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  • 1.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alawadi, Sadi
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University,Halmstad,Sweden.
    Ayyad, Majed
    Birzeit University,Department of Computer Science,Palestine.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    ART4FL: An Agent-Based Architectural Approach for Trustworthy Federated Learning in the IoT2023Inngår i: 2023 Eighth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine Learning (ML) technologies has opened up for the development of novel types of systems and services. Federated Learning (FL) has enabled the systems to collaboratively train their ML models while preserving the privacy of the data collected by their IoT devices and objects. Several FL frameworks have been developed, however, they do not enable FL in open, distributed, and heterogeneous IoT environments. Specifically, they do not support systems that collect similar data to dynamically discover each other, communicate, and negotiate about the training terms (e.g., accuracy, communication latency, and cost). Towards bridging this gap, we propose ART4FL, an end-to-end framework that enables FL in open IoT settings. The framework enables systems' users to configure agents that participate in FL on their behalf. Those agents negotiate and make commitments (i.e., contractual agreements) to dynamically form federations. To perform FL, the framework deploys the needed services dynamically, monitors the training rounds, and calculates agents' trust scores based on the established commitments. ART4FL exploits a blockchain network to maintain the trust scores, and it provides those scores to negotiating agents' during the federations' formation phase.

  • 2.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Activity Recognition and User Preference Learning for Automated Configuration of IoT Environments2020Inngår i: IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, s. 1-8, artikkel-id 3Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) environments encompass different types of devices and objects that offer a wide range of services. The dynamicity and uncertainty of those environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available devices, objects, and services. For the users to benefit from such environments, they should be proposed services that are relevant to the specific context and can be provided by available things. Moreover, environments should be configured automatically based on users' preferences. To address these challenges, we propose an approach that leverages Artificial Intelligence techniques to recognize users' activities and provides relevant services to support users to perform their activities. Moreover, our approach learns users' preferences and configures their environments accordingly by dynamically forming, enacting, and adapting goal-driven IoT systems. In this paper, we present a conceptual model, a multi-tier architecture, and processes of our approach. Moreover, we report about how we validated the feasibility and evaluated the scalability of the approach through a prototype that we developed and used.

  • 3.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    De Sanctis, Martina
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Comp Sci Dept, Laquila, Italy..
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy..
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen Univ, IDT Dept, Västerås, Sweden..
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Iovino, Ludovico
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Comp Sci Dept, Laquila, Italy..
    ROUTE: A Framework for Customizable Smart Mobility Planners2022Inngår i: IEEE 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE (ICSA 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, s. 169-179Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal journey planners are used worldwide to support travelers in planning and executing their journeys. Generated travel plans usually involve local mobility service providers, consider some travelers' preferences, and provide travelers information about the routes' current status and expected delays. However, those planners cannot fully consider the special situations of individual cities when providing travel planning services. Specifically, authorities of different cities might define customizable regulations or constraints of movements in the cities (e.g., due to construction works or pandemics). Moreover, with the transformation of traditional cities into smart cities, travel planners could leverage advanced monitoring features. Finally, most planners do not consider relevant information impacting travel plans, for instance, information that might be provided by travelers (e.g., a crowded square) or by mobility service providers (e.g., changing the timetable of a bus). To address the aforementioned shortcomings, in this paper, we propose ROUTE, a framework for customizable smart mobility planners that better serve the needs of travelers, local authorities, and mobility service providers in the dynamic ecosystem of smart cities. ROUTE is composed of an architecture, a process, and a prototype developed to validate the feasibility of the framework. Experiments' results show that the framework scales well in both centralized and distributed deployment settings.

