomers in Canada: the case of British Columbia2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 9. Cadge, Wendy
    et al.
    Curran, Sara
    Hejtmanek, Jessica
    Jaworsky, B. Nadya
    Levitt, Peggy
    The City as Context: Culture and Scale in New Immigrant Destinations2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we bring questions of space, locality, and culture squarely into discussions of immigrant incorporation. The growing body of work on new immigrant destinations and contexts of reception often fails to consider how particular locales are embedded in larger geopolitical fields in ways that make them more or less receptive. Moreover, it privileges the economic characteristics of localities without paying sufficient attention to variations in cultural resources. In this study of two small, post-industrial cities, we argue that important variations in how they create and deploy their ‘cultural armature’, including differences in urban self-presentation, the prevailing ethos toward immigrants, and how culture has been harnessed in service of urban renewal, history, and the political economy, explain much of the variation in our two contexts of reception. Both cities speak the language of multiculturalism and tolerance, but Portland, ME offers newcomers welcoming spaces while those arriving in Danbury, CT encounter a hotbed of ‘anti-immigrant’ discourse and activity.

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  • 10. Glick Schiller, Nina
    Beyond Methodological Ethnicity: Local and Transnational Pathways of Immigrant Incorporation2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper critiques migration scholars’ reliance on the ethnic group as a unit of analysis. It argues for the importance of approaching migration studies by examining non-ethnic forms of incorporation and transnational connection. Localities of departure and settlement, especially, as place has been theorized by scholars of neoliberal urban restructuring, proves to be an important entry point for an alternative approach to migration studies. To illustrate this non-ethnic approach to migrant settlement I draw on my exploratory ethnographic research of fundamentalist Christianity as an avenue of migrant local and transnational incorporation. The research was conducted in two small-scale cities, Manchester, New Hampshire, USA and Halle/Saale, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany.

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  • 11. Glick Schiller, Nina
    et al.
    Çaglar, Ayse
    Migrant Incorporation and City Scale: Towards a Theory of Locality In Migration Studies2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of migration on the restructuring of locality remains neglected by both migration scholars and urban geographers, although the importance of global forces in structuring the flows of people, identities, subjectivities, and cultural production and consequent alterations in a time/space continuum is widely acknowledged. Yet migrants both experience and contribute to the forces of integration and fragmentation, as they participate in the rescaling of urban economies, politics and governance and the reshaping of geographies of representation. Consequently any analysis of the restructuring of urban social fabrics will be incomplete without considering the impact of migration and migrants.

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  • 12. Ingleby, David
    New Perspectives on Migration, Ethnicity and Schizophrenia2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After a quarter century in which biomedical approaches have dominated discussions about schizophrenia and the influence of environmental factors has been neglected, interest in social determinants is reviving. Research in the Netherlands and other countries has demonstrated that the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia among certain migrant groups is strikingly higher than the norm and that social factors play a major role in this. In the UK, however, many members of minority ethnic groups regard the increased frequencies of these diagnoses and of compulsory admission as evidence of racism. This paper examines this new wave of research studies. The hypothesis of ethnic bias in diagnoses of schizophrenia and compulsory admission orders has never been satisfactorily ruled out. In spite of this, there are many indications that the raised incidence of schizophrenia among certain groups of migrants is genuine. Various explanations of this phenomenon are discussed; quantitative and qualitative research methods can usefully complement each other in this area. In conclusion, ways of improving the care of psychotic patients and reducing the frequency of compulsory admissions are examined.

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  • 13. Mudde, Cas
    The Populist Radical Right: A Pathological Normalcy2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years more and more studies have pointed to the limitations of demand-side explanations of the electoral success of populist radical right parties. They argue that supply-side factors need to be included as well. While previous authors have made these claims on the basis of purely empirical arguments, this paper provides a (meta)theoretical argumentation for the importance of supply-side explanations. It takes issue with the dominant view on the populist radical right, which considers it to be alien to mainstream values in contemporary western democracies, expressed most explicitly in the “normal pathology thesis”. Instead, it argues that the populist radical right should be seen as a radical interpretation of mainstream values, or, to stay in Scheuch and Klingemann’s terminology, as a pathological normalcy. This argument is substantiated on the basis of an empirical analysis of party ideologies and mass attitudes. The proposed paradigmatic shift has profound consequences for the way the populist radical right and western democracy relate, as well as on how the populist radical right is best studied. Most importantly, it makes demand for populist radical right politics an assumption rather than a puzzle, and turns the prime focus of research on the political struggle over issue saliency and positions, and on the role of populist radical right parties within these struggles.

