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  • 1.
    Osanami Törngren, Sayaka
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Moriuchi, Emi
    Adolfsson, Caroline
    Nyström, Marcus
    Ulver, Sofia
    Comparing attitudes and preferences towards multiracial advertisement in Sweden and the US: Exploration through eye-tracking2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on the results of a pilot study which examines and compares how multiracial and multiethnic advertisement is looked at and perceived in Sweden and the US. Research involving eye-tracking is growing in several disciplines but still underexplored in the Social Sciences. Eye trackers enable recording of eye movements both in a natural and isolated/experimental context. Combining eye-tracking data and other types of traditional data such as interviews or surveys has a great potential to analyze and challenge the data bias, such as social desirability needs and race of interviewer effect. Even though we did not find any statistically significant results due to the limited sample size, the results points to interesting trends and tendencies which need to be addressed in further studies. We did not find any statistically significant differences in the preference in monocultural advertisements among Swedish and American students. However higher prior interracial exposure had some significance in a higher preference in multicultural advertisement.

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  • 2. Orhan, Akinalp
    How to Save a Disappearing Nation?: Discourses on How to Address the Consequences of Climate Change Induced Migration and Examples from Kiribati2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration induced by the impacts of climate change is a complex phenomenon that consists of various concepts. It also consists of various perspectives about the cause and the effects of such migration. Regardless of these debates, however, some atoll island nations are under a threat of disappearance due the impacts of climate change, especially the rising sea levels. Migration remains the only option for these island nations. Consequently, there are numerous perspectives on how to address the arising problems due to such migration. By utilizing argumentative discourse analysis, this thesis identifies three dominant discourses that address these consequences of climate change induced migration and explores how the island nation of Kiribati, although seemingly follows the lead of these dominant discourses, manages to shape and transform the discourses for the best interest of the Island Nation.

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  • 3.
    Emilsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Irastorza, Nahikari
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    30 Percent Lower Income: A Follow-up of the Swedish 2008 Labour Migration Reform2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, Sweden introduced a non-selective labour migration policy without labour market tests and human capital considerations. This article studies the effects of the policy change on the size, composition and labour market outcomes. Using longitudinal register data, we find that the 2008 liberalizations of the Swedish labour migration policy increased the number of labour migrants from non-EU countries. Post-reform labour migrant cohorts have on average lower level of human capital, and the lower level of human capital translates into worse labour market outcomes. One year after migration, post-reform cohorts have a higher skills-mismatch and about 30 percent lower income. Migration controls against abuse introduced in 2011 and 2012 improved the labour market outcomes somewhat.

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  • 4.
    Osanami Törngren, Sayaka
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    How do mixed Swedes identify themselves2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A global trend has shown an increase in intimate partnerships across nationality, race, ethnicity, and religion, and this is also the case in Sweden. As a result, the children of these unions (i.e. multiethnic and multiracial persons) are undeniably part of contemporary society. This study is one of the first studies in Sweden that solely focuses on the multiracial and multiethnic population. Based on 21 qualitative interviews, this article explores how mixed Swedes identify themselves and how they experience that they are identified by others using Brubaker’s (2016) conceptualization. The analysis shows that, contrary to the flexibility in how mixed Swedes identify themselves, mixed Swedes experience that people in society categorize them in a fixed idea of ‘either-or’ – either Swedish or not Swedish. The idea of being Swedish is strongly connected to the idea of being white; therefore, many mixed Swedes with a non-white phenotype experience that their identification as Swedish is not validated. However, some interviewees reject the idea of Swedish as solely being ‘white’ and are actively redrawing what it means to be Swedish through emphasizing nationality and cultural belonging.

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  • 5.
    Wærp, Eline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Humanitarian Borderwork?: An Analysis of Frontex’s Discourses and Practices2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ’humanitarian borderwork’ (Pallister-Wilkins 2017) entered the social sciences the last couple of years, in the wake of the 2015 migration crisis to the EU. With roots in the ’humanitarian border enforcement’ discourse (Williams 2016) that developed in the US post-9/11, the concept suggests that the goals of ‘migrant safety’ (i.e. human security) and ‘border control’ (i.e. state security) are mutually attainable. This ‘humanitarian-security’ (Andersson 2017, De Lauri 2018) or ‘safety/security’ (Williams 2016) nexus casts increased border control as not the cause of, but the remedy to, migrants’ vulnerability and death. ‘Humanitarian borderwork’ further implies a convergence between two seemingly distinct concepts: ‘humanitarianism’ and ‘borderwork’ (Walters 2011). Whereas ‘humanitarianism’ has traditionally been associated with a concern for humanity, human rights, alleviation of suffering, and the principle of ‘do no harm’; ‘borderwork’ has been preoccupied with exclusion, control, security and monitoring/surveillance (Pallister-Wilkins 2015b). And whereas humanitarian action has traditionally been carried out by depoliticized, independent actors (notably NGOs) with the sole purpose of providing humanitarian assistance (Redfield and Bornstein 2011); humanitarianism is now increasingly being delivered by (supranational) state-actors, such as the EU’s Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) – which claims to be just as preoccupied with saving lives as protecting the EU’s external borders. This begs the questions: are ‘humanitarianism’ and ‘borderwork’ compatible concepts? And if so, in the case of the EU, how humanitarian is Frontex’s borderwork? Informed by a literature review of the genealogy of the concepts of ‘humanitarianism’ and ‘humanitarian borderwork’, the paper problematizes the latter and seeks to answer those questions by analyzing and comparing Frontex’s humanitarian discourses and practices to the understanding of humanitarianism within anthropology – a field that has studied it extensively. The paper thus provides part of the literature review and theoretical- and conceptual framework for the dissertation, to be complemented with more empirics at a later stage. Arguing that while Frontex’s ‘humanitarian borderwork’ fails to meet the criteria in the traditional understanding of humanitarianism, it does succeed in situating itself within the ‘new humanitarianism’ (Nascimento 2015) that emerged after the end of the Cold War – where state actors play a larger role, and militarization and securitization of borders increasingly shape humanitarian action.

