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  • 1. Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    BTH.
    Lindström, Fredric
    Claesson, Ingvar
    Audio Processing Solution for Video Conference Based Aerobics2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an audio processing solution for video conference based aerobics is presented. The proposed solution leaves the workout music unaltered by separating it from the speech and processing each signal separately. The speech signal processing is also performed at a lower sample rate, which saves computational power. Real time evaluation of the system shows that high quality music as well as a good two-way communication is maintained during the aerobic session.

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  • 2.
    Brondin, Anna
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Nordström, Marcus
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Salvi, Dario
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Open source step counter algorithm for wearable devices2020Ingår i: Companion Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things (IoT 2020), New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, artikel-id 6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial wearable devices and fitness trackers are commonly sold as black boxes of which little is known about their accuracy. This poses serious issues especially in health-related contexts such as clinical research, where transparency about accuracy and reliability are paramount.

    We present a validated algorithm for computing step counting that is optimised for use in constrained computing environments. Released as open source, the algorithm is based on the windowed peak detection approach, which has previously shown high accuracy on smartphones. The algorithm is optimised to run on a programmable smartwatch (Pine Time) and tested on 10 subjects in 8 scenarios, with varying varying positions of the wearable and walking paces.

    Our approach achieves a 89% average accuracy, with the highest average accuracy when walking outdoor (98%) and the lowest in a slow-walk scenario (77%). This result can be compared with the built-in step counter of the smartwatch (Bosch BMA421), which yielded a 94% average accuracy for the same use cases. Our work thus shows that an open-source approach for extracting physical activity data from wearable devices is possible and achieves an accuracy comparable to the one produced by proprietary embedded algorithms.

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  • 3.
    Engström, Jimmy
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Sony Europe B.V., Lund, Sweden.
    Improving Indoor Positioning With Adaptive Noise Modeling2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 227213-227221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor positioning is important for applications within Internet of Things, such as equipment tracking and indoor maps. Inexpensive Bluetooth-beacons have become common for such applications, where the distance is estimated using the Received Signal Strength. Large installations require substantial efforts, either in determining the exact location of all beacons to facilitate lateration, or collecting signal strength data from a grid over all locations to facilitate fingerprinting. To reduce this initial setup cost, one may infer the positions using Simultaneous Location and Mapping. In this paper, we use a mobile phone equipped with an Inertial Measurement Unit, a Bluetooth receiver, and an Unscented Kalman Filter to infer beacon positions. Further, we apply adaptive noise modeling in the filter based on the estimated distance of the beacons, in contrast to using a fixed noise estimate which is the common approach. This gives us more granular control of how much impact each signal strength reading has on the position estimates. The adaptive model decreases the beacon positioning errors by 27% and the user positioning errors by 21%. The positioning accuracy is 0.3 m better compared to using known beacon positions with fixed noise, while the effort to setup and maintain the position of each beacon is also substantially reduced. Therefore, adaptive noise modeling of Received Signal Strength is a significant improvement over static noise modeling for indoor positioning.

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  • 4.
    Engström, Jimmy
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Sony Europe BV, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Some Design Considerations in Passive Indoor Positioning Systems2023Ingår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, nr 12, artikel-id 5684Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User location is becoming an increasingly common and important feature for a wide range of services. Smartphone owners increasingly use location-based services, as service providers add context-enhanced functionality such as car-driving routes, COVID-19 tracking, crowdedness indicators, and suggestions for nearby points of interest. However, positioning a user indoors is still problematic due to the fading of the radio signal caused by multipath and shadowing, where both have complex dependencies on the indoor environment. Location fingerprinting is a common positioning method where Radio Signal Strength (RSS) measurements are compared to a reference database of previously stored RSS values. Due to the size of the reference databases, these are often stored in the cloud. However, server-side positioning computations make preserving the user's privacy problematic. Given the assumption that a user does not want to communicate his/her location, we pose the question of whether a passive system with client-side computations can substitute fingerprinting-based systems, which commonly use active communication with a server. We compared two passive indoor location systems based on multilateration and sensor fusion using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) with fingerprinting and show how these may provide accurate indoor positioning without compromising the user's privacy in a busy office environment.

