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  • 51.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Anderberg, Elsie
    Sustainable development through global learning and teaching2012In: Handbook of sustainability managment; / [ed] Christian N. Madu, Chu-Hua Kuei, World Scientific Publishing , 2012, p. 379-401Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Towards sustainability the implementation of Global Learning for Sustainable Development (GLSD) is crucial. A better understanding of how to – from a global didactic angle – establish globally genuine dialogues forming nuanced conceptions of sustainable development (SD) is necessary. Global teaching as well as global learning has to identify the challenges in various contexts for transdisciplinary knowledge formation. Aiming to reach established and new target groups; higher education and secondary school as well as informal learning situations demands a holistic understanding. Highlighted from a perspective of preventive management strategies for SD, understanding collaboratively could serve as a tool to reach a deeper knowledge formation process through global learning i.e. GLSD. Notwithstanding, the global perspective has to be integrated in curriculum to achieve a competence-driven global curriculum. Thereby, capabilities through constructive interaction for various (intercultural) qualities of global learning and knowledge formation for sustainable development will be a central part of the outcome.

  • 52.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Andersson, Lena
    Muleya, Gistered
    Teacher Education towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) recognising the missing link between academic citizenship and community missions2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University mandates throughout the world have statements that relate to community based engagement. Within the framework of STEP (Sanord Teacher Education Partners) we would like to map and discuss the state of the art concerning ”Teacher Education towards the Sustainable Development Goals recognising the missing link between academic citizenship and community missions”. The purpose is to identify recent opportunities for collaborations between higher education and community work and to strengthen the network within STEP. Focus questions: - The mandate of Higher Education in a global/local context. - The core of academic citizenship vs the UN SDG 4, gender and migration. - Is teacher education at university level loosing it´s third leg (outreach)? - Why involve the academics and students in community based initiative? - How do they relate to teaching/learning/reseach? This workshop strongly emphases SDG4: ”By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries”. The need for academic development seems to be one of the missing links between higher education and the developments in schools in areas that will ensure learners´ knowledge and skills through education for sustainable development, human rights, gender equality, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity.

  • 53.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Africa and beyond: Supporting collaborative networks for transnational refugee higher education2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugees and forcibly displaced populations have needs and aspirations in higher education just as other groups, but often experience conditions that severely limit access. Refugee HE can also involve additional challenges (eg. language of instruction, validation of previous qualifications, developing relevant content, funding or issuing diplomas to work in regulated professions in different countries). Current refugee HE provisions are fragmented, such as scholarships or programmes in refugee camps, limited to educating professionals needed in the camp itself. In emergency situations, HE may be viewed as less urgent than humanitarian needs (Dryden-Peterson, 2016). But although we cannot foresee who will be the next victims, we do know that situations of forced migration are likely to increase dramatically. Not addressing the specific constraints and challenges of refugee HE, is tantamount to permanently disqualifying entire populations, thereby creating an easily exploitable underclass. It means placing entire countries and regions in a state of underdevelopment and dependency (Avery & Said, 2017). In the long term, it leads to large-scale social, economic and geopolitical imbalances, potentially sowing the seeds for future successions of conflicts. Impacts of this neglect are thus serious, both for countries of origin of the refugee flows, and for the host countries.

  • 54.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Beyond incrementalism: Knowledge formation for transformative change in ESE2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: In this conceptual paper, we wish to argue that the commitment to transitions for sustainability has implications regarding the way knowledge is seen. Sustainability fundamentally implies a recognition of the interconnectedness of phenomena across sectors, disciplines and geographical locations (Avery & Nordén, 2017), as well as responsible decision-making linked to democracy and power distribution (Fine et al., 2012). All of these points have relevance to the connections between policy and research. The metaphor for truth in academia has long been one of disembodied contemplation of an absolute state of existence. By contrast, ’knowing-for-sustainable action’ is based on how the human and the societal relates to our modes of producing knowledge and competence, both with respect to what we need to know something about, and what we can do about it. This not only concerns questions of ontology and epistemology for individual studies, but also refers to how we collectively organise academic institutions (Aikens et al., 2016; Lysgaard et al., 2016; Payne, 2016; Avery & Nordén, 2017) and as societies, to develop the know-how needed for planetary survival (Lotz-Sisitka et al., 2017). By defining economic objectives independently of sustainability and letting non-sustainable conceptualisations of economics determine policies of research and education, we have condemned sustainability to function as an add-on to business as usual. Even more worryingly, when sustainability agendas do take the forefront in policy discourse, proposed solutions may be those pushed by powerful industrial lobbies (Peck et al., 2012). Another challenge is posed by fragmented aims underlying sustainability education, and supported by similar fragmentation in SDGs, or European climate commitments for instance (cf. COP23 Bonn). Although each goal is certainly important, the combined effect is to foster a belief that transition to sustainability can be achieved through incremental changes and without reconsidering the overall structures or drivers. Understanding is siloed into existing disciplinary framings (Mochizuki & Yarime, 2016). Measurement coupled with accountability has in many cases had impacts on administrative routines and structures. One the one side measurement has valuable functions in documenting a status quo, raising visibility of sustainability dimensions and providing a starting point for discussions across national borders. But on the other side, it has limited potential on its own to drive transformative changes and there is a real risk that it can lock our understanding into uncontroversial expressions of the problems at stake, preventing strategic long-term reflection. In the Symposium: The Opportunities and Limitations of ESD/GCE/ESE Monitoring Approaches - Knowledge Production within and beside Standardization Chair: Mandy Singer-Brodowski (Freie Universität Berlin) Discussant: Jutta Nikel (University of Education Freiburg) In the context of globalized educational policies (Rizvi/ Lingard 2010) and the international Agenda 2030, evaluation and monitoring approaches are gaining increasingly political relevance and public visibility. While there existed differentiated indicator sets for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) during the UN Decade (e.g., UNECE 2005), the current strategies focus on defining one indicator to capture progress (SDG 4.7). Although there are only few studies about the systematic integration of ESD on the level of national policies (Læssøe/ Mochizuki 2015: 28), there is a trend of using indicator-based research projects to measure the state of ESD in specific regions and also push the further integration of ESD (i.e. in sustainability strategies, educational reports). Nevertheless, the monitoring of ESD, GCE (Global Citizenship Education) or ESE (Environmental and Sustainability Education) holds not only opportunities for communicating progressive educational approaches in the light of global challenges, but also the risk to reduce, de-contextualize and oversimplify the research objects. Based on the assumption, that ESE is not only influenced by international policy trends but also by the cultural and socio-political conditions and the landscape of actors in local contexts (Blum et al. 2012, Feinstein et al. 2013), the question arises how suitable standardized and indicator-based evaluation and monitoring approaches are for capturing the multi-facetted practices of ESD. On the one side there is the risk that standardized approaches based on international indicators and strategies are leading to a narrowing of the very specific and context sensitive understandings and practices of ESD, GCE and ESE in local contexts. On the other side, the potentials of these approaches can be seen in measuring, communicating and thereby mainstreaming the approaches through evidence-based policy strategies. Further questions emerge with the dynamics of gaining policy-relevant evidence at the science policy interface, i.e. looking at the level of independence of monitoring reports in ESD (Nazir et al. 2009). During the symposium, the opportunities and limitations of ESD/GCE/ECE monitoring approaches are discussed against the background of general trends in educational and sustainability policies. The overall question is what kind of knowledge is used as a base for monitoring approaches in the context of ECE/ ESD and GCE and how this knowledge is adapted (or not) by policy-makers. Three presentations will focus on this question from different perspectives and different countries (Chile, Germany and Sweden). The first presentation highlights tensions between local knowledge about environmental related education and the National ESD policy strategy of Chile. A main result of the presented research project is that Chilean teachers are using contextualized approaches stemming from traditional concepts of environmental related education but are measured by a standardized environmental management approach in their schools. The second presentation focusses on the results of the ESD monitoring in Germany that are communicated and used at the science policy interface. It reflects how the policy relevant knowledge is used i,.n various ways and which kinds of chances and risks can be seen in it (e.g., by reducing complexity). The third presentation focusses on the changing conceptions of policy relevant knowledge (production) in the background of the global trend of economization of educational policies. This trend seems to support a fragmented and isolated mode of standardization for incremental change in sustainability and educational policies rather than the fundamental transformation that is needed regarding global sustainability problems. The symposium wants to combine different perspectives on how policy-relevant and standardized knowledge about ESD/GCE/ECE monitoring is produced, communicated, critized and sometimes even rejected. Thus, it wants to open up discussions about a critical and reflected engagement of researchers at the science policy interface (Læssøe et al. 2013).

