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  • 1.
    Boregren, Mikael
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Encountering Young People by Applying the Art of Empathy in a Social Work Context2022Ingår i: Youth Participation and Solidarity: Handbook for Students and Teachers of Social Professions / [ed] Elżbieta Bielecka, Toruń: Wydawnictwu Adam Marszalek, 2022, s. 129-137Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What is empathy? Can you train and develop your empathy? What are the points of doing so? Can you train empathy in a telephone or online context? The short answer to these questions is yes. I work as a teacher at Malmö University and have since 2015 taught, trained both students and professional social workers as well as psychiatric nurses in empathic listening. It is done by (in contrast to a mainstream analysis of empathy) instead, applying a critical and influential phenomenological analysis of the concept of empathy. This idea of empathy has recently been described as “basic empathy” (Fernandez & Zahavi, 2020).

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  • 2.
    Boregren, Mikael
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    The art of basic empathy in an online social work context2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What is empathy? Can you train and develop your empathy? What are the points of doing so? Can you train empathy in a telephone or online context? The short answer to these questions is yes. I work as a teacher at Malmö University and have since 2015 taught, trained both students and professional social workers as well as psychiatric nurses in empathic listening. This is done by applying a critical (nonmainstream),influential phenomenological analysis of the concept of empathy. This idea of ​​empathy has recently been described as "basic empathy" (Fernandez & Zahavi. 2020). Empathy is often described as a face-to-face phenomena, this raises the question if empathy is possible online, can we speak of “online-empathy” even though its not face to face in a regular sense? 

    Well Face-to-face interactions are one of several opportunities for empathy, but not the only one. This has been shown, among other things, with the Covid-19 online transition for empathy training, which has worked much better than expected. One reason for this is that empathic meetings are also possible online, they do not have to take place face to face in a traditional sense, even though it will be different, it is entirely possible. We are able to bracket and accommodate a certain layer within the framework of our inherent ability to change attitudes towards the subject, if a person freezes in the image, we understand that the person did not suddenly become silent and still as an expression of meaning, but then shifts we in our subject attitude. This ability thus makes it possible to train basic empathy and, by extension, also practical online social work.

    The practical application of the knowledge FPE (Englander 2014) is not pure and strict as in training, but more like a professionally balanced hybrid between different ways of listening and empathetically responding in the moment with the client. An important aspect that the training adds is an increased awareness of how you as a social worker can attend to the client in different ways, you do not take empathic listening for granted but you can now more consciously choose how to respond and work with the client. The training aims to enable and facilitate the social worker to be genuinely present to the client's experience, important to note is that genuineness and the curious attitude require both concentration and authenticity from the social worker. FPE can serve as an important tool for concentrating on developing in its professional approach, in its practice of the art of social work, both face to face and in an online context.

     

    ·       Englander, M. (2014) "Empathy training from a phenomenological perspective" Journal of Phenomenological Psychology;1, 5-26

    ·       Fernandez, A. V. and D. Zahavi. 2020. “Basic Empathy: Developing the Concept of Empathy

  • 3.
    Boregren, Mikael
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    The lived body of drug addiction2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What is it like to be a drug addict and what can be important when it comes to recovering from a drug addiction? These are not only interesting but also important issues for a social worker. An important prerequisite for being able to help someone is that I understand and empathize with the one that I am trying to help. Therefore this is central questions for the social worker are to answer.

     How, then, can we understand the direct experience of being a drug addict? One way to approach an answer is to start to describe how a “healthy” consciousness is constructed and then compare it to one that is drug dependent. This comparison can provide important insight into the general subjective experience of being stuck in a drug addiction.

     One important thing that emerges from such a comparison is the drug addict's first-person experience. In this first-person-experience of being a drug addict we will find a description of the experience of a relationship to oneself, their body and their surroundings which are characterized by a deep ambivalence. An experience of being socially alienated, trapped in an unreliable and painful "object-body" that is stuck in a constant ongoing now where the only thing that can give the addict a break from this pointless, unbearable existence is to use more drugs (Kemp 2018, 2009).