  • 4.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Martina, De Sanctis
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Marconi, Annapaola
    Enacting Emergent Configurations in the IoT Through Domain Objects2018Inngår i: Proceedings of ICSOC 2018: Service-Oriented Computing, Springer, 2018, s. 279-294Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) pervades more and more aspects of our lives and often involves many types of smart connected objects and devices. User’s IoT environment changes dynamically, e.g., due to the mobility of the user and devices. Users can fully benefit from the IoT only when they can effortlessly interact with it. To accomplish this in a dynamic and heterogenous environment, we make use of Emergent Configurations (ECs), which consist of a set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily through their functionalities, applications, and services, to achieve a user goal. In this paper, we: (i) present the IoT-FED architectural approach to enable the automated formation and enactment of ECs. IoT-FED exploits heterogeneous and independently developed things, IoT services, and applications which are modeled as Domain Objects (DOs), a service-based formalism. Additionally, we (ii) discuss the prototype we developed and the experiments run in our IoT lab, for validation purposes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Murturi, Ilir
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Dustdar, Schahram
    A Goal driven Approach for Deploying Self-adaptive IoT Systems2020Inngår i: Proceedings: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), Salvador, Brazil, 16-20 March 2020 / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, 2020, s. 146-156Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering Internet of Things (IoT) systems is a challenging task partly due to the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including the involvement of the human in the loop. Users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in different environments, and IoT systems should be able to cope with dynamic changes. Several approaches have been proposed to enable the automated formation, enactment, and self-adaptation of goal-driven IoT systems. However, they do not address deployment issues. In this paper, we propose a goal-driven approach for deploying self-adaptive IoT systems in the Edge-Cloud continuum. Our approach supports the systems to cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including changes in their deployment topologies, i.e., the deployment nodes and their interconnections. We describe the architecture and processes of the approach and the simulations that we conducted to validate its feasibility. The results of the simulations show that the approach scales well when generating and adapting the deployment topologies of goal-driven IoT systems in smart homes and smart buildings.

  • 6.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Cerioli, Maura
    Leotta, Maurizio
    Reggio, Gianna
    On the Deployment of IoT Systems: An Industrial Survey2020Inngår i: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) systems are complex and multifaceted, and the design of their architectures needs to consider many aspects at a time. Design decisions concern, for instance, the modeling of software components and their interconnections, as well as where to deploy the components within the available hardware infrastructure in the Edge-Cloud continuum. A relevant and challenging task, in this context, is to identify optimal deployment models due to all the different aspects involved, such as extra-functional requirements of the system, heterogeneity of the hardware resources concerning their processing and storage capabilities, and constraints like legal issues and operational cost limits. To gain insights about the deployment decisions concerning IoT systems in practice, and the factors that influence those decisions, we report about an industrial survey we conducted with 66 IoT architects from 18 countries across the world. Each participant filled in a questionnaire that comprises 15 questions. By analyzing the collected data, we have two main findings: (i) architects rely on the Cloud more than the Edge for deploying the software components of IoT systems, in the majority of the IoT application domains; and (ii) the main factors driving deployment decisions are four: reliability, performance, security, and cost.

  • 7.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    An Agent-based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurationsin the Internet of Things2020Inngår i: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id 1347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled physical objects and devices, often referred to as things, to connect and communicate. This has opened up for the development of novel types of services that improve the quality of our daily lives. The dynamicity and uncertainty of IoT environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available things and services. Further, users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in arbitrary environments. To address these challenges, we exploit Artificial Intelligence (AI) to engineer smart IoT systems that can achieve user goals and cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of their environments. More specifically, the main contribution of this paper is an approach that leverages the notion of Belief-Desire-Intention agents and Machine Learning (ML) techniques to realize Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is an IoT system composed of a dynamic set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. The approach enables the distributed formation, enactment, adaptation of ECs, and conflict resolution among them. We present a conceptual model of the entities of the approach, its underlying processes, and the guidelines for using it. Moreover, we report about the simulations conducted to validate the feasibility of the approach and evaluate its scalability. View Full-Text

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Architecting Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2017Inngår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), IEEE, 2017, s. 221-224Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a great potential to change our lives. Billions of heterogeneous, distributed, intelligent, and sometimes mobile devices, will be connected and offer new types of applications and ways to interact. The dynamic environment of the IoT, the involvement of the human in the loop, and the runtime interactions among devices and applications, put additional requirements on the systems' architecture. In this paper, we use the Emergent Configurations (ECs) concept as a way to engineer IoT systems and propose an architecture for ECs. More specifically, we discuss (i) how connected devices and applications form ECs to achieve users' goals and (ii) how applications are run and adapted in response to runtime context changes including, e.g., the sudden unavailability of devices, by exploiting the Smart Meeting Room case.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Characterizing Internet of Things Systems through Taxonomies: A Systematic Mapping Study2019Inngår i: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 100084Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a large number of different definitions and taxonomies of Internet of Things (IoT) systems have been proposed. This has resulted in a fragmented picture and a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. To provide a better understanding of this issue and a way forward, we have conducted a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) of existing IoT System taxonomies. In addition, we propose a characterization of IoT systems synthesized from the existing taxonomies, which provides a more holistic view of IoT systems than previous taxonomies. It includes seventeen characteristics, divided into two groups: elements and quality aspects. Finally, by analyzing the results of the SMS, we draw future research directions.