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  • 14.
    Morawska, Eva
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    International Migration: Its Various Mechanisms and Different Theories that Try to Explain It2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper consists of two parts. The first reviews an appraisal of the contemporary theories of international migration. Among older theories, the push-and-pull model, the segmented labour market theory, world-system theory, and the political economy model are examined as macro-level explanatory approaches, and, at the micro-level, the neoclassical economic (otherwise known as rational choice) theory, human capital theory, new economics of migration, migration network or social capital theory, and the cumulative causation model are examined. The second part presents an encompassing theoretical approach, migration as structuration process, and identifies its advantages over other models. This approach is then comparatively applied to eight immigrant groups chosen as case studies.

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  • 15. Cattacin, Sandro
    Migration and Differentiated Citizenship: on the (Post-)Americanization of Europe2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pluralization of our society goes on, regardless of the French desire to restore the republican roots through the debate concerning the Islamic veil in the schools, regardless of Germany’s attempts to impose a Leitkultur, regardless of the researchers’ reflections around the political issue of what “integration” really means. This pluralization, which is unquestionably not only related to the phenomenon of migration, challenges the European national societies in three different ways. Firstly, by the constant ambivalence between the national identity discourse and the supranational construction of a European State. Secondly, by the internal differentiation of the civil society, which still only recognizes itself as a unity in the (accepted) difference. Thirdly, through the nation-state differentiations of belongings, which partially get disconnected from the territory and honoured through interlaced judicial claims, as shown by the topic of undocumented immigrants’ access to health care. These dynamics of differentiation and of pluralization will here be pointed as “Americanization” of Europe, which is imposing itself “from below”, while awaiting regulation “from above”.

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  • 16. Cattacin, Sandro
    Why Not "Ghettos"? The Governance of Migration in the Splintering City2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhoods are led to construct themselves in a homogeneous way, in a sort of community in the sense of aggregated groups, not necessary only in terms of ethnicity but in terms of socio-economic characteristics. This reflects migration, socio-economic difference and the dynamic of the city development. These neighbourhoods have a potential of self-regulation and stabilisation of the city that is often underestimated. Thus, I think that the mixture of a city is the result of mobility, but cannot be the starting point, in particular in modern, flexibilised societies in which weak identities search for stabilizing communities.

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  • 17. Fennelly, Katherine
    Correlates of Prejudice: Data from Midwestern Communities in the United States2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many rural communities in the American Midwest have experienced relatively rapid demographic change from predominantly white, European-origin populations to ones with sizeable percentages of immigrants. Such change creates a natural laboratory for analysis of prejudice and threats. In this paper we present statewide survey data from Minnesota on white residents’ attitudes toward Hispanics in January, 2001, and then use qualitative data gathered seven months later for a close-up view of relations between US-born and foreign born residents in a rural town with a large meat processing plant. Comparisons are made of perceptions of symbolic and economic threats from immigrants on the part of three groups of Euro-Americans: community leaders, middle class and working class residents. Participants’ own explanations of their attitudes are used to describe nativist sentiments within the context of reported personal experiences and changes in the rural community. In the third section of the paper we listen to the comments of immigrants and refugees in the same community about their relationships with white residents. Taken together, these studies shed light on the nature of prejudice against immigrants and the kinds of public policies that may foster empathy.

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  • 18. Papastergiadis, Nikos
    Mobility and the Nation: Skins, Machines and Complex Systems2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay re-examines the public fears of invasion at the time of heightened anxiety over terrorist attacks and in light of the ongoing refugee crisis. It considers how discourses on the nation-state and mobility have been confi ned to an oppositional model. The twin pillars of micro-agency and macro-structuralism that have supported the prevailing sociological theories of migration present the nation-state as a bounded system. By identifying the fear of external agents and the ambivalence towards mobility, this essay traces a secret complicity between theories of migration and the preservation of the nation-state as a unified and exclusionary social system. The global flows and local affiliations of contemporary society are better grasped through complex systems theory, which transcends the oppositional logic of belonging and movement.