  • 55.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Future-oriented Methodology: Distinctive horizons for and contributions to new materialist and post-qualitative research methodologies in and from ESE2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction local-global has been widely discussed in geography and human geography as time-spaced compression, in relation to the conceptual and material changes brought about by virtual realities, and the ability to communicate, act and interact across geographically separated locations. Further dimensions of this discussion have been opened by research on social space, socially constructed space, and at other levels by the challenges of mobility, mass migration, and transnationality. Although these conversations may seem diverse in many ways, they build on an assumption that local-global could mean something as such, in other words a decontextualised and a-historic reification of the concepts. Another shared characteristic is their geneaology which continually derives new layers of meaning, but implicitly or explicitly drawing on origins of conceptualising the local-global as a matter of geographical location. Consequences of such traces can be for instance maintaining the deictic binary of ”here” and ”there”, which in turn feeds into other binaries of in-groups and out-groups, or co-citizens as opposed to the others - the foreigners who need to be understood, empathised with, learned about, collaborated with or not discriminated against. In this conceptual paper, drawing on some of the discussions in ’new materialisms’, we wish to contest some of the assumptions underlying much of the conversation on the local-global binary, and in particular the forms it takes in ESE teaching. We wish to argue that using the distinction local-global can only have a meaning in relation to particular contexts or purposes, and that greater attention needs to be devoted to what implications various conceptualisations have for action-in-the-world. In other words, what affordances do they offer of responsibility, agency or knowledge. In education for sustainability, one of the basic axioms has long been ’act local, think global’. From the angle adopted in this paper, making the distinction local-global means something quite different if we are talking about ESE, if we are talking about climate negotiations in Bonn, or if we are thinking of consequences of globalisation (see Tomas Hylland Erikson, Overheating: An Anthropology of Accelerated Change). Thus in ESE the narrative is frequently that awareness needs to be raised, so that citizens can exert pressure on governments in democratic ways, or buy the right products, or change their lifestyles. Other narratives are gaining knowledge to make informed and wise decisions, or distinguishing between credible information and misinformation. Finally, notions of global citizenship build on international exchanges and gaining understanding of global challenges – that is, the disturbing issues which take place ”out there, in the (rest of the) world. This can also be framed as a difference of scale – individual action locally, which can be ”scaled up” to have an impact globally. Such narratives assume that ”economy” functions according to market mechanisms of supply and demand, or that governance takes place in the fora of national governments. What is omitted in such narratives is that the dominating dynamics follow quite different economic mechanisms, where for instance the strength of currencies, legislation on intellectual property, public procurement or trade agreements play a much more determining role. The other major issue is which technologies are developed, and for which purposes. The basic binary is thus not the difference in location understood in the local (here, this nation) versus global (there, the planet) arenas. Rather, the fundamental difference is between the vast majority of the inhabitants of the planet, and the limited group of people who have access to decisions concerning the conditions for trade, or who can decide on which technologies they believe will give them greater control over resources and future developments. In this sense, the local-global distinction, and the narratives attached to it, can be understood as what Barad terms agential cut (Hollin et al. 2017). Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used This is a conceptual paper, which will draw on some of the conversations being held in the field of 'new materialisms', relevant to the endeavour of supporting transitions to sustainability. The arguments will be illustrated with examples taken from a course on Global challenges taught to future teachers (upper secondary school, n=125) highlighting the complex interaction of the three perspectives of Citizenship, Interculturality and Sustainable Development from a didactic point of view. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings If ESE aims at transformative change, a conclusion would be that students need knowledge and competences that enable global citizenship in the sense of acting on these closed arenas. This would include a deeper understanding of the economic mechanisms that drive world trade and globalisation. It would also include tools that enable them to estimate consequences of different technological developments. Ultimately, this places the acquisition of a different set of methodologies at the center of ESE. Future teachers are taught in HE courses according to a narrative where a global perspective focuses on people as citizens and in their consumer roles. They are subjectified as actors in society and change agents taking on the global challenges. At the same time, it appears in supervision situations that the students do not have conceptual instruments to evaluate or measure "global challenges on the go". Nor do they have the tools to understand and influence decision-making locally or globally. In this paper, it is argued that sustainability education aims at action-in-the-world, and this in turn depends on unravelling constructions of responsibility, agency and knowledge. From the perspective of agency, "global" could refer to decision-making arenas with global impacts, while local would be understood as arenas that may have such impacts, but where decisions cannot be made. If we adopt the dimension of responsibility instead, or that of knowledge formation, different arenas would be designated as global or local. For various purposes, different dimensions would be significant to include as criteria for distinctions.

  • 56.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Lund University; Linnaeus University.
    Global Learning for Sustainable Development: A Historical Review2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 3451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite continued efforts by educators, UN declarations and numerous international agreements, progress is still limited in handling major global challenges such as ecosystem collapse, accelerating climate change, poverty, and inequity. The capacity to collaborate globally on addressing these issues remains weak. This historical review of research on global learning for sustainable development (GLSD) aims to clarify the diverse directions that research on GLSD has taken, to present the historical development of the research area, and highlight emerging research issues. The review summarizes key findings of 53 peer-reviewed publications, published in English in the period 1994–2020 identified with the search terms “global learning” and “sustainable development”, sustainability or GLSD, respectively. The review documented a gradually growing knowledge base, mostly authored by scholars located in the global North. Conclusions point to what we might achieve if we could learn from one another in new ways, moving beyond Northern-centric paradigms. It is also time to re-evaluate core assumptions that underlie education for sustainable development more generally, such as a narrow focus on formal learning institutions. The review provides a benchmark for future reviews of research on GLSD, reveals the emerging transformative structure of this transdisciplinary field, and offers reference points for further research.

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  • 57.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Heading Towards an Unknown Future: Non-Formal Learning Communities for Sustainable Societies – a Possible Pedagogy in Refugee Education?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a wide consensus that radically different pedagogies are needed to deal with the challenges of our times (Reid &Scott, 2013). Barnett (2012) argues that preparing for the unknown should be a central principal in education. Not only do young people need to independently evaluate highly complex situations that will arise, but they also need to be prepared to take appropriate action, solve major social and environmental problems and organise their own learning throughout the life course (Öhman, 2008; Almers, 2009). School cannot provide a set of ready-made recipes, nor can education be limited to narrow national objectives. Increased mobility over the life course involves quickly getting our bearings in new surroundings, and learning to cooperate with people who may not share our culture, our language or our values. The challenge that transnational mobility poses to education is even more salient with respect to refugees and displaced populations. With the latest wave of refugees, this has become one of the most pressing questions on the European agenda (European Parliament, 2016). European Commissioner for Education Tibor Navracsics underlined in his speech of 29 September 2015 that education will play a key role in integrating refugees. A future rise in forced migration is a major concern also globally (British Council, 2016). Refugee education may be interrupted or altogether suspended at several points. Education systems differ across national borders, and validation of prior education is very limited. On each step of the journey, requirements and goals will differ. Language-in-education policies constitute a serious obstacle. Importantly also, refugees have a low status in the host countries, and young people are disempowered. Depriving this generation of access to education and preventing them from realising their dreams will have serious consequences. This paper argues that some of the pedagogies we find in transnational non-formal education networks can help to address these issues, building the competencies and capabilities young people need, more urgently than ever (Nordén & Anderberg, 2012). Such non-formal learning environments also have the potential of complementing formal schooling, which are focused on transmitting an existing body of knowledge, rather than learning to autonomously transform societies and shape the future. This case study analyses the development of learning processes among international network representatives meeting annually within Caretakers of the Environment International, CEI (Global Forum, 2013). What does it take to enable students to see the planet as one interdependent environment? CEI believes this occur through having students meet and work together. By organizing annual international conferences, making available a periodical for – and by – teachers and students, establishing national branches and organizing regional workshops, CEI tries to establish a worldwide network of actively concerned secondary school teachers and students, willing to prioritise challenging issues through their education and their action-taking. The network intends to be a podium for teachers and students to exchange concerns, ideas, strategies, actions and projects in the field of ESD. Teachers and Mentors have an important role in guiding the students in their project. Development of capabilities and competences has been researched in general and on the meta-level (Scheunpflug, 2014; Cotton & Winter, 2010; Rauch & Steiner, 2006). Communities of learning across borders considering projects and learning agendas not limited to national interests, but matching the different circumstances people are facing across the globe. Several characteristics of GLSD could be compared with what Dawe et al (2005) have called sustainability literacy. Nordén, Avery & Anderberg (2012) summarised the characteristics for transition skill competences, stressing that they involved by learners needed critical knowledge capabilities in (1) organising themselves and making decisions independently; (2) developing transnational learning communities and (3) democratic collaborative action. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used: It is common in educational research to focus on learning outcomes that are easily measured. By contrast, many of the learning outcomes relevant in Global Learning for Sustainable Development are highly complex (Scheunpflug, 2011), and do not easily lend themselves to measurement. The capability to work with multi-dimensional and changing sustainability challenges is by definition a moving target. Additionally, self-organisation and democratic deliberation (Biesta, 2004; Roth, 2006) are a question of setting goals independently, and outcomes of such projects are not measurable against standardised goal criteria. Similar arguments can be made concerning the ability to effect social change for sustainbility, which includes changing agendas in education systems. Rather than focusing on learning targets specified in advance, we have therefore found it preferable here to look at the possibilities offered by these non-formal learning environments in terms of learning affordances for developing and practicing competencies and capabilities for sustainable futures. The notion of learning affordances (Caldwell, Bilandzic & Foth, 2012) has mostly been used to discuss the opportunities various digital environments provide for learning. We will use it here to describe different characteristics of the transnational network studied in this case study, in terms of providing advanced learning opportunities for young people with different backgrounds. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings: Findings suggest that the overall challenge in trying to enable this learning of those involved is keeping momentum between network structures and network processes. These informal settings teach awareness about how, not what, to think. The learning continuum advances as youth and their educators attain a sense of community and find their place within the local-global context by engaging in network activities. The results show similarities among examples of activities found in the CEI projects with those suggested by Cotton and Winter (2010), which are; stimulus activities, critical incidents, reflexive accounts, personal development planning, critical reading and writing, debates, group discussions, case studies, role plays and simulations, beside problem based learning. The ability to: think creatively and holistically and to make critical judgements; develop a high level of self-reflection; understand, evaluate and adopt values conducive to sustainability; bridge the gap between theory and practice; in sustainable development, only transformational action counts; participate creatively in inter-disciplinary teams; besides the ability to initiate and manage change. At a global level, there is a growing need to develop competencies and capabilities for transitions towards sustainability. Conflicts and climate change are drastically increasing the number of refugees and displaced people who need proactive preventive strategies, as well as skills that can be used across numerous contexts and in the face of changing circumstances. Increasingly, also young people need to manage their own learning processes in self-directed learning, regardless of where they are physically and where they may move in their lifetimes. As established social structures struggle to address global challenges, people across the planet need to be able to organise themselves and to take initiatives. Against this background, several aspects of the GLSD approaches investigated in this study appear highly relevant. References Anderberg, E., Nordén, B., and Hansson, B. (2009). Global learning for sustainable development in higher education : recent trends and critique. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 10(4), 368–378. Barnett, R. (2012). Learning for an unknown future. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(1), 65-77. European Parliament (2016). “The situation is getting worse.” by Avramopoulos, Dimitris, EU Migration Commissioner. Visited at January 21, 2016 at: http://www.euronews.com/2016/01/21/imf-proposes-prickly-solutions-for-europe-s-refugee-challenges/ British Council (2016-01-21). “Beyond aid: educating Syria's refugees.” By Bubbers, Joel, British Council Director Syria. Visited January 21, 2016, at: https://www.britishcouncil.org/organisation/policy-insight-research/insight/beyond-aid-educating-Syrias-refugees Cotton, D.R.E and Winter, J. (2010) 'It's not just bits of paper and light bulbs': A review of sustainability pedagogies and their potential for use in Higher Education. In Sustainability Education: Perspectives and Practice Across Higher Education.(Editors: Jones, P., Selby, D. and Sterling, S.) Dawe, G., Jucker, R. and Martin, S. (2005) Sustainable development in higher education: current practice and future developments. A report for the Higher Education Academy. Global Forum for Enviromental Education (2013). Caretakers of the Environment International (CEI).A Global Network of Secondary School Teachers and Students Active in Environmental Education. Visited at 2016-01-20: http://www.caretakers4all.org Nordén, B., and Anderberg, E. (2012). Sustainable development through global learning and teaching. In (Eds.) Madu, Christian N. and Kuei, Chu-Hua. World Scientific Publishing.. Nordén, B., Avery, H., and Anderberg, E.(2012). Learning in global settings : developing transitions for meaning-making. Research in Comparative and Iinternational Education (7)4, pp. 514-529, Symposium Journals. Rauch, F. & Steiner, R. (2006): School development through education for sustainable development in Austria, Environmental Education Research, 12(1), pp. 115–127. Reid, A. and Scott, W. (2013). Identifying Needs in Environmental Education Research. In (Eds) Stevenson, R. B., Brody, M., Dillon, J., and Wals, A. E.J.. International Handbook of Research on Environmental Education, pp. 518-528. New York: Routledge. Scheunpflug, A. (2011). Global Education and Cross-Cultural Learning: A Challenge for a Research-based Approach to International Teacher Education. International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, 3(3), pp. 29-44. Scheunpflug, A. (2012). Identity and Ethics in Global Education, Becoming a Global Citizen. In: Jasskelained, L., Kaivola, T., O’Loughlin, E., Wegimont, L., (eds.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Competencies of Global Citizens, Amsterdam, GENE, pp. 31-39. Öhman, Johan (2008): Environmental ethics and democratic responsibility – a pluralistic approach to ESD. In Öhman J. (Ed.) Values and Democracy in Education for Sustainable Development–Contributions from Swedish Research,pp. 17–32. Stockholm: Liber.