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  • 6.
    Håkansson, Peter Gladoic
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Zdravkovic, Slobodan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Kvantitativa studier bland nyanlända ungdomar och ensamkommande: Tillvägagångssätt och utmaningar2019In: MILSA Working Paper Series, no 2019:1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett flertal tillfällen då det är svårt att hitta respondenter via traditionella register eller insamlingsmetoder. Att undersöka nyanlända ungdomars hälsa är ett sådant tillfälle. Projektet MILSA 2.0 är en forskningsbaserad stöd- och utvecklingsplattform och ett av projektets mål har varit att utveckla metoder för att samla in kunskap om nyanländas hälsa. I delprojektet MILSA 2.3 undersöks barn och ungdomars hälsosituation framförallt med fokus på social kapital, riskbeteenden och framtidstro. Den metod som utvecklades i projektet byggde på att samla in enkätsvar via skolorna i Skånes kommuner. Metoden förutsatte ett nära samarbete med kontaktpersoner i kommunerna. Enkäterna var översatta av MILSA-projektet till arabiska, dari och pashto, men även en version på svenska erbjöds respondenterna. Trots vissa brister utifrån ett traditionellt obundet slumpmässigt urval (OSU), menar vi att urvalet kan svara på frågor som vi inte annars hade kunnat få svar på. Vi bör naturligtvis vara medvetna om de brister som finns i urvalet, men samtidigt kan det bidra till ny kunskap om en grupp där det finns väldigt begränsat med data. För framtida studier av liknande grupper bör mer resurser avsättas för ett närmare samarbete med kommunerna och studien måste tydligare förankras med skolor och kommuner utifrån den metod som ska användas.

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  • 7.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The Tip of the Iceberg: Prop. 1975:26 and its Freedom of Choice Goal in Sweden’s Multiculturalism Policy2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the expansive literature on Swedish multiculturalism policy, the Freedom of Choice Goal (FCG) of the Bill, Prop. 1975:26, Guidelines for an Immigrant and Minority Policy is often presented as its founding document. But this belies the fact that the Goal was beset by a controversy about its multicultural scope in the years that followed its adoption in 1975 that was never really settled. This article revisits the question and shows that the Goal indeed represented a multicultural vision. However, it was just the tip of an iceberg formed by socioeconomic integration policies. Earlier and more consistent multicultural policy provisions were present most notably in the state cultural policy. The article draws evidence from multiple sources including comparison with Norway.

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  • 8.
    Emilsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Continuity or Change? The refugee crisis and the end of Swedish exceptionalism2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the policy-making literature, external shocks are one of the most important pre-requisites for major policy changes. This article investigates how the refugee crisis affected Swedish political parties’ asylum and family migration policy preferences. The results indicate that the refugee crisis contributed to the breaking up of a long-established policy paradigm of openness and equal rights previously shared by most parties in parliament. A more fragmented party system has emerged where a new paradigm of controlling numbers has also found strong support outside the anti-immigration party the Sweden Democrats.

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  • 9. Wodak, Ruth
    Discourse and European Integration2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating theories about discourse with social science theories allows to grasp the dynamic and fluid co-construction of European identities, both top-down and bottom-up. Such interdisciplinary approaches are able to systematically deconstruct the everyday workings of European institutions, or support our understanding of the impact of traditional and social media in their production and reproduction of pro-European or Eurosceptic sentiments and attitudes. In this chapter, I first present some important characteristics of Discourse Studies (DS) and Critical Discourse Studies (CDS), specifically of the Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA). I then, secondly, summarize the most relevant discursive research strands on European integration. Thirdly, I illustrate the interdisciplinary nexus of discourse-oriented European studies with a case study on the mediatization and politicization of the refugee crisis in Austria, from 2015-2016