  • 10.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    ECo-IoT: An Architectural Approach for Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2018Inngår i: Software Architecture: Proceeding of 12th European Conference on Software Architecture, ECSA 2018, Springer, 2018, s. 86-102Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way we live our everyday life and the society in general. New devices get connected to the Internet every day and, similarly, new IoT services and applications exploiting them are developed across a wide range of domains. The IoT environment typically is very dynamic, devices might suddenly become unavailable and new ones might appear. Similarly, users enter and/or leave the IoT environment while being interested in fulfilling their individual needs. These key aspects must be considered while designing and realizing IoT systems. In this paper we propose ECo-IoT, an architectural approach to enable the automated formation and adaptation of Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is formed by a set of things, with their services, functionalities, and applications, to realize a user goal. ECs are adapted in response to (un)foreseen context changes e.g., changes in available things or due to changing or evolving user goals. In the paper, we describe: (i) an architecture and a process for realizing ECs; and (ii) a prototype we implemented for (iii) the validation of ECo-IoT through an IoT scenario that we use throughout the paper.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things as System of Systems2017Inngår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE/ACM Joint 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems and 11th Workshop on Distributed Software Development, Software Ecosystems and Systems-of-Systems (JSOS), IEEE, 2017, s. 70-71Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of Systems (SoS) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have many common characteristics. For example, their constituents are heterogeneous, often autonomous, and distributed. Moreover, both IoT systems and SoS achieve their intended goals by means of the dynamic collaboration and coordination among their constituents. In this paper, by using the notion of Emergent Configurations (ECs) as a means to engineer IoT systems, we show how ECs in the IoT can be regarded both as systems and SoS by exploiting two scenarios.

  • 12.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Human-Centric Emergent Configurations: Supporting the User Through Self-configuring IoT Systems2021Inngår i: Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, and Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things, July 25-29, 2021, USA / [ed] Hasan Ayaz; Umer Asgher; Lucas Paletta, Springer, 2021, s. 411-418Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is revolutionizing our environments with novel types of services and applications by exploiting the large number of diverse connected things. One of the main challenges in the IoT is to engineer systems to support human users to achieve their goals in dynamic and uncertain environments. For instance, the mobility of both users and devices makes it infeasible to always foresee the available things in the users’ current environments. Moreover, users’ activities and/or goals might change suddenly. To support users in such environments, we developed an initial approach that exploits the notion of Emergent Configurations (ECs) and mixed initiative techniques to engineer self-configuring IoT systems. An EC is a goal-driven IoT system composed of a dynamic set of temporarily connecting and cooperating things. ECs are more flexible and usable than IoT systems whose constituents and interfaces are fully specified at design time

