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  • 1. Beridze, Marine
    et al.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Ethnic Identity Features: Creation, Loss and Revival Dynamics (The case of Turkish Meskhetians)2008Inngår i: Iberiul-Kavkasiuri Enatmecniereba, ISSN 1987-6572, nr 36, s. 58-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of ethnic changes, that started in southern Georgia (Meskheti/ Samtskhe-Javakheti) in the 16th -17th centuries, was aimed at forming a new ethnic group out of the local population (Georgians, in particular, Meskhetians) and the immigrant population (Turks and Kurds). This was a complex and long process and was going on under the control of two powerful states: Turkey and, later, Russia. To create a new ethnic group and use it as a “tool” for mastering this strategically important territory was a policy of these states and has remained unchanged during three to four centuries. The gradual development of the features, unifying these groups, is documented in the historical sources: 1. Change of confession (encouraged by economic and other means); 2. Language shift (first within some domains and within high social classes and later in all domains and even among lower classes of the population), 3. Change of surnames (as a result of or final step of identity change), 4. New perception of own identity. Changing of the group name has reflected the group's development dynamics: Georgians who remained Christians retained their name Kartveli (Georgian in Georgian), Georgians who became Muslims in the 17-18th centuries were called Jerli (local in Turkish), and immigrated Muslims, who where ethnic Turks and Kurds, were called Tarakama. The next step was a unification of Jerli and Tarakama by the confessional feature and the naming of these two groups as Tatari (resp. Muslim). In the Russian censuses since the 19th century the unifying name of these groups, indicating confession (Tatari), has been changed with the unifying name indicating ethnicity (Turk) (regardless of the fact that ethnical composition of "Turks" was diverse). The Muslim population of this area also obtained an economic advantage. After the power change in Georgia in 1918, fear of losing the property strengthened the loyalty of this group to Turkey. In the 1920s Georgian schools were closed and Turkish schools were opened for the Georgian Muslims in Samtskhe-Javakheti. When the political climate changed, during the census before the Second World War, it was suggested that they should be registered as Georgians but this attempt failed. In the 1939 census they were called Azerbaijanis by officials and, thus, avoided the term Turk in the census. The group was deported to Central Asia in 1944. The group has retained and strengthened its unity after the deportation. Later, all Muslims deported to Central Asia from Samtskhe-Javakheti (Meskheti) irrespective of their ethnic diversity (Georgians, in particular, Meskhetians, as well as non-Georgians: Turks, Kurds) received the new shared name Turkish Meskhetians where two different names denoting the different ethnic origin are presented on the same level which is quite confusing. Nowadays people named as "Turkish Meskhetians" protest this name and demand to be called "Meskhetians" (Such a change, in turn, can cause new misunderstandings). It is noteworthy that Muslim Georgians try to avoid the term Turkish as a name of the Turkish language spoken by them and regularly call it "Our language". This seems to be a way to differentiate "our language" as a language obtained through the new confession and indicating the confessional loyalty, on the one hand, and the Turkish language that is spoken by ethnic Turks as a part of their ethnic identity and an indicator of their ethnic belonging, on the other hand. At the same time, it emphasises "our language" as a distinctive feature from the Georgian speaking Georgians. The group strives and acts for repatriation. The history of this group is an obvious case of the attempt to form one ethnic group out of different ethnic groups in the process of interaction between internal and external forces. It also confirms that the identity features function as an entire complex. Strive to reconstruct the whole complex of the features and overcome the lack of the missing feature (language, ideology, territory…) may exhibit vitality of the group. It is another matter that this strive may be employed for different goals by different political forces.

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  • 2.
    Kobaidze, Manana
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Tchantouria, Revaz
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Vamling, Karina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    On olfactory terminology in Georgian and other Kartvelian languages2021Inngår i: The Linguistics of Olfaction: Typological and Diachronic Approaches to Synchronic Diversity / [ed] Przemysław Staniewski, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2021, s. 113-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present chapter is a study of the system of olfactory expressions in Georgian, Megrelian, and other Kartvelian languages, including questions of etymology and semantic extensions. Olfactory expressions in the Kartvelian languages are explored with Viberg (1984) as a point of departure, making a division into activity, experience and copulative (source-based) expressions. The study largely relies on data from text corpora of Standard Georgian as well as Georgian dialects. The Kartvelian languages are shown to exhibit specific olfactory terminology, but show numerous examples of expressions being used in several perception modalities. 