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  • 10. Nalepa, Moa
    EU migration policy changes in times of crisis2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 11. Tawat, Mahama
    The Divergent Convergence of Multiculturalism Policy in the Nordic Countries (1964 - 2006): Immigration Size, Policy Diffusion and Path Dependency2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic countries are among the main destinations for immigrants in the world because of their traditionally generous policies. They are also some of the most integrated and similar countries. Yet, in the 1970s when they became confronted with the “multicultural question”, they made different choices. This article shows that the presence or absence of a sizeable immigration was the main causal factor. It explains why Sweden adopted multiculturalism while Finland and Iceland did not. However, this factor was sufficient and not necessary. The formulation of multicultural policy provisions (MCPs) in Norway despite a small and late labour immigration was the result of diffusion from Sweden. In Denmark, the absence of sizeable immigration combined with the presence of a nationally-oriented policy legacy to further deny such outcome. There was an upward albeit slow convergence towards multiculturalism. Groupings of multiculturalist and assimilationist countries stuck together until the civic turn in the mid-2000s.

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  • 12. Faist, Thomas
    The Socio-Natural Question: How Migration Reproduces Inequalities in an Age of Climate Change2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-border migration is one of several ways by which people have adapted to both the slow-onset and fast-onset environmental changes of the Anthropocene, the epoch in which human practices have resulted in significant global consequences for the world’s ecosystems. In order to trace inequalities and their politicization we need systematic studies of how migration emerges from complex interplays of social (political, economic, cultural) and environmental processes. So far, two generations of scholarship have characterized the climate change – migration debate. The first generation theorized migration as a mechanistic response to climate change. While the second generation conceptualized climate-related migration as adaptation in relationship and human security by placing agency at the core, the focus on the “resilient migrant” has occluded both the effects of climate change on different categories of people with respect to social inequalities and has not fully dealt with the analogy between the ‘exploitation of humans by humans’ and the ‘exploitation of nature by capitalism’. This analysis traces the evolution of concepts in the debates on climate-related migration and presents selected social mechanisms of (re)production of social inequalities in the climate change-migration nexus.

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  • 13. Wyver, Richey
    “Almost the Same, but not Quite”: Mimicry, Mockery and Menace in Swedish Transnational/-racial Adoption Narratives2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses Bhabha’s concept of mimicry to explore how the transnational/-racial adoptee is discursively shaped in Swedish adoption narratives against a pro-adoption, colour-blind backdrop. Through an analysis of three Swedish adoption texts, the study explores the process and implications of the adoptee’s body being translated from complete otherness into (almost) Swedishness. The study suggests that mimicry emerges as a process beginning with the adoptee being desired as a body of difference that can potentially become an almost Swede. The adoptee, with a difference that is visible but disavowed and a sameness that is over-communicated but misrecognised, becomes trapped in a constant negotiation of identity, as they slip between being desired as an authorised version of otherness and being an isolated subject of racism, alienated from belonging to a recognised minority. The adoptee’s mimicry is prone to turn into menace, where they pose a threat to the identity of the white Swede and white Swedishness.

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  • 14.
    Aamodt Bentsen, Beint Magnus
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Attitudes Towards Immigrants among Youth in Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes towards out-groups have been of academic interest for a long time, and two often-used theoretical frameworks are intergroup contact theory, and group threat theory. This article combines insights from both to investigating attitudes among youth in Sweden using multiple regression analysis. I seek particularly to understand the role that contact has on reducing attitudes, and what role different contact situations, and forms may play. Specifically contact in schools and the local area is investigated after controlling for the effect of personal friendships. The analysis finds that high quality contact does have an effect on attitudes among Swedish youth even after controlling for background variables. Superficial contact has no additional effect in the investigated context. Group threat effects are also found to be important for the groups that are most directly in competition with immigrants in the labor market.

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  • 15. Carlson, Benny
    et al.
    Galvao Andersson, Gabriela
    Competition or cooperation? “Somalinomics” in the UK2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is (a) to review scholarly literature on entrepreneurship among Somalis in the United Kingdom and (b) through a field survey among Somali entrepreneurs in the UK assess if the prevailing image – derived from (a) – is valid or if some additional observations may alter the picture. Step (b) is accomplished through interviews with 36 Somalia-born entrepreneurs, most of them secondary migrants from other European countries and currently living in Birmingham, Leicester and London, about their lives and businesses. The results indicate that the prevailing image holds true in most respects. However, the view of Somali entrepreneurs as victims of intense competition should be modified. Many shopkeepers selling similar goods cooperate and reap advantages from sharing information and costs. Also, Somali entrepreneurship should be judged not only by its economic but also by its social achievements.