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  • 19. Martiniello, Marco
    Political Participation, Mobilisation and Representation of Immigrants and Their Offspring in Europe2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a qualitative overview of the state-of-the art on issues related to immigrants' political participation, mobilisation and representation, and also presents some research perspectives to be explored in the future. It is divided into seven parts. The first part addresses conceptual and defi nition issues. The second presents and discusses the thesis of political quiescence of immigrants. Part three part focuses on the explanations of the various forms of immigrant political participation. The fourth part presents a typology of the various forms of immigrant political participation in the country of settlement. Part fi ve specifi cally discusses the issue of transnational political participation. The sixth identifi es gaps in the literature to which new research perspectives might correspond. The concluding policy-oriented part addresses the issue of how to evaluate and assess the political participation of immigrants and their offspring in the country of residence.

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  • 20. Papastergiadis, Nikos
    The Invasion Complex: Deep Historical Fears and Wide Open Anxieties2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of an external invasion has always operated alongside guilt over the foundational occupation of the land in Australia. The popular support for the Prime Minister John Howard’s pre-election stand against the refugees in 2001 and his dogged defensiveness during the indigenous-settler reconciliation process revealed the unease over cultural difference in the national imaginary. The myth of terra nullius and the fantasy of an ‘Asian invasion’ are two constitutive features in Australian nationalism. Combined they have produced a profound anxiety about space and mobility. This essay addresses the rhetorical responses to the ‘invasion’ in order to consider the way fear is used to shape contemporary subjectivity.

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  • 21. Vasta, Ellie
    Communities and social capital2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In this article, I am concerned with how social capital circulates within and across communities. Social capital entails an accumulation of social and moral resources within groups or social collectivities which include norms of reciprocity, social trust, co-operation, and networks of civic engagement. Ethnic communities in Australia are frequently accused of indulging in identity politics that leads to a form of ethnic closure. In order to address this issue more clearly, two main questions are posed: first, does identity formation contribute to a form of separation and ethnic closure or can communities, based on identity formations and identity politics, enhance their levels of civic virtue and collective action; secondly, are ethnic communities in Australia rallying together through various forms of collective action to achieve social justice goals within their own ethnic groups and across the broader community?

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  • 22. Devoretz, Don J
    Immigrant Issues and Cities: Lessons from Malmö and Toronto2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    National debates surrounding immigration, tolerance and integration are hallmarks of the early 21st century. However, immigrants no longer move to countries but concentrate in cities where the immediate benefits and challenges of immigration arise. What happens to a city when immigrants become the numerical majority in one or two generations? How do cities convert this revolutionary change from a potential liability to an asset? In short, what immigration and integration policies at the city level can turn immigrant-receiving cities into successful and celebrated world metropolises? These questions are addressed in light of the experiences of Malmö and Toronto.

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  • 23. Fennelly, Katherine
    Listening to the experts: Provider recommendations on the health needs of immigrants and refugees2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A growing body of literature describes what has come to be know as the 'healthy migrant' phenomenon - the fact that immigrants to the United States and Western Europe countries are often healthier than native-born residents in their new countries of residence. Over time, many immigrants lose this health advantage for reasons that are not fully understood. Data are presented from in-depth interviews with 62 health and social service providers working with immigrants in the state of Minnesota. Although the state is home to many refugees who were victims of torture or severe deprivation in their home countries, the majority of providers defi- ned the principal needs of their clients as affordable housing, jobs and access to health services, rather than needs related to health conditions and services per se. The providers' open-ended comments paint a picture of the ways in which post-immigration experiences lead to tangible stresses that compromise immigrants? health and well-being.