  • 3.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Conjugation types of Georgian verbs2011Inngår i: Kartvelur Enata Strukturis Sakitxebi [Issues of the Structure of Kartvelian Languages], Vol. 11, s. 98-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong tendency to form morphologically marked two major groups of verbs in Georgian: dynamic verbs marked by thematic markers, on the one hand, and stative verbs makred by auxiliary verbs, on the other hand. This difference is manifested in the first and second persons of the present tense in the v-set marked forms. Stative verbs which formed the present tense without auxiliary verbs in old Georgian employ auxiliaries in contemporary Georgian (vzi vzivar ‘I am sitting’, vdga vdgavar ‘I am standing’...), whereas a large group of dynamic verbs presented without thematic markers in old Georgian takes thematic markers in contemporary Georgian (vtib vtibav ‘I am mowing it’, vt’ex vt’exav ‘I am breaking it’). All formally stative verbs are atelic verbs (vuq’varvar ‘S/he loves me’, vdgavar ‘I am standing’). They form the future tense by adding vowel prefixes. Within dynamic verbs, three large groups are distinguished: transitive telic verbs (vasheneb ‘I am building it’), intransitive telic verbs (vimalebi ‘I hide myself) and atelic verbs (vcxovrob ‘I live’, vmgheri ‘I sing’). Telic verbs (both dynamic transitives and dynamic intransitives) form the future tense by adding preverbs. Atelic verbs (both dynamic and stative) form the future tense by adding vowel prefixes. It is reasonable to identify three various types traditionally presented within conjugation type III: a) verbs formed with the markers –eb, -ob- and –av, b) verbs formed with the marker –i (vicini ‘I am laughing), and c) verbs formed with auxiliary verbs (vc’uxvar ‘I am worried). It is suggested to place the latter group (medioactives formed with auxiliary verbs, e.g. vc’uxvar ‘I am worried’, vdumvar ‘I am silent’) within the verbs formed with auxiliary verbs. Three other main groups within auxiliary formation verbs are the following: mediopassives (vdgavar ‘I am standing’), stative passives (vgdivar ‘I am lying thrown about’), and verbs where the 3rd subject person marker –a is attached directly to the root (cxela ‘It’s hot’). Some other features, characteristic of each type, are also described. Separation of auxiliary and non auxiliary verb formation makes it possible to describe the relation between phonematic structure of verbs and conjugation types. Inversive verbs are presented as differnet groups reflecting a variety of morphology of direct verbs but marked with a shared syntactic pattern C. (Abbreviations: PV – preverb, PVR – preradical vowel, R – root, Th – thematic marker, Syntactic B – syntactic pattern of transitive and labile transitive verbs, Syntactic pattern A – syntactic pattern of intransitive verbs, Syntactic pattern C – syntactic pattern of inversive verbs )

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  • 4.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    From the History of Identity and Language Planning Policy in Georgia2008Inngår i: Iberiul-Kavkasiuri Enatmecniereba, ISSN 1987-6572, nr 36, s. 128-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Soviet period, languages and identities formed a complicated hierarchy in Georgia as well as in the whole Soviet Union. Russian was a major language relative to Georgian and Georgian was a major language relative to other languages in Georgia. At the same time, Georgians constitute a minority group in some regions of Georgia and Georgian is a language of the minority in these regions. Ambiguity of status is observable among other groups as well. The cases of reversed assimilation have occurred: A minority group appears as a regional majority and assimilates representatives of the majority group. It has also been attested that one minority group assimilates another minority group. The crucial factor is the demographic factor and the intergroup sociopsychological climate, which was formed when Georgia itself was either a weakened state (17th-18th centuries) or a part of another state (19th-20th centuries) that tried to change the national face of Georgia. The Russian policy aimed to grant all languages the same rights on the whole territory of the Soviet Union despite the national borders (except those languages that are main languages of population outside the borders of the Soviet Union Assyrian, Kurdish, Greek). This was meant to create a new language balance among all languages where only Russian should work as a means of interethnic relations, and place Georgian at the same level as Armenian, Azerbaijanian, and other languages in Georgia as a first step of the Russification. Changes during the post-Soviet period have been reflected on this hierarchy. After the Soviet period the second group of minorities turned out to be minorities only in relation to Georgians lacking the Soviet (Russian) state with its supranational and even suprareligious or atheistic ideology (communism). Thus this second group found itself to be a part not of the Soviet Union (where every nationality had its contribution, and everybody had the same “elder brother“ Russia), but to be a minority in Georgia, an old country with its very clearly defined own historic and cultural face. Some of these groups felt like minorities for the first time relatively to their former “equals“. Protest against the new hierarchy and attempts to maintain and more precisely to obtain a new status in Georgia have emerged. The choice of the forms of these attempts depends on the demographic and geographic situation of the group. The hard socio-economic situation in Georgia also plays its part in this case. This gave opportunity to Russia to retain immediate ties to any group within the former “middle-stage” state Georgia and even grant its citizens with the citizenship of Russia as a new means of expansion after the supra-national state fall. This article is an attempt to present a general review of these processes and to describe the means employed by the Soviet State for replacing the traditionally formed identities by the new Soviet one. One step of the Soviet policy - to disintegrate, to deconstruct the inner structure of all republics - turned out to be reached to a significant degree, the next step - to integrate all these parts around one centre - the Soviet identity involving the shared history, culture, language, ideology, has failed. The complex of older values appeared to be stronger than the new Soviet one. Under the “umbrella” of the “supranational” Soviet citizenship of the supranational state the consciousness of real “informal” ethnic belonging to own ethnic groups has been preserved and developed among both Georgians and other ethnic groups in Georgia as a compensation of the lacking national citizenship. The independent Georgia faces the challenge to integrate the population of Georgia not only administratively and economically, but also ideologically and linguistically.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 5.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Georgian medial verbs: their form and peculiarities of case alternating objects2011Inngår i: Tsakhnagi, Annual of Philological Studies, ISSN 1987-7218, Vol. 3, s. 237-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three main issues are touched upon in this paper: (a) main morphological types of Georgian verbs in correlation with verb form, on one hand, and with the categories of telicity, stativeness, and transitivity, on the other; (b) peculiarities of case alternating objects of medial verbs; (c) and formal features of medial verbs as the basis for identification of the medial verb class (along with semantic features). This paper is based on Hopper & Thompson’s (1980) hypothesis that considers transitivity not as a strict dichotomy but as a continuum where various degrees of semantic transitivity may be distinguished. Differences expressed on semantic and syntactical levels mark one class of Georgian verbs, Class III, as intermediate between transitives and intransitives. Labile transitives, a term suggested by Melikishvili (2001), is used in this paper to indicate peculiarities of Class III verbs with respect to transitivity. This term expresses the nature of Class III verbs in terms of transitivity more accurately than the labeling of these verbs as intransitive, transitive, stative voiceless, or active intransitive verbs. It is demonstrated in this paper that various degrees of semantic transitivity as well as the category of telicity have their morphological expression in Georgian. Semantically, a case-alternating object of labile transitive verbs is often an inconcrete, non-definite object and/or is not affected by the action described in the verb. Syntactically, the difference is expressed by the lack of ability to assign a third person object marker to a verb. Case alternating objects of both Class I and Class III verbs are marked by the dative case in the tenses of series I. But the difference is that the dative marked, case alternating object of telic verbs (Class I) is usually marked by a prefix on verbs in old Georgian and in several modern dialects of East Georgia (ს-თლის s-tlis ‘s/he is peeling it’). In contrast, the dative marked, case alternating third person object of Class III verbs (atelic, labile transitives) cannot trigger a person marker on a verb (თამაშობს tamashobs but not *ს-თამაშობს *s-tamashobs ‘s/he is playing’). The latter forms are not attested, not even in those dialects where the person marking of the dative marked third person direct object is still preserved. As is described above, besides semantic peculiarities, this verb class, standing in an intermediate position between transitives and intransitives, exhibits morphological and syntactical features of its own.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Minority identity and identity maintenance in Georgia1999Inngår i: Working Papers, Department of Linguistics, Lund University, Vol. 47, s. 149-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 7.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Mother tongue and language use in Armenian and Russian schools in Georgia2001Inngår i: Working Papers, Department of Linguistics, Lund University, Vol. 48, s. 149-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för språkstudier (SPS).