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  • 5.
    Eriksson, Hedda
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Ramkull, Malin
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    An Algorithm for Characterising Gait during a Timed Up and Go test using Sensorised Mats2024Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Timed up and go (TUG) test is a widely recognised and standardised mobility test to measure basic mobility and balance capabilities. Although its reliability is proven, the acquisition of ac- curate and objective information requires technical equipment. To address this need for accuracy and objectivity, our research examines the utilisation of non-wearable sensors for gait analysis during a TUG test. Collaborating with the Italian National Research Council (CNR) in Pisa, the study illustrates our attempt to develop software specifically designed for conducting the TUG test in conjunction with hardware from SensingTex’s Sensing Mat portfolio. By doing this, the re- search also aims to fill the gap in TUG-specific software targeting sensorised mats. The developed software characterise the gait during the TUG test by identifying and examining the following parameters: TUG-time, Sit-to-Stand, Mid-Turning, and End-Turning-Stand-to-Sit. Additionally, meaningful parameters for overall gait assessment have been selected: walking speed and stride length. Two experimental iterations were conducted to assess the reliability of the developed soft- ware. Both iterations involved two different groups of six healthy participants (41.58±13.32 yrs; 6 females, 6 males) performing various walking types. The results indicates that by translating these observations into quantitative data, our research has the potential to enhance the accuracy and objectivity of gait analysis, thereby improve clinical evaluations and advancing the field.

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  • 6.
    Håkansson, Dennis
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Lövberg, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Development of algorithm for a mobile-based estimation of heart rate2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att utföra ett test av ens fysiska prestanda kan man utvärdera ens hälsostatus och upptäcka indikationer på avvikelser i kroppen. Syftet med detta arbete är att utveckla en mobilbaserad algoritm som kan beräkna och uppskatta ens puls när man utför the Queens College Step Test på begäran av Mobistudy. Mobistudy vill inkludera detta test i deras mobilapplikation som fokuserar på att kunna användas som ett verktyg inom forskning för att samla in data. Algoritmen använder sig av mobilens kamera för att samla in data från användarens finger och använder den insamlade data för att beräkna pulsen. Algoritmen testades först gentemot data som samlades in vid utvecklingsstadiet och resultatet visade på att genomsnittliga felet var under 5% samt att standardavvikelsen var under 3%. Två deltagare mellan åldern 20 och 25 utförde tre tester var utav the Queens College Step Test och resultatet visade att algoritmen var tillräckligt noggrann i sin uppskattning av pulsen efter ett utfört test.

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  • 7.
    Jayram, Shastri
    et al.
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Ouahada, Khmaies
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Rimer, Suvendi
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Pitsillides, Andreas
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Univ Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Future Wireless Networks, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Stochastically Resonant Spectrum Sensing for White Space Communications Dynamic Spectrum Access and Intelligent Radios and Networks2018Ingår i: Proceedings of 2018 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications and Computing (SigTelCom) / [ed] Bao, VNQ Duy, TT, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, s. 208-213Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and investigates Stochastically Resonant Spectrum Sensing (SRSS) in order to expedite Dynamic Spectrum Access and TV White Space (TVWS) communications. SRSS adds noise to a signal in order to enhance its Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and can be useful in sensing and detecting weak signals, e.g. weak Primary User or even Secondary User activity in TVWS. We demonstrate that SR is a useful Spectrum Sensing technique and can improve SNRs by similar to 8-10 dB using MATLAB simulations. Typically, SRSS uses only Additive SR Noise and we include and also investigate Multiplicative SR Noise effects, showing that in certain instances the latter can also improve SNRs by similar to 2 dB. We compare the Additive versus the combined Additive and Multiplicative cases using Uniform and Normal/ Gaussian distributions and present our results. Our ultimate goal is to include SRSS in an IEEE/DySPAN-SC 1900.* Standards based Interference Managing Ontological Cognitive Radio, Intelligent Radio or Policy Based Radio for Ad-Hoc and Heterogeneous i.e. Composite Wireless Networks.

  • 8.
    Khatib, Rabaa
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Mousafi Alasal, Chahed
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Design och Implementering av Lärmoment för Fouriertransform: Val av Pedagogiska Metoder och Utformning av Undervisningsmaterial2024Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete har olika undervisningsmetoder för att lära ut Fouriertransformen jämförts och analyserats med syftet att skapa nya lärmoment för kursen DA383A. Genom att undersöka både DA383A och liknande kurser vid andra lärosäten samt samla in data och återkoppling från studenter och kursansvarige, har de specifika kraven för att undervisa ämnet identifierats. En litteraturstudie och två enkätundersökningar i kombination med semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts.