  • 13.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    IoT-based Systems of Systems2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd edition of Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems of Systems (SWESOS 2016), Chalmers , 2016, s. 34-37Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of Systems(SoS) and theInternet of Things(IoT)have many common characteristics. For example, their constituents are heterogeneous, autonomous and often distributed. Moreover, both IoT and SoS achieve intended goals by means of the highly dynamic cooperation among their constituents. In this paper we study the relation between IoT and SoS. We discuss the characteristics of both concepts and highlight common aspects. Furthermore, we introduce the conceptSystem of Emergent Configurations (SoECs) to describe IoT-based SoS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Cloud, Edge, or Both? Towards Decision Support for Designing IoT Applications2018Inngår i: 2018 Fifth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly evolving Internet of Things (IoT) includes applications which might generate a huge amount of data, this requires appropriate platforms and support methods. Cloud computing offers attractive computational and storage solutions to cope with these issues. However, sending to centralized servers all the data generated at the edge of the network causes latency, energy consumption, and high bandwidth demand. Performing some computations at the edge of the network, known as Edge computing, and using a hybrid Edge-Cloud architecture can help addressing these challenges. While such architecture may provide new opportunities to distribute IoT applications, making optimal decisions regarding where to deploy the different application components is not an easy and straightforward task for designers. Supporting designers’ decisions by considering key quality attributes impacting them in an Edge-Cloud architecture has not been investigated yet. In this paper, we: explore the importance of decision support for the designers, discuss how different attributes impact the decisions, and describe the required steps toward a decision support framework for IoT application designers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Quality attributes in edge computing for the Internet of Things: A systematic mapping study2021Inngår i: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 100346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) systems generate a massive amount of data needing to be processed and stored efficiently. Cloud computing solutions are often used to handle these tasks. However, the increasing availability of computational resources close to the edge has prompted the idea of using these for distributed computing and storage. Edge computing may help to improve IoT systems regarding important quality attributes like latency, energy consumption, privacy, and bandwidth utilization. However, deciding where to deploy the various application components is not a straightforward task. This is largely due to the trade-offs between the quality attributes relevant for the application. We have performed a systematic mapping study of 98 articles to investigate which quality attributes have been used in the literature for assessing IoT systems using edge computing. The analysis shows that time behavior and resource utilization are the most frequently used quality attributes; further, response time, turnaround time, and energy consumption are the most used metrics for quantifying these quality attributes. Moreover, simulation is the main tool used for the assessments, and the studied trade-offs are mainly between only two qualities. Finally, we identified a number of research gaps that need further study.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Edge Computing Simulators for IoT System Design: An Analysis of Qualities and Metrics2019Inngår i: Future Internet, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, nr 11, s. 235-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is complex since many quality characteristics should be taken into account, for example, performance, reliability, and security. In this study, we investigate to what extent the current edge computing simulators support the analysis of qualities that are relevant to IoT architects who are designing an IoT system. We first identify the quality characteristics and metrics that can be evaluated through simulation. Then, we study the available simulators in order to assess which of the identified qualities they support. The results show that while several simulation tools for edge computing have been proposed, they focus on a few qualities, such as time behavior and resource utilization. Most of the identified qualities are not considered and we suggest future directions for further investigation to provide appropriate support for IoT architects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Ashouri, Majid
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Lorig, Fabian
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Svorobej, Sergej
    Analyzing Distributed Deep Neural Network Deployment on Edge and Cloud Nodes in IoT Systems2020Inngår i: IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing (EDGE), Virtual conference, October 18–24, 2020., 2020, s. 59-66Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the efficient execution of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in the Internet of Things, computation tasks can be distributed and deployed on edge nodes. In contrast to deploying all computation to the cloud, the use of Distributed DNN (DDNN) often results in a reduced amount of data that is sent through the network and thus might increase the overall performance of the system. However, finding an appropriate deployment scenario is often a complex task and requires considering several criteria. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision-making method based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process for the comparison and selection of deployment alternatives. We use the RECAP simulation framework to model and simulate DDNN deployments on different scales to provide a comprehensive assessment of deployments to system designers. In a case study, we apply the method to a smart city scenario where different distributions and deployments of a DNN are analyzed and compared.

  • 18. Autili, Marco
    et al.
    Inverardi, Paola
    Mignosi, Filippo
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Tivoli, Massimo
    Automated Synthesis of Application-layer Connectors from Automata-based Specifications2015Inngår i: Language and Automata Theory and Applications, Springer, 2015, s. 3-24Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The heterogeneity characterizing the systems populating the Ubiquitous Computing environment prevents their seamless interoperability. Heterogeneous protocols may be willing to cooperate in order to reach some common goal even though they meet dynamically and do not have a priori knowledge of each other. Despite numerous efforts have been done in the literature, the automated and run-time interoperability is still an open challenge for such environment. We consider interoperability as the ability for two Networked Systems (NSs) to communicate and correctly coordinate to achieve their goal(s). In this paper, we report the main outcomes of our past and recent research on automatically achieving protocol interoperability via connector synthesis. We consider application-layer connectors by referring to two conceptually distinct notions of connector: {\em coordinator} and {\em mediator}. The former is used when the NSs to be connected are already able to communicate but they need to be specifically coordinated in order to reach their goal(s). The latter goes a step forward representing a solution for both achieving correct coordination and enabling communication between highly heterogeneous NSs. In the past, most of the works in the literature described efforts to the automatic synthesis of coordinators while, in recent years the focus moved also to the automatic synthesis of mediators. By considering our past experience on the automatic synthesis of coordinators and mediators as a baseline, we conclude by overviewing a formal method for the automated synthesis of mediators that allows to relax some assumptions state-of-the-art approaches rely on, and characterize the necessary and sufficient interoperability conditions that ensure the mediator existence and correctness.