    Some verbs of perception and their shared root kh- i n Georgian2014Inngår i: Etymological researches, ISSN 1987-9946, Vol. 11, s. 38-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses etymology of some stems, among them, kh-ev-a ‘to sound, to talk aloud, to recite’, m-kh-i-ar-ul-i ‘cheerful’, sa-kh-el-i ‘name’. In this paper, it is supposed that these stems are derived from the root -kh-. The same root occurs in verbs kh-ed-v-a ‘to see’, kh-eb-a ‘to touch’. The original meaning of the root -kh- must have been expression of physical contact. The similar shared etymology of different perception verbs is attested in wide range of languages and has been examined in lexical typology.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Towards the morphological and syntactical classification of Georgian verbs2014Inngår i: Advances in Kartvelian Morphology and Syntax: Contributions to the festival of languages Bremen, 17 Sep to 7 Oct, 2009, Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, Bochum , 2014, s. 23-45Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, it is proposed that Georgian verbs can be classified into two large groups: verbs formed without auxiliary verbs (mainly with thematic markers) and with auxiliary verbs. Syntactically, two main groups are identified: direct verbs and inversive verbs. Dynamic and stative are considered formal categories; the ability to form the present tense without taking an auxiliary verb is considered a morphological marker of formally dynamic verbs. Within this frame, a system is proposed that includes eight verb types, each with direct and indirect syntactic patterns. A large class of Georgian verbs, traditionally known as Class III verbs, is split into three different types, or subclasses. Characteristic formal features of all three types within Class III are touched upon. It is argued that various degrees of semantic transitivity have their morphological marking in Georgian.

  • 10.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Towards the Versification Typology of Georgian Verse2010Inngår i: Tsakhnagi, Annual of Philological Studies, ISSN 1987-7218, Vol. 2, s. 135-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhyme and Stress in Georgian Dialects (Towards the Versification Typology of Georgian Verse) Word stress is weak in standard Georgian. The typology of Georgian verse is an uncertain issue. Some researchers argue that the Georgian verse is accentual-syllabic, while according to another point of view, it is syllabic. An assertion about the exclusively specific nature of Georgian verse has also appeared. This paper is an attempt to introduce dialect data as material for versification research in Georgian. Georgian dialects have clearly marked stress patterns unlike the standard Georgian. It is noteworthy that the Georgian verse retains its structure regardless whether it is pronounced in standard Georgian intonation or in a dialectal accent. At the same time, the placement, tone pitch and intensity of a stressed syllable is quite diverse depending on dialects in Georgian. However, these differences do not affect the structure of Georgian verse. Especially significant is the fact that the place of dialectal stress (regardless of the diverse placement in various dialects) does not influence the length of a rhyme segment. On the basis of these data the following conclusions are suggested: 1. In difference from an accentual-syllabic verse (e.g. Russian verse) or syl¬labic verse (e.g. French verse), the stress (either a word stress or stress of a rhythmic segment) is not able to create a rhyme segment in Georgian. 2. Rhyme segments as well as feet in general are usually created by word boundaries in Georgian verse. 3. Word boundaries, in turn, are marked with pitch, intensity, and pause. A stress, characteristic of the standard Georgian or dialects, is usually presented along with word boundary markers, but the decisive factor for the verse structuring in Georgian is a word boundary and not a specific stress of dialects or that of the standard language. In other words, a word boundary forms a metrical stress in the Georgian verse. 4. In respect to the relation between a metrical stress, on the one hand, and a word stress (or rhythmic group stress), on the other hand, especially within a rhyme segment, an accentual-syllabic and a syllabic verse (at least, English and French verses) fall into one type. Georgian verse, along with certain languages, having a weak stress, makes up another group where the structural factor creating a rhythmi¬cal diversity is a word boundary.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för globala politiska studier (GPS).
    Beridze, Marine
    An attempt to create an ethnic group (Identity change dynamics of Muslimized Meskhetians)2010Inngår i: Language, History and Cultural Identities in the Caucasus. Papers from the conference, June 17-19 2005. Malmö 2010, 2010, s. 53-67Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 12. Kock Kobaidze, Manana
    et al.
    Vamling, Karina
    Case marking in infinitive (ad-form) clauses in Old Georgian1997Inngår i: Working Papers, Department of Linguistics, Lund University, Vol. 46, s. 167-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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    FULLTEXT01
1 - 12 of 12
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