    Som ett resultat har nya strukturerade lärmoment utvecklats, inkluderande fyra föreläsningar och två laborationer, samt en översikt av MATLAB-funktioner som används under laborationerna. Vid utformningen av de nya lärmomenten har olika pedagogiska strategier beaktats för att bättre tillgodose studenternas behov och förväntningar. Detta inkluderar användning av visuella illustrationer och digitala verktyg för att göra förklaringar mer tillgängliga och underlätta för studenterna att tillämpa teoretiska begrepp i praktiken.

    De nya lärmomenten utvärderades dels genom granskning av de definierade kraven och pedagogiska metoder, dels genom utvärdering med både kursansvarig och studenter. Resultaten visar att lärmomenten uppfyllde kraven och de pedagogiska metoderna samt förväntningarna från kursansvarig. Dessutom erhöll studenterna som genomförde laborationerna korrekta resultat och gav positiv återkoppling på lärmomenten. Detta tyder på lärmomentens effektivitet och relevans för att stödja studenternas lärande. En slutsats som därmed kan dras är att de nya lärmomenten tydligt har bidragit till förbättringen av undervisningen gällande Fouriertransformen i kursen DA383A.

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  • 9.
    Li, Yicheng
    et al.
    Jiangsu Univ, Automot Engn Res Inst, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Wuhan Univ Technol, Hubei Key Lab Transportat Internet Things, Wuhan 430063, Peoples R China..
    Cai, Yingfeng
    Jiangsu Univ, Automot Engn Res Inst, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Malekian, Reza
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Wang, Hai
    Jiangsu Univ, Automot Engn Res Inst, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Angel Sotelo, Miguel
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Dept Comp Engn, Alcala De Henares 28801, Madrid, Spain..
    Li, Zhixiong
    Ocean Univ China, Sch Engn, Qingdao 266100, Peoples R China.;Yonsei Univ, Yonsei Frontier Lab, 50 Yonsei Ro, Seoul 03722, South Korea..
    Creating navigation map in semi-open scenarios for intelligent vehicle localization using multi-sensor fusion2021Ingår i: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 184, artikel-id 115543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to pursue high-accuracy localization for intelligent vehicles (IVs) in semi-open scenarios, this study proposes a new map creation method based on multi-sensor fusion technique. In this new method, the road scenario fingerprint (RSF) was employed to fuse the visual features, three-dimensional (3D) data and trajectories in the multi-view and multi-sensor information fusion process. The visual features were collected in the front and downward views of the IVs; the 3D data were collected by the laser scanner and the downward camera and a homography method was proposed to reconstruct the monocular 3D data; the trajectories were computed from the 3D data in the downward view. Moreover, a new plane-corresponding calibration strategy was developed to ensure the fusion quality of sensory measurements of the camera and laser. In order to evaluate the proposed method, experimental tests were carried out in a 5 km semi-open ring route. A series of nodes were found to construct the RSF map. The experimental results demonstrate that the mean error of the nodes between the created and actual maps was 2.7 cm, the standard deviation of the nodes was 2.1 cm and the max error was 11.8 cm. The localization error of the IV was 10.8 cm. Hence, the proposed RSF map can be applied to semi-open scenarios in practice to provide a reliable basic for IV localization.

  • 10.
    Liu, Wi
    et al.
    Xuzhou, China.
    Li, Zhixiong
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Sun, Shuaishua
    Tohoku University, 13101 Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
    Gupta, Munish Kumar
    Shandong University, China.
    Du, H.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Malekian, Reza
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Sotelo, Miguel Angel
    University of Alcal, Spain.
    Li, Weihua
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Design a Novel Target to Improve Positioning Accuracy of Autonomous Vehicular Navigation System in GPS Denied Environments2021Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 17, nr 11, s. 7575-7588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate positioning is an essential requirement of autonomous vehicular navigation system (AVNS) for safe driving. Although the vehicle position can be obtained in Global Position System (GPS) friendly environments, in GPS denied environments (such as suburb, tunnel, forest or underground scenarios) the positioning accuracy of AVNS is easily reduced by the trajectory error of the vehicle. In order to solve this problem, the plane, sphere, cylinder and cone are often selected as the ground control targets to eliminate the trajectory error for AVNS. However, these targets usually suffer from the limitations of incidence angle, measuring range, scanning resolution, and point cloud density, etc. To bridge this research gap, an adaptive continuum shape constraint analysis (ACSCA) method is presented in this paper to design a new target with optimized identifiable specific shape to eliminate the trajectory error for AVNS. First of all, according to the proposed ACSCA method, we conduct extensive numerical simulations to explore the optimal ranges of the vertexes and the faces for target shape design, and based on these trials, the optimal target shape is found as icosahedron, which composes of 10 vertexes, 20 faces and combines the properties of plane and volume target. Moreover, the algorithm of automatic detection and coordinate calculation is developed to recognize the icosahedron target and calculate its coordinates information for AVNS. Lastly, a series of experimental investigation were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of our designed icosahedron target in GPS denied environments. The experimental results demonstrate that compared with the plane, sphere, cylinder and cone targets, the developed icosahedron target can produce better performances than the above targets in terms of the clustered minimum registration error, ambiguity and range of field-of-view; also can significantly improve the positioning accuracy of AVNS in GPS denied environments.