  • 58.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Hållbarhetsdilemman och platsbaserat arbete i förskolelärarutbildningen.2016In: NU;2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förskolelärares kompetens är strategisk för hållbarhetsarbete i förskolan. En kursuppgift om intressekonflikter kring hållbarhet för studenter på förskolelärarprogrammet presenteras här. Uppgiften tar sin utgångspunkt i en plats i närområdet. Studenter får därigenom både problematisera och använda sin erfarenhet och kännedom om den lokala platsen i utformandet av relevanta pedagogiska aktiviteter. Utvidgat abstrakt: Hållbar utveckling i högre utbildning är ett brett fält som inbegriper såväl formuleringar i övergripande måldokument som konkreta handlingsplaner på institutionsnivå, gällande allt från miljöanpassning av universitetet som fysisk verksamhet, till frågan om hållbarhetsperspektiv i utbildningarnas eller forskningens innehåll (ue4sd outcomes). Bland de utbildningar som ges har lärarutbildningarna (Rauch & Steiner 2013; UNESCO 2005; Wals 2014) ett särskilt intresse avseende att utveckla kompetenser för samhällets övergång till hållbarhet. Skolan når de flesta medborgare och bildar grund för ungas fortsatta utveckling, men påverkar även deras syn på kunskapsparadigm, värderingar och expertis. Medan utbildning och yrkesutövning efter grundskolan delas upp i olika specialiseringar, kan elever i skola och förskola bilda grund för en integrerad transdisciplinär syn på samhället och den värld vi lever i. Avseende förskola och yngre barns introduktion till hållbarhetsfrågor har det argumenterats att de tidiga åren har stor betydelse för barnets syn på sig själv och på sin plats i världen. De tidiga åren är också viktiga för barnets relation till andra livsformer (Askerlund, Almers, Hyltse-Eckert & Avery, 2014). Samtidigt är det inte helt oproblematiskt att introducera högkomplexa hållbarhetsfrågor i förskolan, eftersom denna syftar att stärka barnets utveckling och socialisering genom lek-baserad pedagogik (Thulin, 2011; Edwards & Cutter-MacKenzie, 2013). Ytterligare problem är att naturvetenskaplig kunskap förmedlas genom lärare som inte själva har en stark utbildning inom naturvetenskaper (Nilsson, 2012). En möjlig ansats för att undvika några av dessa risker är att arbeta praktiskt med lokala frågeställningar, och därigenom koppla reflektioner till lärarstudenternas erfarenheter. Relaterade till plats har identifierats som väsentlig i engagemang för hållbarhet (Beery & Wolf-Watz, 2014), samtidigt som det är viktigt att knyta till förståelse av globala samband (McInerney, Smyth & Down, 2011). Avgörande för utsträckningen i vilken lärarutbildningar skapar utrymme för lärarstudenter att utveckla kompetens i utbildning mot hållbarhet är även: kopplingar till forskningsmiljöer som fokuserar hållbarhetsfrågor; möjligheter att arbeta på tvärs över samhälls- och naturvetenskaper; handlingsorienterad kunskap (Avery & Nordén, 2015). Som exempel presenteras här en uppgift som gavs till studenter på förskolelärarprogrammet inom kursen Naturvetenskap och teknik i förskolan. Uppgiften handlade om hållbar utveckling och intressekonflikter (Öhman & Öhman, 2012). Studenterna skulle utifrån en plats i närområdet med hjälp av omgivningen gestalta och problematisera en intressekonflikt kring hållbarhet. Uppgiften syftade att utmana studenternas och andras tänkande kring hållbarhetsperspektiv, eftersom värderingar av vad som ses som hållbart kan bero på vilket perspektiv som antas, och för vem det skall vara hållbart. Studenterna skulle också fråga sig vilka prioriteringar och bortprioriteringar vi kan bli tvungna att göra för att fatta beslut som på sikt kan ge ett mer hållbart sätt att leva för människa och miljö. Diskussion och problematisering var i fokus i uppgiften. Genom att studenterna kunde välja vilken intressekonflikt de ville arbeta med, hade de möjlighet att relatera till frågeställningar som de själva hade kunskap om. Övningen var placerad i en utomhusmiljö, vilket gjorde att syftningar och de naturvetenskapliga implikationerna blev konkreta och mer entydiga än om de hade enbart representerats verbalt. Flera element i uppgiftsupplägget skulle kunna användas för andra kurser för hållbarhet.

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  • 59.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Nyanlända studenters behov av utbildning: möjligheter och hinder2016In: Nordisk forskningskonferens om miljö- och hållbarhetsutbildning 27 – 28 oktober 2016 Abstracts, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fram till nu har högre utbildning för nyanlända främst betraktats utifrån möjligheter att komplettera tidigare utbildningar och snabbt få invandrade akademiker i arbete i Sverige. Men frågorna om hur man kan få in nyanlända i högre utbildning är även centrala utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. För att möta globala utmaningar kommer det att behövas kraftfulla dialogutrymmen mellan den globala norden och södern. Ur detta perspektiv blir de nyanlända oerhört värdefulla som framtida brobyggare i det globala arbetet för övergångar mot hållbarhet. En rad initiativ har påbörjats i Europa för att undersöka vilka åtgärder som behövs för att bättre möta utbildningsbehovet på högskolenivå bland nytillkomna flyktingar. Förslag omfattar bland annat särskilda stipendier, ändringar i formuleringen av inträdeskrav, eller upprättandet av ett kursutbud på engelska. I Sverige avser flera initiativ att påskynda inträdet i arbetslivet för de nyanlända. Validering i högre utbildning är en fråga som kräver särskild uppmärksamhet, liksom frågan om hur kvalificerade flyktingar kan få sin yrkeskompetens erkänd och anpassad till svenska krav. Bedömning av meriter och erkännandet av tidigare studier är också en nyckelfråga för antagning av studenter baserat på diplom erhållna i deras ursprungsland. Projektet Nyanlända studenter undersöker förutsättningarna vid Malmö Högskola både avseende antagningen och avseende möjligheterna att erbjuda skräddarsydda kurser, anpassade till behoven hos flyktingar i regionen. Såväl pedagogiska som administrativa konsekvenser av tänkbara åtgärder och insatser kommer att undersökas.