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  • 16. Fossati, Flavia
    et al.
    Liechti, Fabienne
    Auer, Daniel
    Bonoli, Giuliano
    Discrimination Multipliers How Immigrants’ integration affects labour market disadvantage2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses, how a low level of cultural distance and a strong social and cultural integration affects second-generation immigrants’ labour market chances. We address this question by means of a survey experiment carried out with human resources professionals in Switzerland. First, we analyse whether job applicants are evaluated more negatively if their parents stem from a country perceived to be culturally more distant from the host country and whether second-generation applicants whose profile conveys a strong attachment to their culture of origin (language) and engaging in social activities within their community, are evaluated more negatively by prospective employers.

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  • 17.
    Osanami Törngren, Sayaka
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Ethnic Options, Covering, and Passing: Multiracial and Multiethnic Identities in Japan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the number of multiracial and multiethnic Japanese, socially recognized and identified as “haafu (half)” are increasing, their identities and experiences are seldom critically analyzed. How do they identify themselves and how do they feel that they are identified by others? Based on interviews with eighteen individuals who grew up in Japan having one Japanese parent and one non-Japanese parent, this article explores ethnic options and practices of covering and passing among multiracial and multiethnic individuals in Japan. The analysis shows that multiracial and multiethnic individuals possess different kinds of ethnic options and practice passing and covering differently.

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  • 18. Merelo, Guillermo
    Political déjà Vu: Symbolic transferability and political cultural reconstruction among Mexican migrants in New Zealand2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a semiotic-interpretive approach to the concept of political acculturation this paper explores the processes of political cultural reconstruction of 60 members of the Mexican community in New Zealand. Based on four years of ethnographic research it argues that the post-migratory reconstruction of the political arena follows common cognitive and emotional lines. These are illustrated in a four-stage process of cultural mediation through which individuals ascribe meaning to symbolic representations of politics experienced in two political settings. The paper depicts political acculturative phenomena as endless processes of negotiation resulting in constantly evolving hybrid frameworks through which migrants understand and respond to the challenges posited by the polities they inhabit.

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  • 19. Schmidt, Garbi
    The Good Citizen and the Good Muslim: The Nexus of Disciplining the Self and Engaging the Public2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on two fieldworks in Chicago this working paper discusses the role that an Islamic organization – the Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN)– plays for the invigoration of the deprived neighborhood Chicago Lawn. The working paper describes and analyses IMAN’s claim to so-called ghetto cosmopolitanism, its building on past race-based struggles in the neighborhood, and also how IMAN challenges ideas of correct religious practice within the American Muslim community. The particular context of the working paper is the festival “Takin’ it to the Streets” which is one of IMANs most prolific activities. Via its focus on popular music, graffiti art and talks the festival can be seen as an example of teaching the public – both about a minority religion but also about the potential resources of a deprived inner-city neighborhood.

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  • 20.
    Tucker, Jason
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    The Indefinite Statelessness of Refugees in Denmark and Sweden: Comparing the Impacts of the Temporary Asylum Laws2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is part of a wider research project which seeks to explore the nexus between statelessness and refugee-ness at global, national and individual level. The relationship between the two legal concepts has not received much attention. This is surprising given that one in ten refugees globally are believed to be stateless. To begin to unpack this relationship, Denmark and Sweden are used as case studies. This article sets out an initial law and policy analysis of the national level frameworks related to identifying statelessness in the Danish and Swedish asylum system, or addressing it following the acceptance of a refugee. This will be discussed in relation to how these contribute to, or address, the situation of indefinite statelessness for stateless refugees. Further to this, the paper seeks to draw out the impacts of the temporary asylum laws in both states with regard to the barriers stateless refugees face in acquiring citizenship. Issues such as cessation of refugee status, the undeportability of some former refugees who are stateless and instances of arbitrary detention are discussed in relation to Denmark and Sweden’s international obligations under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons.

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  • 21.
    Irastorza, Nahikari
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    The Labour-Market Participation of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Sweden: An Overview2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the socio-demographic characteristics, labour-market participation and occupational mobility of highly educated immigrants1 in Sweden. Based on a statistical analysis of register data, we compare their employment rates, salaries and occupational skill level and mobility to those of immigrants with lower education and with natives. Among the questions addressed in this paper are: What is the socio-demographic profile of highly skilled immigrants to Sweden? Where do they come from and how do they enter the country? Are there differences in highly educated immigrants’ employment rates by citizenship status, migration entry route and place of birth? How do the salaries of highly educated men and women compare between immigrants and natives? What is the education-to-job match for them? How do occupational mobility patterns compare for highly educated immigrants versus those with lower education? Finally, are there differences in occupational skill level for highly educated migrants by entry route? Our results show that, while highly skilled immigrants perform better than those with a lower educational level, they never catch up with their native counterparts.