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  • 24. Faist, Thomas
    Multiple citizenship in a globalising world: The politics of dual citizenship in comparative perspective2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Over the last few decades the number of cases of multiple nationalities worldwide has increased rapidly, and for various reasons this is being tolerated by more and more sovereign states. This is astonishing when one considers that a few decades ago citizenship and political loyalty to a state and, in particular, a specific national political community, were still considered inseparable. Despite the fundamental challenges raised by dual citizenship, the empirical evidence suggests that most immigration states have successfully adapted to problems of sovereignty and legitimacy. State authorities in many immigration countries in Europe and North America have gradually come to see dual citizenship neither as evil nor as an intrinsic value desirable as such. Nonetheless, the degree to which dual nationality is tolerated by states differs widely. Since immigrants themselves have developed manifold strategies to use dual nationality ? states and citizens have been engaged in processes of mutual accommodation. The questions deal with are: What are the factors encouraging the increasing tolerance towards multiple nationalities? How can cross-national differences regarding de jure and de facto tolerance towards dual nationality be explained? And what are the consequences of the growing tolerance towards dual nationality for statehood and immigrant policies? Based on the findings of postnational, national and transnational perspectives the analysis proposes to analyze tolerance and resistance towards dual nationality as a path-dependent process.

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  • 25. Brochmann, Grete
    The Current Traps of European Immigration Policies2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The main thrust of this paper is to describe and analyze the dynamics between the various EU member states and the European Community in the development towards a common immigration policy. There has so far been a striking contrast between the economic, social and political significance of migration, and the degree to which it has been subject to international organization. It is argued that conditional convergence has been a more relevant term than harmonization describing the process up till the end of the century, and the main reason for this is the strength of national interests and the impact of tradition and experience of policymaking in this realm.

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  • 26. Devoretz, Don J
    et al.
    Pivnenko, Sergiy
    The economics of Canadian citizenship2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Immigrants ascend to citizenship at differential rates in Canada. Why is this so? This paper investigates the economic costs and benefits derived from citizenship to rationalize the differential rates of citizenship ascension. Canadian earnings evidence confirms the sizable economic benefits of citizenship. A decomposition analysis attributes this benefit to selfselection, namely only the more productive immigrants become Canadian citizens.

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  • 27. Faist, Thomas
    The migration-security nexus. International migration and security before and after 9/112004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    9/11 has reinforced the discursive securitization of migration and integration politics and policies in major immigration countries, the so-called migration-security nexus. To explore this argument, the analysis deals with three propositions. First, the end of the Cold War has opened political space for focusing on diffuse and hard-to-grasp security threats that do not emanate from sovereign states but from non-state actors, involving issues such as crime, drugs, migration. International migration has served as a convenient reference point for unspecific fears. Second, securitizing policies such as stepped-up border controls and stricter internal surveillance of immigrants produces unintended effects. Securitizing policy issues creates higher expectations among voters that governments are actually able to effectively control transnational movements. Third, 9/11 entails ambiguous consequences for immigrant integration. Clearly, the levels of harassment against immigrants from the Middle East increased considerably, at least on the short term. Yet the crisis situation may even lead to an increased immersion into the politics of the respective national immigration states. General attitudes and policies towards cultural pluralism will probably not be significantly affected by 9/11. Overall, the exploration of the migration-security nexus is part of broader studies into the virtuous and vicious cycles of transnationalization, the growing importance of non-state actors in world and national politics.

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  • 28. Brochmann, Grete
    Welfare State, Integration and Legitimacy of the Majority: The Case of Norway2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Assimilation has in recent years been established as an illegitimate power strategy in most contexts in Europe. Apart from trying to nuance the content of this position, the paper raises questions as to the possible hidden power agenda in the integration strategy, or rather, which are the intentional or non-intentional power related implications of this strategy? Who is integrating whom into what kind of society? How are conceptions of nationhood maintained, legitimized and possibly reproduced?

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  • 29. Vasta, Ellie
    Australia's Post-war Immigration: Institutional and Social Science Research2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper, which is work-in-progress, provides an initial review of the theoretical traditions adopted by immigration researchers in Australia over the past fifty years or so. Many researchers have played a vital role in the development of both entrance and settlement policies while others have carried out social science research that has remained quite distinct from policy needs. The social sciences have not only contributed ideas and systematic knowledge to the development of policy, they have also provided systematic data and critical analysis which has countered misleading populist beliefs about such issues as economic growth, unemployment and institutional racism. In Australia, social scientists have been influenced by the theoretical paradigms that are dominant in their disciplines at the time of their research. In some cases, a theoretical tradition such as that of assimilation (following the Chicago School) coincided with the common sense ideologies held by the society at large. At other times, as with the introduction of multiculturalism, social scientists provided the theoretical foundations for what was considered a necessary basis for a culturally plural society.