  • 60.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Lund University; Linnaeus University.
    Redesign of an Outdoor Space in a Swedish Preschool: Opportunities and Constraints for Sustainability Education2020In: International Journal of Early Childhood, ISSN 0020-7187, E-ISSN 1878-4658, Vol. 52, p. 319-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Children’s early engagement in design of outdoor spaces can form the basis of laterattitudes and responsible action for sustainability. The present study is part of a participatoryaction research project in an urban multi-ethnic preschool in Sweden,involving children, parents, preschool staff and management with a focus on improvingthe preschool playground. The methodology involved children taking pictures ofthe outdoor space, informal participant observation by one researcher and conversationswith children and teachers. Analyses completed of selected fieldwork excerptsfocus on learning opportunities for children and adults, children’s participation,cooperation and leadership for sustainability. Deeper awareness and confidence, andpractical pedagogies for staff in preschools are required for effective sustainabilityeducation. A joint frame of reference on pedagogical practices and processes forreflection is needed within and across early childhood institutions. More continuoustraining of staff and preschool leadership would be of benefit. However, such commitmentis ultimately a matter of policy to invest in giving preschools the means todevelop and realise ambitions for environmental and sustainability education. Résumé: L’engagement précoce des enfants dans la conception des espaces extérieurs peutconstituer une base d’attitudes ultérieures et d’action responsable en faveur de ladurabilité. La présente étude fait partie d’un projet de recherche-action participa-* Birgitta Nordénbirgitta.norden@mau.se1 Department of Science, Mathematics and Society, Faculty of Education and Society, MalmöUniversity, Nordenskiöldsgatan 10, 211 19 Malmö, Sweden2 Centre for Middle Eastern Studies and Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, LundUniversity, Lund, Sweden3 Department of Languages, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Linnaeus University, Kalmar,SwedenB. Nordén, H. Avery1 3tive (RAP) dans un établissement préscolaire multiethnique urbain en Suède, oùles enfants, les parents, le personnel et la direction sont impliqués dans un objectifd’amélioration du terrain de jeux de leur maternelle. La méthodologie utilisée faitappel à des prises de photos de l’espace extérieur par les enfants, une observationinformelle des participants par une personne de la recherche et une discussion avecles enfants et les enseignants. Les analyses réalisées sur des extraits sélectionnés detravaux de terrain sont centrées sur: les occasions d’apprentissage pour les enfants etles adultes, la participation des enfants, et la coopération et le leadership des adultesenvers la durabilité à l’intérieur des institutions et entre celles-ci. Une éducation efficaceà la durabilité exige une sensibilisation et une confiance plus profondes, ainsique des pratiques pédagogiques chez le personnel des établissements préscolaires.Un cadre de référence commun sur les pratiques pédagogiques et les processus deréflexion est nécessaire à l’intérieur et entre les établissements de la petite enfance.Il serait bénéfique d’assurer davantage de formation professionnelle continue chez lepersonnel, y compris pour la direction d’établissements préscolaires. Toutefois, detels engagements relèvent en fin de compte des politiques d’investissement pour donneraux établissements préscolaires les moyens d’établir et de réaliser leurs ambitionsen matière d’éducation à l’environnement et au développement durable.

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  • 61.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    South/North Perspectives on Global Learning for Sustainable Development2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 11/11Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This call for a Special Issue aims to present perspectives from all continents on what Global Learning for Sustainable Development can be today, and what it could mean for the future of our planet. When the term was originally coined ten years ago, the intention was to underline that cooperation and intelligent action is needed on a global scale, to resolve the serious environmental threats our modes of production have resulted in. Global action is also necessary to address famine, war, forced displacement or population explosion. Unfortunately, despite several international conferences and significant agreements, we can see that sustainable development is still interpreted as continuing on a path of unrestrained economic expansion. Education for sustainability in schools or universities is still very far from transforming societies or enabling transitions to sustainability. The question is therefore what can global learning mean, if our aim is not only to achieve incremental improvements, but to reverse current trends before we cross even more tipping points? How can we define truly sustainable development, while seriously considering both economic and technological implications? How can we as societies organize our learning for transitions to sustainability, within and outside existing formal education systems?

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  • 62.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Sustainability dilemmas in preschool teacher training: Engaging students' experience in the local place2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has since 2012 been working on setting out the priorities for early childhood education and care, seen as an important condition for improving learning at school, reducing social inequity and supporting social inclusion. Provision of high quality preschool education and care is in turn linked to adequately trained staff, and the Council of the European Union has decided on ”supporting the professionalisation of ECEC staff, with an emphasis on the development of their competences, qualifications and working conditions” (European Council, 2011). Forms of preschool education differ widely across European countries today (European Commission, 2015), and the training of preschool teachers is also very diverse (Eurofound, 2015). In Sweden, preschool education is part of the general education system, with a national curriculum (Lpfö98). Swedish teacher training of preschool teachers is regulated, and is - just as teacher training for compulsory school - provided at universities and university colleges. The competence of preschool teachers is strategic for sustainability work in preschool settings. This study analyses the learning affordances of a task about conflicts of interest in sustainability issues. This task was given to students on a university preschool teacher programme, and aimed to develop their ability to reflect on values and interests in change towards sustainable societies, and to work with these issues in their practice as preschool teachers. The intention with the task was above all to challenge the student teachers’ reflection on dilemmas and conflicts (cf. Öhman & Öhman, 2012) in sustainability work. Teacher education is of particular interest in developing competences required for societal changes towards sustainability (Rauch & Steiner 2013; UNESCO 2005; Wals 2014). School reaches most children and contributes to shaping a foundation for their development as adults. It influences the way they see knowledge paradigms, values and expertise. While later years tend to be structured in separate school subjects, preschool and primary school can shape the basis for a more integrated transdisciplinary understanding of society and the world. The early years are decisive for children’s perception of self and the way they see their place in the world. Experiences in the early years affect the child’s relationship to other life forms (Askerlund & Almers, 2016). Among the aspects which determine to which extent teacher education can provide affordances for student teachers to develop competences in teaching for sustainabiity are: links to sustainabiity research environements; the ability to work across the divide between social and natural sciences; action-oriented knowledge (Avery & Nordén, 2015, 2017). Adequate teacher training in sustainability work for preschool teachers is not unproblematic, however, since preschool aims to strengthen the child’s development and socialisation through play-based pedagogy (Thulin, 2011; Edwards & Cutter-MacKenzie, 2013). It is not clear how preschool teachers can in practice satisfy the curriculum’s ambition to shape a foundation for understanding highly complex sustainability issues in preschool. Deep knowledge about causal relationships is needed if sustainability education is to form the basis for responsible democratic action (Lundholm, 2011). An additional problem is therefore that knowledge in preschool relating to the natural sciences is mediated by teachers who do not themselves have a strong basis in science (Nilsson, 2012). It will here be argued that a possible approach to deal with these challenges is to work on practical questions of local relevance, where preschool teachers can to a greater extent draw on their own experience. Contextualising learning by relating to place has been identified as a significant element to increase engagement for sustainabiity (Beery & Wolf-Watz, 2014). However, place-based education can also be limiting, unless connections are also made to global interrelationships (McInerney, Smyth & Down, 2011; Nordén, 2016). Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The investigated task took its point of departure in a local place, giving students the opportunity to use their experience and knowledge of local conditions to design pedagogical activities for preschool children that would be relevant to sustainability issues. The task relates to Swedish national curriculum aims (Lpfö98) concerning preschool children’s understanding of scientific phenomena and causalities, and also addresses the aim to familiarise chilldren with their surroundings and the locality (Curriculum for the Preschool, 2016). The curriculum notably states that preschool should ”develop their interest and understanding of the different cycles in nature, and how people, nature and society influence each other” and that preschool teachers should ”give children the opportunity of understanding how their own actions can have an effect on the environment”. Data for the study consisted of observations of students preparing , carrying out and discussing their projects for the task. Additionally, the student course evaluationis of the task were analysed, to gain a picture of the student teachers’ own perceptions of the learning affordancesthe task offered and its relevance for their future professional practice. The analysis used as a point of departure conclusions of University Educators for Sustainable Development mapping studies (UE4SD, 2015), and two critical axes (Avery & Nordén, 2015, 2017) with respect to offering spaces for transdisciplinary and integrating reflection for the student teachers on sustainability issues, and linking their theoretical training to practice oriented work. The task the students worked with was firstly considered with respect to the learning affordances (Caldwell, Bilandzic & Foth 2012) it offered, through different elements of its design, and secondly with respect to the students’ own perceptions and reflections on their learning, presented in the course evaluations. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings Student course evaluations pointed to a perceived tension between the advanced content and working with preschool children. The course evaluations also displayed a tension between what students felt was useful scientific knowledge, and the social dimensions in sustainability. It thus appeared that working with dilemmas and place-based pedagogy was a promising approach to teach future preschool teachers ways of working with sustainability issues with young children. However, to achieve greater understanding and engagement, these approaches would require a more solidly established prior understanding among the preschool student teachers of transdisciplinarity (Mochizuki, Y. & Yarime, 2016) as well as of the significance of social dimensions of sustainability. The analysis of student presentations and observations suggests that the fact that students could choose the conflict of interests that they wanted to work with and that it was situated locally did in fact enable them to relate to issues they were familiar with. This meant that they had a deeper understanding of the questions, and they could draw on richer contextualised , emboided and emotionally engaging resources from their own experience to develop activities for the children. The fact that the task was placed in an outdoor environment and related to specific known places made it possible to connect the learning activities to concrete circumstances and lived experiences, thereby also making the scientific causalities and implications clearer than if they had only been represented verbally.

  • 63.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Transitions Towards an Unknown Future: Non-Formal Learning in Transnational Communities for a Sustainable Society2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study makes an inventory of learning opportunities young people were offered in connection with CEI 2016, one of the annual international conferences organized by the NGO named Caretakers of the Environment International (CEI), which year 2016  took place in Aalborg in Denmark. The learning opportunities offered by this transnational learning community are discussed in relation to some essential learning qualities to meet the comprehensive sustainability challenges facing our societies - in particular youth, who can be seen as a target group per se, many times in transition-like situations: (1) learning for uncertain future, 82) dealing with complex cross-border issues, (3) ability to collaborate, (4) take initiative and act in society. These qualities are difficult to achieve in formal school systems that are essentially organized to ensure the transmission of a specific learning content and measurable abilities. The question in this study has been inspired by a previous study in a Swedish school context (Nordén, Avery & Anderberg, 2012, Nordén, 2016), about abilities that allow high school students to get an agency towards local and global sustainability challenges. The critical skills identified were: (1) Organization/self-regulation and independent decision-making skills (2) Development of Transnational Learning Communities (3) Democratic cooperation in action. There is widespread consensus that radical new educational approaches are needed to address the challenges of our time (Breiting & Wickenberg, 2010; Mochizuki & Yarime, 2016; Reid & Scott, 2013). Traditionally, focus has been placed on transmitting an existing knowledge base. The situations we face are changing at a staggering rate, and future developments are characterized by great uncertainty. Barnett (2012) therefore claims that preparation for the unknown should be guiding in education. Young people must not only be able to explore different complex situations, but also be prepared to take initiatives to act, find solutions to major environmental and social problems, and steer up their own learning during their life journey (Almers, 2013; Barrat, Barratt-Hacking, Scott & Talbot, 2006; Öhman, 2008). In this context, one has talked about sustainability literacy (Dawe, Jucker & Martin, 2005). CEI's activities are non-formal (Mocker & Spear, 1982) in the sense that they are organized for the purpose of promoting learning for sustainability and have a well-considered overall structure, but participants can independently define the issues and projects they work with . The transnational learning community could thereby support a challenge-oriented learning (UE4SD, 2015). The results indicate that the processes are supported when young people and their teachers experience a sense of community and having a place in the local-global context. This is done both through intensive work on their own projects prior to the conference, through participation in the physical meetings during the conference and the subsequent network activities in connection with it. In order for society as a whole to take advantage of the potential of non-formal learning, alternative educational approaches need to gain increased recognition and attention. The focus has to be shifted from a narrow performance splash that values isolated results, to reflect more widely on the learning opportunities offered by different forms of education in their entirety.