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  • 22.
    Povrzanovic Frykman, Maja
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Bunescu, Ioana
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Mozetic, Katarina
    Work/Non-work Experiences of Highly Skilled Migrants: An Outline of an Emergent Research Field2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper argues for the need of research on work/non-work experiences of highly skilled migrants and thereby outlines a research field at the intersection of work/non-work and migration studies. A critical overview of the selected literature indicates the gaps in knowledge concerning the well-being of highly skilled migrants. The paper suggests that these gaps are to be filled by research that connects the theoretical approaches and empirical investigations on transnational practices and the processes of emplacement in the context of migration. The paper argues for an original perspective on researching the relation between work and non-work domains through its links to transnational and local dimensions of migrants’ well-being. Empirically, it argues for the relevance to conduct research on migrants in two especially relevant professional groups in Sweden, namely, physicians (medical doctors, irrespective of specialisation) and academics (teachers and researchers working in higher education, in other disciplines than medicine).

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  • 23. Krasniqi, Adam
    et al.
    Suter, Brigitte
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Refugee Resettlement to Europe 1950-2014: An Overview of Humanitarian Politics and Practices2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents developments in the field of refugee resettlement from a European perspective. The paper starts out with a historical overview on refugee resettlement in the European continent since World War I and shows that Europe has historically been more of a source of refugee resettlement than a host. The paper then pays attention to the evolution of resettlement at an EU level and sheds light on factors that have contributed to its (re)prioritization in the past 15 years. Indeed, there is an increased manifestation of resettlement on the EU policy agenda, culminating in the adoption of a Joint EU Resettlement Program in 2012. However, as a policy field it has not been part of the binding harmonization process, and while the number of EU resettlement countries doubled in the past decade, the EU lags still far behind other traditional resettlement countries in terms of actual resettlement places. Finally, after shedding light on debates in the European Parliament on the matter of resettlement, the paper presents a number of essential concerns and challenges regarding the future of resettlement programs in the EU. It concludes by pointing at the difficulties of reaching any significant increase in the number of refugees resettled in the EU.

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  • 24.
    Emilsson, Henrik
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Labour migration in a Time of Crisis: Results of the New Demand-Driven Labour Migration System in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the midst of the ongoing financial crisis in 2008, the Swedish government decided to liberalize the labour migration policy from third countries. After several decades of having a restrictive system, the country now has one of the most open labour migration systems in the world. In this paper I review the outcome of the policy and offer some tentative explanations about why we have seen this specific outcome in the Swedish case. The result is an increase of labour migration, but it is to a large part due to immigration to sectors with a surplus of workers. The labour migrants can roughly be divided into three major categories: those moving to skilled jobs, low skilled jobs and seasonal workers in the berry picking industry. The demand driven system has produced a specific labour migration pattern which is better explained by employer’s access to transnational networks than actual demand for labour. Many sectors with a large surplus of native workers have experienced major inflows while employers in other sectors with labour shortages don´t recruit from third countries. The policy outcome also highlights the need to analyse and explain different categories of labour migration separately as they are a result of different driving forces.

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  • 25.
    Hellström, Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Help! The populists are coming, appeals to the people in contemporary Swedish politics2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the concept of banal populism to emphasize the intrinsic ambiguity of the relationship between democracy and populism in representative politics. The article expands on three approaches to populism, based on ideology, style and logic to suggest a framework for the study of articulations of banal populism in the everyday political communication between the people and the mediated elite, devoid of normative presuppositions. Empirically, the article shows how the rhetorical figure of the reality people [Verklighetens folk] has been used differently by three political parties in Sweden; i. e the right-wing populist party New Democracy (NyD), in parliament between 1991 and 1994, the Christian Democratic Party (KD) which is currently in the government and also by the nationalist-populist party the Sweden Democrats (SD), which gained 20 seats in the parliament by 2010. The article concludes that the struggle of who the people are and what they wish for is a permanent companion nested in the everyday communication of the votes.

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  • 26. King, Russell
    et al.
    Vullnetari, Julie
    Interrelationships between gender, care and migration: Albania during and after communism2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the interrelationships between gender, family structures and intra-family care arrangements during two markedly different periods of Albania’s recent history: the communist era dominated by the autocratic statesocialist regime of Enver Hoxha, and the post-communist period dominated by a kind of reactive free-for-all capitalism and high rates of both internal and international migration. Since 1990 Albania has accumulated a ‘stock’ of more than 1.4 million emigrants, mostly living in Greece and Italy. Families have been torn apart by this mass emigration – both husbands from their wives and children, and older generations left behind or ‘orphaned’ by their migrant children. All this contrasts with family, residential and care arrangements during the communist period when not only were families generally living in compact and close proximity, but also a minimum of state welfare was available to support vulnerable and isolated individuals. However, internal migration was part of state economic and social planning, and some families which fell foul of the regime were split up and sent into internal exile. The paper provides a valuable lesson in historicising regimes of gender, family and care across dramatically contrasting social models.