     

    As earlier described, an important part of recovery from this meaningless existence is to be understood by the one who will help me. Being understood and being able to share my experience with another, in this case a social worker, gives me an experience that I am no longer alone in knowing my existence, which can help to break the social alienation (Kemp 2018, Topor et al 2008). It will also be an opportunity to be able to address experiences of ambivalence, experience of oneself, the body and the outside world (social relationships, etc.).

    It has been known for a long time that it is important to be understood and treated with empathy, many believe that it is even more important than the form of treatment method (Duncan, B., Hubble, M., Miller, S. 2004). What is new about this text is the suggestion that we should not to take empathy for granted. That we need to work with the concept of empathy so that the social workers actively can empathize with and be able to reflect phenomenological to their clients in a more structured way. But why should we stop there? What if we give the phenomenological empathy training (Englander 2014) to the social workers as well as their clients? Would this be beneficial for the clients, to be able to understand their social world better?  Could this help them in their recovery from there drug addiction?

     

    1.       Englander, M. & Folkesson, A. (2014). Evaluating the phenomenological approach to empathy training. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, No. 3, Vol. 54, 294-313

    2.       Kemp, R. (2018) Transcending Addiction, An existential pathway to recovery. New York Routledge: New York, 142, s. 

    3.       Kemp, R. (2009). The Lived-Body of Drug Addiction. Existential Analysis 20.1: January 2009

    4.       Topor, Borg, Mezzina, Sells, Marin, Davidsson (2006). Others: The role of family, Friends, And Professionals in the Recovery Process. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 9: 17-37

    5.       Duncan, B., Hubble, M., Miller, S. (2004). The heart and soul of change. What works in therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • 4. Fehland, Margareta
    et al.
    Boregren, Mikael
    A new way of listening to kids in school2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Malmö University, in cooperation with a primary school in Malmö, has developed and implemented a two-step method. The implementation work is part of a health promotion work "Understand Me, Then I'll Work" in a primary school in Malmö. The method includes CPS (Collaborative Proactive solutions), which is a structured model. The model is based on the facts that challenging behavior occurs when the expectations being placed on a kid exceed the kid’s capacity to respond adaptively, and that some kids are lacking the skills to handle certain demands and expectations. So the emphasis of the model isn’t about kids' challenging behavior, which is – whether it’s whining, pouting, sulking, withdrawing, crying, screaming, swearing, hitting, spitting, biting, or worse. Those are the manner in which they are expressing the fact that there are expectations they’re having difficulty meeting. The model does not focus on psychiatric diagnoses, which are simply categories of challenging behaviors. The core of the model is based in the understanding of the kids experience. One needs to understand the other.

    Emphasis in CPS is one of the basic steps in CPS, which is about finding out as much as possible about a student's needs. Empathy training has therefore been a central part of the development work together with the teachers and school staff.

    Well what is empathy then? and how can one develop the understanding of it in the context of social pedagogy work in school? We have trained school staff in phenomenological empathy in order to develop the empathetic ability in the treatment of students, parents and employees.In the theoretical discussion of empathy, one will find a “psychological mainstream” perspective that involves a "simulation" of the others experience. You “put yourself in the shoes of the other” as a way to achieve understanding of the other. I imagine what I had understood and felt in such a situation, what would your situation be like for me? The problem with this definition is that my understanding of the other is limited to my own, the listeners response to a hypothetically simulated situation. In other words, that I understand myself better in a hypothetical situation is not the same as understanding the other. 

    The understanding of the other begins before the simulation, in a direct social perception (Zahavi 2011). This is a phenomenological critique of the mainstream perspective of empathy. From this criticism, a phenomenological psychological empathy training (FPE) has been developed for the care and care professions and for university students in these fields, especially in education related to human-occupational professions, such as social work education (Englander, 2014) and with this work also within the framework of social education in a primary school in Malmö.

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