  • 64.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Lunds universitet.
    Συμμετοχικός ανασχεδιασμός σχολικής αυλής  σε παιδικό σταθμό στη Σουηδία: Ευκαιρίες και περιορισμοί στην προώθηση της  Εκπαίδευσης για την Αειφόρο Ανάπυξη2022In: Participation and Education for Sustainability / Συμμετοχικότητα και Eκπαίδευση για την Aειφόρο Aνάπτυξη: Collective Books / [ed] Konstantia Tamoutseli, Athens: Epikentro Publishers , 2022, p. 251-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Anderberg, Elsie
    Learning in global settings: developing transitions for meaning-making2012In: Research in Comparative and International Education, E-ISSN 1745-4999, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 514-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global teaching and learning for sustainable development reaches from the classroom to the world outside, and is therefore a particularly interesting setting for practicing transitions skills. The article suggests a number of features perceived as crucial in developing young people’s capability to act in a changing world and under circumstances that are difficult to predict. The suggestions are based on an empirical study of the Lund Calling project, which aimed at implementing a web-based international programme for teaching preventive environmental strategies in Swedish secondary schools. The article first touches on some of the conditions in Sweden that particularly impact young people’s transition to adulthood. Related research in sustainability education is also briefly outlined. Knowledge capability theory is used to discuss results from the empirical study of the Lund Calling project, where interviews were conducted with secondary school students, teachers and headmasters. Based on these interviews, features that appear to be particularly relevant as transition skills in global learning for sustainable development include transdisciplinary action, democratic collaborative action, as well as self-directed and independent initiative. The article concludes that young people today cannot, as in earlier periods of history, base their actions entirely on the traditions of the family or community. Instead, they also need to learn to form their own communities, capable of acting on both local and global levels. Education here plays an important role, to develop necessary transition skills that enable young people to be prepared for a rapidly changing and uncertain world.

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  • 66.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Harju, Anne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Åkerblom, Annika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Practices In Development: How Is Meaning, Context And Motivation Created For Learning For Sustainability In The Preschool's Educational Outdoor Activities?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European Commission underlines the import ance of early childhood education for education attainment, and to reduce social inequalities. The Proposal on early childhood education has now been adopted (EC, 2018). But early childhood education also plays a role in achieving Agenda 2030 sustainability goals and honouring European commitments for the environment. Research suggests that early childhood experiences of nature shape emotional relations to the natural environment, supporting agency and environmental awareness (Hammarsten et al, 2018). Outdoor education thus lays a foundation for future engagement and education for sustainability. The present study concerns an outdoor education project at a Swedish urban pre-school for 3-5 year olds that receives a large proportion of newly arrived children, with a focus on a section with about 20 children between three and five years who do not speak any or very little Swedish. It is part of a larger study financed by the Swedish School Research Institute concerning the conditions for learning and teaching in a world characterised by diversity and migration. The researchers support and follow staff, management, parents and children in jointly developing educational environments where different languages, identities, pedagogical relations and organisation work together to support children's learning and development. Outdoor education in this context involves three main dimensions: (1) Children's relation to place and their immediate environment. (2) The curriculum's goals for natural science in preschool. (3) Pedagogical didactic strategies. In Sweden, preschool is an integrated part of the education system, and the preschool curriculum currently stresses a mission of teaching. Policy ambitions in this respect are rising, and from July 2019, the preschool has the task of striving for every child ... "... to develop their ability to distinguish, explore, document, ask questions and discuss natural science ..." The Swedish preschool education curriculum thereby creates challenges for preschool teachers, especially in pre-schools that have not previously focused on nature or science phenomena. The increased demands entail a risk that sustainability will become something that is placed on top of existing activities, and which is difficult to integrate. There are not necessarily relevant given activities or traditional forms of teaching to fall back on, when preschool teachers are to interpret the curriculum's intentions in their practice. Should the children develop a relationship with the place they live in, or should focus rather lie on learning limited abstract elements about different phenomena? Is the subject-specific language important, or the phenomenon itself? Is the child assumed capable of thinking independently, and find his or her own explanations, or is it instead important to teach the difference between facts and imagination? In practice, there is not much room to go into depth about such issues in planning. There is therefore a risk of working with fragmented and decontexualised activities that are easy to implement in practice. The study consequently examines reflection-in-action processes of the preschool staff, in connection with the group of staff, management and children in their collaborative work to improve the preschool playground. Focus lies on the one hand on the preschool teachers’ thoughts on how different changes can offer opportunities for learning, and on the other, on the children’s participation and children's own thoughts in these processes. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The research approach draws on Participatory Action Research ( PAR) focusing learning through action and with reflection in focus. The approach used in the study aims to change practitioners' understanding of their practice and under what conditions they practice. PAR is understood as a practice-changing practice with the aim of developing the practice by creating a critical approach to what one does, how to think and how to relate to the contexts in which it operates (Kemmis 2009). The analysis tool consists of the concept of Practice Architecture (PA), which helps us explore and understand what enables and limits teaching practices and learning opportunities.The starting point for the PA is that people meet in intersubjective spaces that are arranged in specific ways. These spaces mediate the conditions for practitioners: Cultural-discursive arrangements (1); Material-economic arrangements (2); Social policy arrangements (3) (Kemmis 2009; Kemmis et al 2014; Rönnerman, 2017). Changing the PA involves changing the overall framework for what is said, done and how to relate to each other and to what you do - thereby opening new spaces for their teaching, development and learning practice. In the period 2017-2018 the children have taken pictures of their environment and talked about it; conversations with children; a children’s council has been formed. The outdoor group meetings take place regularly, involving children and staff. Conversations took place in groups with staff or with staff together with managers, as well as individual interviews with parents. Pre-school teachers (n = 5) were interviewed, examining their and the children's perspectives on what are important activities in science/environmental and sustainability education. The study also involved informal participant observation and conversations with children. Cooperation between the three sections of the preschool has been initiated through a "child council" (n = 4 children) and teacher´s "outdoor group" (n= 6: staff + researcher), focusing ways to change the preschool’s playground, and create an outdoor environment offering rich opportunities for play and learning. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes o r Findings Initial findings involve spatial perspectives of ch ildren's places: (1) Adults organise spaces for children at preschool.The physical space and design, including vegetation, water and surfaces affect how the space creates - or does not create - opportunities for action and interactions for the children. (2) The children take their place in these spaces, create their own places and invest them their own meanings. Children attribute meaning and emotions in ways that may differ from adult practices and intentions for the same places. Material-economic arrangements: Physical time-space enables and sets limits to how we can do things in the (outdoor) c lassroom, shapes and gives content to the "doing" of practice: (1). Educational Development Limitations: (1.1) fragmentation of the educational content; (1.2) family's living conditions; (1.3) the way activities are organised in time and space; (1.4) the allocation of human resources and staff schedule. (2). Opening up the physical space (changing the action): (2.1) Create spaces for shared reflection between and within the different organisational levels, and between children, educators and researchers. (2.2) The researchers actively participate in the development of the learning space. The role of the preschool teachers and educators is multifaceted and complex: to provide care, security, learning, entry into society, and entail transparency in difficult living conditions. What the staff express is in line with findings from the report by Zetterqvist, Nelson and Hagström (2017) on newly arrived children in Sweden. It appeared that administrative and other factors placed considerable constraints on the staff’s and children’s agency in creating a greener outdoor environment, which would greater opportunities for activities and experience. Nevertheless, the processes encouraged action, reflection and collaboration. Engagement in the process of changing their immediate environment appeared particularly important for the newly arrived children, as a way of making their own place in Sweden.

  • 67.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Harju, Anne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Åkerblom, Annika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Praktiker under utveckling: hur skapas mening, sammanhang och motivation att lära för hållbarhet i förskolans utepedagogiska aktiviteter?2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från juli 2019 har förskolan uppdraget att sträva efter att varje barn..."...utvecklar sin förmåga att urskilja, utforska, dokumentera, ställa frågor om och samtala om naturvetenskap...". Förskoleläroplanen skapar utmaningar för förskollärare, särskilt i förskolor som inte sedan tidigare haft fokus på natur eller naturvetenskapliga fenomen. De ökade kraven medför en risk att naturvetenskap blir något som läggs ovanpå befintlig verksamhet, och som är svårt att integrera. Wanda Sass (2018) betonar istället motivationens betydelse för ”viljan-att-handla". Det finns inte nödvändigtvis relevanta givna aktiviteter eller traditionella former för undervisning att falla tillbaka på, när förskollärare skall tolka läroplanens intentioner i sina praktiker. Skall fokus ligga på att barnen utvecklar en relation till platsen de bor på, eller snarare på att lära sig avgränsade abstrakta moment om skilda fenomen. Är det fackspecifika språket betydelsefullt, eller fenomenet i sig? Kan barnet fundera självständigt, och hitta sina egna förklaringar, eller är det viktiga att förstå skillnad på fakta och fantasi? Det finns inte mycket utrymme att gå på djupet omkring sådana frågor i planeringen. Snarare än att följa didaktiska argument, uppstår därför risken att man arbetar med lösryckta aktiviteter som är lätta att genomföra praktiskt. Presentationen redogör för en studie om ett utepedagogikprojekt på en förskolaför 3-5-åringarsom tar emot en stor andel nyanlända barn. Mellan tre avdelningar har samarbete initierats genom ett "barnråd" (n=4 barn) respektive en "gårdsgrupp"(n=6 personal + forskare) och gårdsmiljöns förändringsmöjligheter fokuseras. Förskollärare (n=5–10) intervjuas varvid deras och barnens perspektiv på vad som är viktiga aktiviteter i natur-/miljö-och hållbarhetsundervisning undersöks genom ett participatoriskt och aktionsforskningsinspirerat arbetssätt. Studien syftar till att ta fram lämplig verktygslåda för att stärka det pedagogiska utvecklingsarbetet i förskolan och utgör ett delmoment i en större studie finansierat av Skolforskningsinstitutet om förutsättningar för lärande och undervisning i en värld som kännetecknas av diversitet och migration.