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  • 27. King, Russell
    et al.
    Lulle, Aija
    Mueller, Dorothea
    Vathi, Zana
    Visiting friends and relatives and its links with international migration: a three-way comparison of migrants in the UK2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose in this paper is to explore the various types of interrelationship between two mobility forms – migration on the one hand, and visiting friends and relatives ‘back home’ (and maybe elsewhere) on the other. The link between visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and migration has until recently been overlooked by migration scholars. It was essentially the 1990s ‘transnational turn’ in migration studies which highlighted more explicitly the to-and-fro mobilities that migrants engaged in with their homelands. Fast and cheap air travel has facilitated this intense VFR mobility. Taking a wider view, we argue that VFR travel is not a marginal aspect of migrants’ lives but is in fact constitutive of contemporary migration and diaspora dynamics. The first part of the paper maps out a typology of the multiple linkages between VFR travel and international migration; this is a complex task given the variety both of forms of migration and of types of VFR mobility. From this we aim to reconceptualise VFR travel as an essential element of most migration, and to draw out some of the economic and personal power geometries implicated in diverse forms of VFR travel and capability. We then examine three contrasting case-studies of VFR patterns amongst three different migrant groups in the United Kingdom: young Germans who are back-and-forth ‘free movers’ traversing shallow cultural and economic barriers to enjoy what they perceive as an exciting and cosmopolitan life in London; Kosovan refugees whose return visits were initially constrained by their exile status but whose VFR travels have since taken on a touristic aspect; and Latvian labour migrants in Guernsey whose to-and-fro mobility is partly driven by family ties and partly constrained by economic factors and the residence and housing restrictions on this Channel Island.

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  • 28.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Kiiskinen, Jenny
    When colour matters: racial hate crime and everyday violations in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to give examples of, explore and discuss how people who belong to the group categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience hate crime and everyday harassment. The links of prejudices, stereotypes, colonial notions, everyday racism and violent hate crime is discussed from a Swedish perspective. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, different kinds of racism, cross-border conflicts, the geography of hate and the consequences of hate crime are used to analyse the material. One key conclusion is that racial categorisations are still important for explaining people’s life possibilities and their vulnerability to hate crime, despite the fact that in present-day Sweden the significance of race is often denied. This denial can lead to hate crime and other forms of racial harassment being neglected by the authorities.

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  • 29. wigerfelt, anders
    Mångfald och svenskhet: en paradox inom IKEA2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med artikeln är att med hjälp av internt IKEA-material och intervjuer analysera hur begreppen svenskhet och mångfald representeras och används inom IKEA. Svenskheten är en viktig del av IKEA:s image, en del av marknadsföringen som kan kopplas till expansionen i länder utanför Norden. Det har funnits en motsättning inom IKEA mellan en äldre syn på svenskar som naturliga bärare av organisationskulturen, en form av territoriellt konstruerad svenskhet och en nyare, mer mångfaldsinspirerad, inkluderande syn. Denna friktion mellan svenskhet och mångfald behöver dock inte vara en antagonistisk motsättning. Mångfald har blivit en del av den nyare svenskheten, där en gemensam framtid är viktigare än utseende och födelseort.

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  • 30.
    Osanami Torngren, Sayaka
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Attitudes towards interracial dating and marriages: examination of the role of interracial contacts in Malmö, Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of my ongoing dissertation project on attitudes towards interracial marriages. The findings are based on an anonymous postal survey conducted in Malmö, and the analysis focuses on 461 white European respondents who have answered the questionnaire. The result shows that the majority of the respondents can imagine dating or marrying interracially, however there are clear preferences of different groups. This paper also exhibits that respondents who have reported interracial friendships, and not general or superficial contacts, are more apt to answering to the question of interracial dating and marriage positively.

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  • 31. Broomé, Per
    et al.
    Carlson, Benny
    Holmberg, Ingvar
    Schewe, Charles
    Do defining moments leave their mark for life?: the case of Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the theory of “defining moments” dramatic events such as the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001 make a deep impression especially on the minds of young people and eventually lead to the formation of cohorts bound by common values. Knowledge of such cohorts can be used for many purposes, such as marketing, staff management or political campaigns. This paper analyses the impact of dramatic events on people in different age groups in Sweden through a survey answered by nearly a thousand people – of which 40 percent are foreign-born – from the city of Malmö.