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  • 30. Collins, Jock
    Ethnic Entrepreneurship in Australia2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper explores the historical and contemporary dimensions of immigrant self-employment and entrepreneurship in Australia. In doing so it draws on the growing literature on immigrant entrepreneurship in Australia and the literature on the impact of globalisation on western economies. The paper presents a brief history of the important role of immigrant entrepreneurship and self-employment in Australia before presenting 1996 census data on rates of immigrant selfemployment by gender and by generation. The paper then summarizes the key findings of the Australian research into immigrant self-employment, with a particular emphasis on the ways that the immigrant self-employed in Australia draw on class resources and ethnic resources. It ends by arguing that theories of immigrant self-employment must focus on two key, interrelated, aspects. First, the ways that ethnicity, gender and social class interact through a complex, uneven and changing lens of racialisation. Second, the important role of the way in which the processes of globalisation and the state responses to it shapes different patterns of the embeddedness of immigrants and, in turn, their opportunities as entrepreneurs and wage labourers.

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  • 31. Collins, Jock
    Immigration and Immigrant Settlement in Australia: Political Responses, Discourses and New Challenges2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Australian society has been shaped more by immigration and immigrants than most countries in the world today. This paper examines the changes to the character and composition of Australian immigration in the post-1945 period and analyses the impact of these changes on the public discourses and policy responses related to Australian immigration and settlement philosophies and practices in Australia today. It first looks at the Australian immigration experience, and how immigration policy has changed in recent decades as a result of globalisation. It then outlines the changing composition and character of the Australian immigration intake as a consequence of these policy changes, and at the key discourses about Australian immigration that have accompanied these changes. The paper then examines the way in which immigrant settlement or integration policies and practices have changed in light of the impact of globalisation on the political, economic and social climate in Australian society, with a particular emphasis on the debates about Australian multiculturalism. Finally, the paper addresses the new challenges for government policy makers and for decision makers in the private and non-government sectors of Australian society that are a consequence to the changing dynamics of the Australian immigration experience in a changing global world.

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  • 32. Rex, John
    The Basic Elements of a Systematic Theory of Ethnic Relations2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Offering a conceptual analysis, the paper demonstrates theoretical connections between the notions of primordiality and small-scale community; ethnies and ethnic nationalism; modern nation state and related forms of nationalism; the analysis of the structure of empires and colonial societies, and of the reconstitution of post-imperial societies; the concepts of economic and political migration and migrant ethnic mobilisation; the implications of national policy responses to migration; and, finally, the notion of multicultural societies. An overall general theory of nationalism and ethnicity, transcending the more specific theories which have been used in understanding small-scale communities, nations and transnational communities, is envisaged.

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  • 33.
    Faist, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Dual Citizenship as Overlapping Membership2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual citizenship has increased dramatically in recent decades. More and more states are tolerating or even accepting dual membership for various reasons. This is a puzzling trend because citizenship and political loyalty to sovereign states were thought to be indivisible until very recently. The new developments cast doubt on the assumption that overlapping membership violates the principle of popular sovereignty and that multiple ties and loyalties of citizens in bordercrossing social spaces and world society contradict state sovereignty. The argument put forward is that dual citizenship is neither an evil nor an intrinsic value for political communities. Dual citizenship is tied to genuine links of citizens across various sovereign political communities. Three perspectives shed light on dual citizenship: national, postnational and transstate approaches. Analytically, a transstate perspective can best describe relatively dense and continuous border-crossing ties as the overlapping membership of citizens across several political communities. In contrast to national concepts, a transstate view grasps the integrative potentials of reciprocity and solidarity in border-crossing spaces for bounded political communities. Also, a transstate perspective does not make unwarranted assumptions about a quantum leap in collective affiliation from the ?nation? to ?Europe? or even ?humanity?, as assumed by views such as postnational membership, suprastate citizenship and global democracy.

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  • 34.
    Bauböck, Rainer
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Multinational Federalism: Territorial or Cultural Autonomy?2001Report (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Bauböck, Rainer
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Public Culture in Societies of Immigration2001Report (Other academic)
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