  • 68.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Harju, Anne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Avery, Helen
    Åkerblom, Annika
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    New in Sweden: Experiences from Preschool Reception and Newly Arrived Families2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden of today and Europe, there is a lively debate about the reception and education of migrating children, young people and adults (Nilsson & Bunar 2015; Nilsson Folke 2015). The educational challenges have often been conceptualized and explained as a problem of difference in culture, ethnicity and language of the migrant children (León-Rosales 2010; Lunneblad 2013; Nilsson & Bunar 2015). Bouakaz, (2009), for instance, shows that in meeting the newly arrived families, it is the differences that are conceptualized as problematic. The position of the child’s mother tongue is a basic factor affecting access to education and school success (Ball 2011). Intercultural school development is a fundamental condition for democratic societies, and a priority in European policy today (Council of Europe 2007, 2015, 2016). The project at hand aims to address the demands of a changing educational landscape and broaden the picture of the situation of children and families with an immigrant background from a civic perspective. The project focuses newly arrived children’s first encounter with the Swedish educational system in the context of preschool. There are few studies on newly arrived children in the Swedish preschool. According to Tallberg Broman et al. (2015) focus on diversity, migration and ethnicity is also limited in relation to preschool. The forms of early childhood education and care vary greatly across Europe (European Commission, 2015). In Sweden, preschool is part of the overall education system. It has its own national curriculum, as well as formal university level training requirements for preschool teachers. Since the 1970s, preschool has played an important part of Swedish integration policy (Lunneblad 2013), and today an intercultural approach is emphasized (Skolverket 2010). In 2011, one in five preschool children had a different first language than Swedish and this number is increasing. Only in 2015, more than 16,000 children between one and six with the right to attend preschool and preschool class arrived in Sweden (Skolverket 2016; Migrationsverket 2016). In this process preschool as an organisational and educational setting has an important role to play. As Persson (2012) has pointed out, in an increasingly segregated society, and in the case of creating intercultural and multilingual education, the preschool can provide solutions and make a difference. This is why the project’s objective is to develop ways of organising spaces in preschool for successful learning and teaching through a participatory approach. The preschool teachers and other actors, as well as the children and their families take part in and collaborate in the research project from their perspectives and in a manner where their experiences and knowledge are seen as assets. The aims of the project in this respect correspond to the principles set forward by the Working group of the European Commission, which stress that quality depends on ”relationships between ECEC providers and children’s families; relationships and interactions between staff and children, and among children; (...) the involvement of parents in the work of the ECEC setting and the day-to-day pedagogic practice of staff within an ECEC context;” (European Commission, 2014, p. 6) ”A professional role is one which is regulated and requires individuals to develop and reflect on their own practice and with parents and children, create a learning environment which is constantly renewed and improved.” (European Commission p. 70) The participatory research design, in which different actors co-operate to organize preschool as a setting and civic instrument will also constitute a knowledge contribution in itself. Besides the participant’s knowledge development, the objective is to strengthen the scientific base and proven experience as support to professional knowledge. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The project is carried out in a preschool in southern Sweden, where one of the sections is an introduction class for children 3-5 year who do not speak any Swedish at all or very little. In the section there are 20 children and the activities focus on strengthening the children's identity and language, both the Swedish and the first language. The project is carried out mainly at the introduction section, but the study will also include the preschool as a whole, because the children after about a year's stay in the introduction section, move to another department at the present preschool or to a preschool closer to their home. A participatory approach is used, involving head teachers, teachers and other preschool staff members, the children and their families. We lean on the action research tradition (McNiff 2002; Norton 2009; Kemmis 2009). The approach implies that teachers, teams and institutions, together with researchers, are encouraged to systematically explore their work to develop the pedagogical knowledge and teaching. Much of the implemented research within educational action research has the teachers in focus, although educational action research implies a process in which all involved should be included, also the students (McNiff 2002). In the project, we will involve researchers and teachers, as well as the children and their families (Gallacher & Gallagher 2008; Clark 2010). The staff at the participating preschool have accepted to work in a participatory way, where researchers together with staff, children, care takers, and preschool management investigate strengths and challenges regarding how the preschool can reinforce language development. The model for the implementation of the project follows the typical participatory action research cycle, which includes planning, action, observation and reflection (McNiff 2002). The function of PAR is here taken as Braye and McDonell (2013, 269) argue, to “get the people affected by a problem together, figure out what is going on as a group, and then do something about it”. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings During the spring of 2017, the project will have run its first phase. In this phase of the project, the families, the prechool teachers, the children, preschool leaders and members of the municipal administration will have had the opportunity to formulate their concerns and discuss them in groups. For adults, focus groups with participants from each category will be carried out, that is, one with staff, another with management and a third with families. To get an insight to the children’s perspectives, we will use suitable methods adapted to the specific group of children. This presupposes a child-centred approach that fits within the children’s play and daily activities. The approach of using groups will give the participants in each category the opportunity to share and formulate problems, which in turn will give the project perspectives and experiences from the various groups of participants. An anticipated challenge is that the families live in different neighbourhoods, which limits opportunities for informal contacts between them. The staff and management of the preschool have identified some challenges and problems, but also strengths that the section and the preschool face in relation to the children’s learning and development. They see that although multilingualism can be considered an asset, the multilingualism in itself doesn’t create the dynamics in which learning opportunities and development can take place, something that also Kultti (2014) has observed in her research on how to deal with newly arrived children with a first language differing from the majority language.

  • 69.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Children, Youth and Society (BUS).
    Harju, Anne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Children, Youth and Society (BUS).
    Åkerblom, Annika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Children, Youth and Society (BUS).
    Avery, Helen
    Möjligheter och utmaningar för en förskola i en migrerande värld. Forskningsplattformen REPESE: SUBTL och VED. Block 5: Inkludering och sociala relationer2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forskningsprojektet (SFI): Opening up new spaces for preschool education in a diverse and migrating world.

  • 70.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Sjöström, Jesper
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Förskollärarstudenters syn på lärande, bildning och didaktik2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärande, bildning och didaktik är tre delvis överlappande begrepp som alla på olika sätt har med utbildning att göra. (1) Lärande innebär att se något på ett nytt sätt utifrån reflekterade upplevelser, vilka blir till uppfattningar (Marton & Booth, 1997). Fenomenografin tydliggör strukturer i lärprocessen, där levd erfarenhet och livsvärlden bidrar till förståelse i form av omvärldsuppfattning, vilken ger kunskap om världen så som vi upplever den (Kroksmark, 2007). Med ursprung i inlärnings- och gestaltpsykologi samt kritisk teori anknyter fenomenografin till fenomenologi (Theman, 1983; Kroksmark, 1987). (2) Begreppet bildning lånades in från tyskans Bildung i slutet på 1700-talet. En studie kring hur begreppet uppfattas i nutida svenskt språkbruk visar att det står för en mängd olika saker, såsom allmänbildning, kunskaper i humaniora, kulturell aktivitet, förmåga till perspektivskifte, förmåga att utveckla information till kunskap, kritiska förhållningssätt, demokratifostran och etiska förhållningssätt (Lindskog, 2007). Det speglar den rika bildningstradition som funnits i Sverige, med spänningar mellan elitism och jämlikhet, klassiska kunskaper och samhällsnytta, och den ofta konfliktfyllda relationen mellan uppfostran och kritiskt tänkande (Burman & Sundgren, 2010). (3) Didaktik kan i en nutida tolkning sägas vara lärarnas vetenskap (Hansén & Forsman, 2017; Ingerman & Wickman, 2015; Sjöström, 2018). Den syftar till att hjälpa lärarna att göra informerade didaktiska val i relation till undervisning av innehållet (Jakobson, Lundegård & Wickman, 2014). Begreppet kommer från det grekiska ordet för att undervisa, didaskein. Särskilt i Tyskland finns traditionellt en stark koppling mellan didaktik och bildning (t.ex. Sivesind & Luimes, 2017). Där dominerar innehållsfrågor, värderingar och lärarnas självständiga didaktiska val, medan färdigheter och målinriktning dominerar i USA (Kansanen, 2017). I denna studie undersöker vi hur lärarstudenter erfar lärande, bildning och didaktik. Ett fenomenografiskt angreppssätt används vid analys och beskrivning av förskollärarstudenters (n=36) tankar kring de tre begreppen. Uppfattningar inplaceras i kategorier. Preliminärt visar resultatet att de tre begreppen delvis är överlappande, samtidigt som vissa trender kan urskiljas: (1) Lärandebegreppet tycks vara det mest utvecklade av de tre. Flera av förskollärarstudenterna har ett processinriktat begrepp och jämför lärande med växande. Vidare är det flera som beskriver det i termer av undervisning. En skriver till och med uttryckligen: ”lärande = att förmedla kunskap”. (2) Bildningsbegreppet är generellt mer produktorienterat och står för mer komplex kunskap, ofta kopplad till värderingar. För någon verkar det dock vara ett begrepp som saknar mening. (3) Då det gäller didaktikbegreppet så är de flesta förskollärarstudenter inne på undervisning. Många nämner de didaktiska frågorna och flera att det har med syften att göra och med metoder och hjälpmedel.