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  • 32. Kaya, Ayhan
    From welfarism to prudentialism: euro-turks and the power of the weak2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to shed light upon the dynamics of community construction by migrants of Turkish origin, or what I call Euro-Turks, and their descendants residing in European countries such as Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.1 A retrospective analysis of the dynamics of community construction among the Euro-Turks reveals that they have always been engaged in producing and reproducing communities deriving from various needs. The construction of communities is sometimes a response to social-economic deprivation, sometimes to the form of affiliation with the homeland, and sometimes to the transition of the welfare state into post-social prudentialist state. This paper claims that Euro-Turks have become more occupied with the construction and articulation of ethno-cultural and religious communities in the last two decades due to the ascendancy of culturalist and civilizationist discourse along with neo-liberal forms of governmentality (Foucault, 1979) essentializing ethnic, cultural and religious boundaries, and generating an Islamophobic, migrantphobic and xenophobic climate in the west. As Wendy Brown (2010: 33) rightly stated the civilizationist discourse brought two disparate images together in order to produce a single figure of danger justifying exclusion and closure: “the hungry masses” and “cultural-religious aggression toward Western values.” The growing stream of citizenship tests, attitude tests, zero-tolerance policy towards unqualified migrants, and negative public opinion vis-a-vis migrants, in general, results in that the European countries are recently inclined to be more assimilationist vis-a-vis Muslim origin migrant populations, who are perceived to be hostile toward Western values. Social, political and economic changes at global level have brought about the revitalization of an Islamophobic discourse in a way that leads to the redefinition of community boundaries through nationalist and religious lines. “I fear that we are approaching a situation resembling the tragic fate of Christianity in northern Africa in Islam’s early days”, these are the words of a German Lutheran Bishop uttered in 2006 (Carle, 2006). Migrants of Muslim origin are increasingly represented by the advocates of the ‘clash of civilizations’ thesis as members of a “precarious transnational society” in which people only want to ‘stone women’, ‘cut throats’, ‘be suicide bombers’, ‘beat their wives’ and ‘commit honour crimes’. These prejudiced perceptions about Islam and Muslim migrants have been reinforced by the impact of previous events ranging from the Iranian Revolution to the Cartoon Crisis in Denmark in 2006, or from the Arab – Israel war in 1973 to the notorious book by German economist Thilo Sarrazin (2010), who was likely to explain the integration problems of migrants of Muslim origin through genetic factors. This working paper argues that Muslim origin migrants in general, and Euro-Turks in particular, tactically become more engaged in constructing communities to protect themselves against the evils of the contemporary world as well as to pursue an alternative form of politics for the purpose of raising their claims in public. It will also be claimed that what distinguishes the ways in which communities are being reproduced by migrant-origin individuals since the early 1990s is that the reconfiguration of welfare policies by the neo-liberal states is no longer directed towards ‘society’, but towards ‘communities’. In other words, while migrants used to construct their own communities to protect themselves against the detrimental effects of the outside world such as 5 capitalism, racism, exclusion, poverty and xenophobia, the construction of those communities is now being encouraged by the neo-liberal states within the framework of a prudentialist form of governmentality. Hence, the work will discuss the main parameters of the politics of honour and search for purity posed by various Muslim origin migrants and their descendants to tackle with the structural constraints of exclusion, poverty and Islamophobia. However, it will also be argued there are Euro-Turks with appropriate education and qualification, who attempt to abandon their communities in order to mobilize themselves upward.

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  • 33. Kaya, Ayhan
    Islamophobia as a form of governmentality: Unbearable weightiness of the politics of fear2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the contemporary literature on Islamophobia in Europe, through the lens of immigration issues, socio-economic status and civic participation of Muslim origin migrants and their descendants as well as international constraints. In addition to critically reviewing the current state of knowledge and debate about Islamophobia through the literature, the paper seeks to address the most recent data, survey findings and public discourses available about the current state of Islamophobia in Europe. In the process, some references will also be made to the current rise of Islamophobia in the United States and its differences with the European context. Describing Islamophobia as a form of governmentality in Foucaultian sense, I shall argue that it operates as a form of cultural racism in Europe, which has become apparent together with the process of securitizing and stigmatizing migration and migrants in the age of neo-liberalism. Furthermore, I shall also claim that the growing Islamophobic form of governmentality has produced unintended consequences on both minorities and majorities in a way that has so far led to the political and social instrumentalization of Islam by Muslim origin minorities, and to the deployment of an antimulticulturalist discourse by the majority societies in the west.

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  • 34.
    Nilsson, Magnus
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    From "Industrial" to "Colorful"2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I analyze the representation of the Swedish city Malmö, on the local authority's website. The most important theme in this representation is that Malmö, because of economic re-structuring and immigration has become a post-industrial city characterized by a high degree of cultural/ethnic diversity. My analysis aims at mapping how this representation is conditioned by partly contradictory ideological pressures emanating from global, national, and local economic and symbolic processes. Specific attention is given to the representation of time, and to the history-narrative underpinning the idea about Malmö's tranformation into a post-industrial and multicultural city.

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  • 35. Wigerfelt, Anders
    Migration and working life in transformation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on Hungarian refugees who came to Sweden in 1956-57 and their entry into working life and continued careers. They are then compared with Iranians who mainly fled to Sweden during the 1980s and with Bosnians who arrived in Sweden in 1993-94. How ideas about categories of migrants are expressed and change over time is discussed against the background of transformations in working life, economy and society; a kind of socially historic perspective in which the interplay between structures, actors and events are seen from a procedural perspective.