  • 11.
    Ouhaichi, Hamza
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Towards designing a flexible multimodal learning analytics system2022Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 12.
    Ouhaichi, Hamza
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Olsson, Helena Holmström
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Bosch, Jan
    Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden.
    Dynamic Data Management for Machine Learning in Embedded Systems: A Case Study2019Ingår i: Software Business: 10th International Conference, ICSOB 2019, Jyväskylä, Finland, November 18–20, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Sami Hyrynsalmi; Mari Suoranta; Anh Nguyen-Duc; Pasi Tyrväinen; Pekka Abrahamsson, Springer, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic data and continuously evolving sets of records are essential for a wide variety of today’s data management applications. Such applications range from large, social, content-driven Internet applications, to highly focused data processing verticals like data intensive science, telecommunications and intelligence applications. However, the dynamic and multimodal nature of data makes it challenging to transform it into machine-readable and machine-interpretable forms. In this paper, we report on an action research study that we conducted in collaboration with a multinational company in the embedded systems domain. In our study, and in the context of a real-world industrial application of dynamic data management, we provide insights to data science community and research to guide discussions and future research into dynamic data management in embedded systems. Our study identifies the key challenges in the phases of data collection, data storage and data cleaning that can significantly impact the overall performance of the system.

  • 13.
    Samandari, Rohan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Integration of Bluetooth Sensors in a Windows-Based Research Platform2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes how to build a solution for transmitting data from an           Electroencephalography (EEG) device to a server in real-time while guiding the user through a number of predefined exercises. This solution will be used by Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients suffering from neuropathic pain, in order to understand if it is possible to predict such pain from EEG. The collected data will help clinicians analyze the brain activity data from patients who can submit the data from their home. To accomplish this development task, an application was built that connects to a portable EEG device, gather brain activity data from patients, guides patients through a set of imaginary tasks and sends the data to a server. This project made use of a Software Development Kit (SDK) for the Python programming language and a web sockets server written in JavaScript. The application was tested both in terms of usability and end-to-end latency, showing high usability and low latency. The proposed solution will support a clinical trial in Spain with 40 SCI patients.

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  • 14.
    Stefansson, Petter
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Sony Network Communications, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Persson, Magnus
    Sony Network Communications, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Synthetic generation of passive infrared motion sensor data using a game engine2021Ingår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, nr 23, artikel-id 8078Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the number of occupants in an indoor space is useful for a wide variety of applications. Attempts have been made at solving the task using passive infrared (PIR) motion sensor data together with supervised learning methods. Collecting a large labeled dataset containing both PIR motion sensor data and ground truth people count is however time-consuming, often requiring one hour of observation for each hour of data gathered. In this paper, a method is proposed for generating such data synthetically. A simulator is developed in the Unity game engine capable of producing synthetic PIR motion sensor data by detecting simulated occupants. The accuracy of the simulator is tested by replicating a real-world meeting room inside the simulator and conducting an experiment where a set of choreographed movements are performed in the simulated environment as well as the real room. In 34 out of 50 tested situations, the output from the simulated PIR sensors is comparable to the output from the real-world PIR sensors. The developed simulator is also used to study how a PIR sensor’s output changes depending on where in a room a motion is carried out. Through this, the relationship between sensor output and spatial position of a motion is discovered to be highly non-linear, which highlights some of the difficulties associated with mapping PIR data to occupancy count. 

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