  • 71.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Sonesson, Kerstin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Student-centered learning for extended learning processes in HE: assessing international students on global challenges in "Teaching for sustainability"2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Without a sense of adventure and an awareness that we all - students, teachers and educational developers - are on an endless journey of discovery, the good learning assessment (Sonesson & Nordén, 2015) or the good teaching does not take place. At the beginning of their teaching careers Prosser & Trigwell (2001) thought, as well as many teachers in science do, that the essence of good teaching was about to get knowledge in a scientifically correct manner and develop their teaching skills in presenting subject knowledge for the students. As teachers, they searched reliable ways to measure student learning, rather than trying to find valuable indications of the students´ understanding. No attempt was made to help students see how the topic they introduced related to the students´ previous subject studies. They did not about to sensitize students about their preconceptions or previous experiences, which might be needed again (Prosser & Trigwell, 2001). In-depth learning (with a deep learning approach) the learner searches meaningfulness and want to understand the behind-lying ideas (Marton & Booth, 1997). Enthusiastically and curiously integrating and relating the learning in a strategic manner to all the individual experiences, besides theorizing and being fully aware of that the words just are carriers of meanings. The meaning of the arguments is focused. On the contrary, with surface learning approaches, the learner focuses - without any reflection on the purpose or strategy of life-long learning - on the least possible effort to root memorize information (Tsui, 2004) only for the knowledge exam without any thought of enhanced meaning-making or understanding (Lundström et al, 2016). The focus is then on the text, formulas or words, actual data and they represent purely symbolically knowledge formation (Prosser & Trigwell, 2001). Anderberg (1999) argues that the expression of intent is of great importance regarding the student´s opportunities to develop meaningful theoretical conclusions and deep learning approaches. Thereby, the importance of experienced knowledge formation situations is emphasized. By activating students' experiences of word meanings and understanding, as during an assessing literature seminar, promotes access to their prior knowledge and could develop extended learning processes and deeper understanding within in higher education. Thus, for their upcoming teaching they are offered new opportunities heading for deep learning approaches based on the theoretical part (Anderberg, 1999). Teacher education is of particular importance for developing competences and knowledge capabilities (Nordén, 2016) required for societal changes towards sustainability (Mochizuki & Yarime, 2016; UE4SD, 2015; Wals 2014; Rauch & Steiner 2013). This research is based on international teacher students´ learning experiences. In the campus course Teaching for sustainability (15 credits) at Malmö university,the perspective is learner focused with a holistic approach on education of the environmental and sustainability challenges in local-global contexts (Avery & Nordén, 2017). The heterogeneous group of students has a variety of knowledge on sustainability issues, different experiences of learning activities and examination forms, since attending the course in Sweden from different continents, cultures and countries worldwide. Consequently, a common foundation for further progression of knowledge formation among the students is valuable to achieve at the course start. One initial learning activity is to read World on the Edge (Brown, 2011) and thereafter construct three questions on environmental and sustainability challenges that the student considers urgent and of particular interest. These questions are sent to the lecturer, who chooses one question from each student. The student that raised it prepares and directs a discussion in the teacher student group with 5-7 students in a student-driven literature seminar. The student thereby introduces the topic, has the responsibility for actively chairing the discussion through the seminar, and sums up the shared thoughts, opinions and knowledge for meaning-making afterwards. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The learning outcome is that the student will be able to describe what effect humans have upon their environment, actively discuss the scope of environmental problems and challenges in sustainable development in the participants´ respective home country and worldwide. The aim of this research is to investigate how heterogeneous groups of teacher students experience a student-driven, non-traditional literature seminar for learning assessment purposes within the extended learning process in higher education, and offered for meaning-making within environmental and sustainability learning and teaching (Anderberg, Nordén & Hansson, 2009; Lundström et al, 2016). Qualitative group interviews with semi-structural questions and analysis were conducted by a phenomenographic approach. Previous experiences of assessments, ways of reading the course literature and formulating questions, expectations and reflections, and student-centered learning processes were focused. The group interviews with the international teacher students (n=63) in 2012, 2014 and 2016 took place in 11 group meetings. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically categorised from the reflected experiences made visible through the analysis of the qualitative data gathered. (P.M. This is work in progress and when analysis has been carried out more details will be avilable, which could be presented if accepted for the ECER 2017...) Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings The analysis of the assessment seminars suggests that for many students this form of assessment was a new learning experience. While reading the book students were mainly concentrating on bigger concepts. A few students were afraid as they were unfamiliar with planning and taking responsibility for a discussion. However, the participatory and collaborative learning assessment with sharing of experiences among the students resulted in a rewarding challenge based learning process. After the assessment students continued to reflect and talk about the questions raised. According to them, it generated a deep learning opportunity compared to written examination. This meant that they had a deeper understanding of the questions at hand, and they could draw on richer contextualised resources from their own experience to develop school oriented subject matters through the discussion. A tentative result shows some categories of the students’ experiences of meaning-making: developing critical thinking, focusing on learning and understanding, learning by collaboration, seeing a bigger picture, and taking responsibility in learning for understanding. Besides assessing the learning outcome, the learning needs are identified through the learning activity to be promoted for continued learning in the course. When students share their knowledge and experiences of global environmental and sustainability challenges, extended learning processes for sustainability enhanced literacy seems to develop. The students describe their learning processes as consistent and progressively on-going also after the closing of the seminar (Sonesson & Nordén, 2015).

  • 72.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Sund, Louise
    Sund, Per
    Miljö- och hållbarhetsutbildning2018In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 163-171Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här temanumret handlar om teoretisk och empirisk forskning som rör miljö- och hållbarhetsfrågor. Syftet med tidskriftens ”call for papers” som gick ut hösten 2016 var att belysa och visa på den mångfald av riktningar som utvecklas för att möta vår tids utmaningar. En ekologisk hållbar utveckling ses inte separat utan som intimt sammanlänkad med frågor om social rätt-visa, global resursfördelning inom och mellan generationer och hur vi lever tillsammans med andra varelser. Etiska och moraliska ställnings taganden är därför en väsentlig del av hållbar utveckling. I flera vetenskapliga, politiska och mediala sammanhang uppmärk sammas de allvarliga hot som världen står inför (Bonnett, 2013; Leach, Raworth & Rockström, 2013; Stables, 2013). Det brukar då framhållas att alla har ett ansvar att motverka dessa men att skolan och utbildning har ett alldeles sär-skilt ansvar. Det kan inom utbildning beskrivas som ett ansvar att utveckla en pedagogisk verksamhet som skapar en medvetenhet och en erfarenhet hos elever som bidrar till att de kan göra kunskapsbaserade och moraliska ställnings taganden i olika globala utvecklingsfrågor.Varje forskningsfält har sina begrepp som definierar och ringar in dess intresse områden. I de artiklar som ingår i temanumret kan några sådana begrepp urskiljas: hållbar utveckling, hållbarhet, utbildning för hållbar utveck-ling samt miljö- och hållbarhetsutbildningsforskning. Dessa begrepp intro-duceras och diskuteras nedan. En kort exposé av framväxten av forsknings fältet och forskarnätverk nationellt ges även.

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  • 73.
    Sonesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Nordén, Birgitta
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Assessing international teacher students´ knowledge on environmental and sustainability challenges through a literature seminar2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation is based on international teacher students` experiences of a learning assessment on environmental and sustainability challenges. In Teaching for sustainability (15 credits, http://edu.mah.se/en/Course/NM164E#Overview ), a course offered once a year by Malmö University, the perspective is learner oriented with a holistic approach on education and sustainability. The heterogeneous group of students has a variety of knowledge on sustainability issues, different experiences of learning activities and examination forms. Consequently, a common platform for progression of knowledge formation among the students is needed. One of the first learning activities is to read World on the Edge (Brown, 2011) and to formulate three questions on environmental and sustainability challenges that the student considers important. Prior to the first out of three assessments in the course, the lecturer selects one question per student and during the assessment seminar the student directs the discussion of the selected question among a group of 5-7 students. During the seminar, the students share their thoughts, experiences and knowledge for meaning-making through discussions. The learning outcome is to be able to describe what effect humans have upon their environment. Students are graded “Passed with distinction”, “Passed” or “Fail”, whereas the full course has a six-pointed grading system (Passed with distinction; A-B, Passed; C-E, Failed; F). Our aim of the research study is to investigate how heterogeneous groups of teacher students experiences a student-driven, non-traditional learning assessment, their learning process and meaning-making within environmental and sustainability education. Qualitative group interviews, semi-structural questions, and analysis were carried out through a phenomenographic approach. Focus was on previous experiences of assessments, ways of reading the book and formulating questions, expectations and reflections, and learning processes for meaning-making. The interviews with the international teacher students (n=41) in 2012 and 2014 were recorded, transcribed and thematically categorised. To many students the assessment was a new learning experience. While reading the book students were mainly concentrating on bigger concepts. A few students were afraid and nervous as they were unfamiliar with planning and taking responsibility for a discussion. However, the participatory and collaborative learning assessment with sharing of experiences among the students resulted in a rewarding meaning-making process. After the assessment students continued to reflect and talk about the questions raised. According to them, it generated a deep learning opportunity compared to written examination. A tentative result shows some categories of the students’ experiences of meaning-making: developing critical thinking, focusing on learning and understanding, learning by collaboration, seeing a bigger picture, and taking responsibility in learning for understanding. When students share their knowledge and experiences of global environmental and sustainability challenges, sustainability literacy for understanding seems to develop. The students describe their learning processes as on-going after closing the seminar.