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  • 36. Borevi, Karin
    et al.
    Myrberg, Gunnar
    Välfärdsstaten och de nyanlända: En flyktingplaceringspolitisk probleminventering2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to make an inventory overview of challenges and problems in the area of refugee settlement policies. An analysis is made of the political development, from the mid 1980s and onwards, of this hotly debated issue in Swedish politics. Then we identify a number of principal themes and problems which arise in relation to questions of dispersal programmes and refugee reception. The paper is based on an ongoing research project at Uppsala University, where refugee settlement policies are studied from a comparative Scandinavian perspective, focusing both on the national level and on the local level.

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  • 37. Cadge, Wendy
    et al.
    Curran, Sara
    Hejtmanek, Jessica
    Jaworsky, B. Nadya
    Levitt, Peggy
    The City as Context: Culture and Scale in New Immigrant Destinations2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we bring questions of space, locality, and culture squarely into discussions of immigrant incorporation. The growing body of work on new immigrant destinations and contexts of reception often fails to consider how particular locales are embedded in larger geopolitical fields in ways that make them more or less receptive. Moreover, it privileges the economic characteristics of localities without paying sufficient attention to variations in cultural resources. In this study of two small, post-industrial cities, we argue that important variations in how they create and deploy their ‘cultural armature’, including differences in urban self-presentation, the prevailing ethos toward immigrants, and how culture has been harnessed in service of urban renewal, history, and the political economy, explain much of the variation in our two contexts of reception. Both cities speak the language of multiculturalism and tolerance, but Portland, ME offers newcomers welcoming spaces while those arriving in Danbury, CT encounter a hotbed of ‘anti-immigrant’ discourse and activity.

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  • 38. Glick Schiller, Nina
    Beyond Methodological Ethnicity: Local and Transnational Pathways of Immigrant Incorporation2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper critiques migration scholars’ reliance on the ethnic group as a unit of analysis. It argues for the importance of approaching migration studies by examining non-ethnic forms of incorporation and transnational connection. Localities of departure and settlement, especially, as place has been theorized by scholars of neoliberal urban restructuring, proves to be an important entry point for an alternative approach to migration studies. To illustrate this non-ethnic approach to migrant settlement I draw on my exploratory ethnographic research of fundamentalist Christianity as an avenue of migrant local and transnational incorporation. The research was conducted in two small-scale cities, Manchester, New Hampshire, USA and Halle/Saale, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany.

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  • 39. Ingleby, David
    New Perspectives on Migration, Ethnicity and Schizophrenia2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After a quarter century in which biomedical approaches have dominated discussions about schizophrenia and the influence of environmental factors has been neglected, interest in social determinants is reviving. Research in the Netherlands and other countries has demonstrated that the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia among certain migrant groups is strikingly higher than the norm and that social factors play a major role in this. In the UK, however, many members of minority ethnic groups regard the increased frequencies of these diagnoses and of compulsory admission as evidence of racism. This paper examines this new wave of research studies. The hypothesis of ethnic bias in diagnoses of schizophrenia and compulsory admission orders has never been satisfactorily ruled out. In spite of this, there are many indications that the raised incidence of schizophrenia among certain groups of migrants is genuine. Various explanations of this phenomenon are discussed; quantitative and qualitative research methods can usefully complement each other in this area. In conclusion, ways of improving the care of psychotic patients and reducing the frequency of compulsory admissions are examined.

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  • 40. Mudde, Cas
    The Populist Radical Right: A Pathological Normalcy2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years more and more studies have pointed to the limitations of demand-side explanations of the electoral success of populist radical right parties. They argue that supply-side factors need to be included as well. While previous authors have made these claims on the basis of purely empirical arguments, this paper provides a (meta)theoretical argumentation for the importance of supply-side explanations. It takes issue with the dominant view on the populist radical right, which considers it to be alien to mainstream values in contemporary western democracies, expressed most explicitly in the “normal pathology thesis”. Instead, it argues that the populist radical right should be seen as a radical interpretation of mainstream values, or, to stay in Scheuch and Klingemann’s terminology, as a pathological normalcy. This argument is substantiated on the basis of an empirical analysis of party ideologies and mass attitudes. The proposed paradigmatic shift has profound consequences for the way the populist radical right and western democracy relate, as well as on how the populist radical right is best studied. Most importantly, it makes demand for populist radical right politics an assumption rather than a puzzle, and turns the prime focus of research on the political struggle over issue saliency and positions, and on the role of populist radical right parties within these struggles.

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  • 41.
    Morawska, Eva
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    International Migration: Its Various Mechanisms and Different Theories that Try to Explain It2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper consists of two parts. The first reviews an appraisal of the contemporary theories of international migration. Among older theories, the push-and-pull model, the segmented labour market theory, world-system theory, and the political economy model are examined as macro-level explanatory approaches, and, at the micro-level, the neoclassical economic (otherwise known as rational choice) theory, human capital theory, new economics of migration, migration network or social capital theory, and the cumulative causation model are examined. The second part presents an encompassing theoretical approach, migration as structuration process, and identifies its advantages over other models. This approach is then comparatively applied to eight immigrant groups chosen as case studies.

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