  • 74.
    Sonesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of South-East Norway, Notodden, Norway..
    Nordén, Birgitta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Challenges and Learning Outcomes in a Mutual Municipal Partnership on Education for Sustainable Development from Southern African/North European Perspectives2021In: Book of Abstract: Vitalizing partnerships - Moving forward to a sustainable future: Epistemic challenges, intellectual labour and South-North partnerships, Sanord , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two cities, Swakopmund and Malmö, in Namibia and Sweden have developed a strong mutual partnership on sustainable development. The collaboration started within The Municipal Partnership Programme at the Swedish International Centre for Local Democracy (ICLD), working with poverty reduction through local democracy development funded by SIDA. The municipal partnership aims to increase civil influence by strengthening local and regional political governance organization within certain core areas, e.g. equity/inclusion, transparency, possibility to demand accountability and/or citizen participation. During 2012-2014 the two cities collaborated on two projects; Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Eco Tourism. 

    The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of processes and learning outcomes of SDG 17 in a mutual municipal partnership in the ESD-project focusing experiences on challenges and solutions. Eight project team member i.e. municipal officials, teachers, museum- and marine pedagogues, as well as three senior municipal officials in the Project Steering Committee were interviewed using semi-structured questions in the second year of the ESD-project. A phenomenographic approach was applied to analyse the transcriptions of nearly six hours recorded interview material. The findings show the experience of various challenges the respondents faced, how the challenges were solved and the benefits of the learning outcomes. This were discussed also in longer terms to shed light on what South and North can learn from one another by being in a mutual partnership, focusing how work processes contribute to develop democratic governance locally in the municipalities.

  • 75.
    Sonesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Nordén, Birgitta
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    International teacher students' meaning-making of environmental and sustainability challenges through a learning assessment2015In: Abstract list of WEEC 2015, WEEC , 2015, article id 199Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This research is based on experiences by international students. In Teaching for sustainability (15 credits), the perspective is learner oriented with a holistic approach on education and sustainability. The heterogeneous group of students has a variety of knowledge on sustainability issues, different experiences of learning activities and examination forms. Consequently, a common platform for progression of knowledge formation among the students is needed. One learning activity is to read World on the Edge (Brown, 2011), formulate three questions on environmental and sustainability challenges that the student considers important. One question per student is selected by the lecturer and the student directs the discussion among 5-7 students. The students share their thoughts and knowledge for meaning-making, discussions through the seminar. The learning outcome is to be able to describe what effect humans have upon their environment. Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate how heterogeneous groups of teacher students experience a student-driven, non-traditional learning assessment, their learning process and meaning-making within environmental and sustainability education. Methods: Qualitative group interviews, semi-structural questions, and analysis were carried out through a phenomenographic approach. Focus was on previous experiences of assessments, ways of reading the book and formulating questions, expectations and reflections, and learning processes for meaning-making. The interviews with the international teacher students (n=41) in 2012 and 2014 were recorded, transcribed and thematically categorised. Results: To many students the assessment was a new learning experience. While reading the book students were mainly concentrating on bigger concepts. A few students were afraid as they were unfamiliar with planning and taking responsibility for a discussion. However, the participatory and collaborative learning assessment with sharing of experiences among the students resulted in a rewarding meaning-making process. After the assessment students continued to reflect and talk about the questions raised. According to them, it generated a deep learning opportunity compared to written examination. A tentative result shows some categories of the students’ experiences of meaning-making: developing critical thinking, focusing on learning and understanding, learning by collaboration, seeing a bigger picture, and taking responsibility in learning for understanding. Conclusion: Besides assessing a learning outcome, the learning needs are identified through the learning activity to be promoted for continued learning in the course. When students share their knowledge and experiences of global environmental and sustainability challenges, sustainability literacy for understanding seems to develop. The students describe their learning processes as on-going after closing the seminar.

  • 76.
    Sonesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Nordén, Birgitta
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Nature, Environment and Society (NMS).
    Studentorienterat litteraturseminarium som läraktivitet och examinationsform2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt till NU2016 – Bedömning, examination och betyg Studentorienterat litteraturseminarium som lärandeaktivitet och examinationsform Denna presentation är baserad på en studie av internationella lärarstudenters erfarenhet av studentorienterade litteraturseminarier om globala miljö- och hållbarhetsfrågor som examinationsform. Syftet med forskningsstudien är att undersöka hur en heterogen studentgrupp upplever en icke-traditionell examinationsform, sin lärandeprocess och kunskapsutveckling inom ämnesområdet globala utmaningar och hållbar utveckling genom ett studentdrivet litteraturseminarium. Kursen Teaching for sustainability (15 hp, http://edu.mah.se/en/Course/NM164E ) har ett holistiskt perspektiv på lärande för hållbar utveckling. Det teoretiska innehållet består av globala utmaningar, hållbar utveckling och didaktik. Kursen utgår från studentorienterat lärande och varierande arbetssätt. Kursdeltagarna utgörs av en heterogen grupp av lärarstudenter, av utbytes- och svenska studenter. Förkunskaperna varierar och likaså studenternas erfarenheter av olika examinationsformer. En av kursens första aktiviteter är att läsa boken World on the Edge. How to prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse (Brown 2011) och att formulera tre frågor om globala utmaningar. Frågorna ska vara inspirerade av boken och frågor som studenten vill diskutera i ett seminarium med 5-7 kurskamrater. Lärandemål som examineras: The student will be able to describe what effect humans have upon their environment, actively discuss the scope of environmental problems and challenges in sustainable development in the participants´ respective home country and worldwide. Inför litteraturseminariet väljer läraren ut en fråga per student och studenten får introducera och leda diskussionen kring sin fråga. Under diskussionen bidrar varje student med sin erfarenhet och kunskap. På så sätt bidrar alla med sina perspektiv på de frågeställningar som behandlas. Studenterna bedöms enligt en tregradig skala; väl godkänd, godkänd samt underkänd. Efter litteraturseminarier vid två kurstillfällen (2012 och 2014) genomfördes intervjuer med semi-strukturella frågor i fokusgrupper (7 grupper och sammanlagt 41 studenter). Intervjufrågorna fokuserades på studenternas tidigare erfarenheter av examinationer, läsande av kursboken, formulering av frågor och förväntningar litteraturseminariet, samt reflektioner efter genomförandet. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades samt analyserades med en fenomenografisk ansats. För flertalet studenter var det studentorienterade litteraturseminariet en ny erfarenhet. Medan de läste boken fokuserade studenterna i huvudsak på de stora sammanhangen och inte på detaljer. De sökte vidare information kring frågor de ville veta mera om. Några studenter uppgav att de var nervösa inför seminariet och förklarade detta med att de var ovana vid att planera, leda och ansvara för en diskussion kring en fråga de själva valt. Studenter menade att alla i gruppen bidrog till en gemensam lärandeprocess då de delade erfarenheter, tankar och kunskap kring globala utmaningar och hållbar utveckling. Efter avslutat seminarium fortsatte de fundera kring frågorna som diskuterats.

  • 77.
    Sonesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Nordén, Birgitta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    We Learnt a Lot: Challenges and Learning Experiences in a Southern African—North European Municipal Partnership on Education for Sustainable Development.2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 8607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates a reciprocal partnership between two cities in Namibia and Sweden to deepen the understanding of challenges and learning outcomes in a project on education for sustainable development. Since 2008, two municipalities have developed a strong partnership via The Municipal Partnership Programme at the Swedish International Centre for Local Democracy. Municipal partnerships are results-oriented collaborations in joint projects on sustainability. The purpose is to describe how eight team members in the mutual South-North project, by addressing similar problems in different contexts, experienced challenges in the implementation of the project plan, solutions and learning processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at the end of the second project year. Transcripts and field notes were analysed using a phenomenographic approach and contextual analysis. Five main categories of description based on collective statements and three dimensions of learning were recognised in the research data. The analysis identifies strategies for critical knowledge formation and capability building to support mutual learning in South-North Municipal Partnerships. The concluding discussion spots the learning dimensions—how sharing experiences by justifying non-formal and transformational learning promotes organisations’ readiness for knowledge formation by conducting mutual global learning towards sustainable development goals.

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  • 78.
    Åkerblom, Annika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Children, Youth and Society (BUS).
    Harju, Anne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Children, Youth and Society (BUS).
    Nordén, Birgitta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Children, Youth and Society (BUS).
    Avery, Helen
    Becoming a Swedish Preschool child2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the reception and education of migrant children is seen as a challenge for the school system, and the opinions concerning how to educate and socialize young migrant children differ. The educational system in Sweden, and elsewhere, has historically been given a double function. On the one hand, it is viewed as a mediator of dominant culture, language, and imagined nationality, and on the other hand, in an increasingly globalized world, it is seen as a promoter of values like multiculturalism and tolerance (Hjerm 2001; Lappalainen 2006; Tobin 2013; Mavroudi and Holt 2015; Allemann-Ghionda 2015). As Mavroudi and Holt (2015) point out, schools and preschools are often at the forefront in teaching children to be more accepting and tolerant of differences, as part of a democratic mission. However, at the same time they also remain key sites where national belonging and identity are taught. Both these aspects are at play in the Swedish preschool curriculum and practice. On the one hand, ideals of child-centeredness related to aspects such as tolerance, equality, egalitarianism, democracy and cooperative social relationships are emphasized (Einarsdottir et al. 2014). On the other hand, monolinguistic as well as a monocultural norms prevail in settings aimed for education of the future citizens, and previous research has shown that these norms concern specially immigrant children (Johansson and Pramling Samuelsson 2006; Johansson 2012; Lunneblad 2013). The paper explores how the tension between these different ideas is embedded in the preschool curriculum and how the ideas are interpreted and operationalized. This is made through the lense of everyday nationhood, and therefore specifically at how issues concerning language and culture are expressed in relation to the pedagogy formed around the migrant child. We consider preschool policy documents, educators’ talk as they try to reinterpret the ideas, and everyday routines formed around migrant children. Questions asked are: What are the explicit and implicit purposes of the preschool education for migrant children? Who is the migrant child to be educated and to what ends?

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