  • 19.
    Autili, Marco
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze dell'Informazione e Matematica, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.
    Inverardi, Paola
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze dell'Informazione e Matematica, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Tivoli, Massimo
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze dell'Informazione e Matematica, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.
    Mignosi, Filippo
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze dell'Informazione e Matematica, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy; Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 34, 90123 Palermo, Italy.
    Automated synthesis of application-layer connectors from automata-based specifications2019Inngår i: Journal of computer and system sciences (Print), ISSN 0022-0000, E-ISSN 1090-2724, Vol. 104, s. 17-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing, and the Internet of Things, promote dynamic interaction among heterogeneous systems. To achieve this vision, interoperability among heterogeneous systems represents a key enabler, and mediators are often built to solve protocol mismatches. Many approaches propose the synthesis of mediators. Unfortunately, a rigorous characterization of the concept of interoperability is still lacking, hence making hard to assess their applicability and soundness. In this paper, we provide a framework for the synthesis of mediators that allows us to: (i) characterize the conditions for the mediator existence and correctness; and (ii) establish the applicability boundaries of the synthesis method.

  • 20. Becker, S.
    et al.
    Camara, J.
    Challita, S.
    Fehling, C.
    Jansen, A.
    Kopp, O.
    Koziolek, H.
    Kruchten, P.
    Lewis, G. A.
    Lilienthal, C.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Trubiani, C.
    Message from the SAIP, NEMI, ECRF, Journal First, and Workshops Track Chairs2021Inngår i: Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Softw. Archit. Companion, ICSA-C, Vol. 18, s. x-xi, artikkel-id 9425850Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The 18th IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA 2021) solicited different types of submissions structured into the following tracks: The main Technical Track (included in the ICSA main proceedings), the Software Architecture in Practice (SAIP) track, the New and Emerging Ideas (NEMI) track, the Early Career Researchers Forum (ECRF), the Journal First track, and the Workshop track (included in the companion volume of ICSA 2021 proceedings). Each of these tracks, except for the Technical Track, is presented in the following sections. © 2021 IEEE.

  • 21.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    On the Analysis of Semantic Denial-of-Service Attacks Affecting Smart Living Devices2020Inngår i: Intelligent Computing: Proceedings of the 2020 Computing Conference / [ed] Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor, Rahul Bhatia, Springer, 2020, Vol. 2Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the interconnectedness of heterogeneous IoT devices being deployed in smart living spaces, it is imperative to assure that connected devices are resilient against Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. DoS attacks may cause economic damage but may also jeopardize the life of individuals, e.g., in a smart home healthcare environment since there might be situations (e.g., heart attacks), when urgent and timely actions are crucial. To achieve a better understanding of the DoS attack scenario in the ever so private home environment, we conduct a vulnerability assessment of five commercial-off-the-shelf IoT devices: a gaming console, media player, lighting system, connected TV, and IP camera, that are typically found in a smart living space. This study was conducted using an automated vulnerability scanner – Open Vulnerability Assessment System (OpenVAS) – and focuses on semantic DoS attacks. The results of the conducted experiment indicate that the majority of the tested devices are prone to DoS attacks, in particular those caused by a failure to manage exceptional conditions, leading to a total compromise of their availability. To understand the root causes for successful attacks, we analyze the payload code, identify the weaknesses exploited, and propose some mitigations that can be adopted by smart living developers and consumers.

  • 22. Calinescu, Radu
    et al.
    Autili, Marco
    Camara, Javier
    Di Marco, Antinisca
    Gerasimou, Simos
    Inverardi, Paola
    Perucci, Alexander
    Jansen, N.
    Katoen, J P
    Kwiatkowska, Marta
    Mengshoel, O J
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Tivoli, Massimo
    Synthesis and Verification of Self-aware Computing Systems2017Inngår i: Self-aware Computing Systems / [ed] Samuel Kounev, Jeffrey O. Kephart, Aleksandar Milenkoski, Xiaoyun Zhu, Springer, 2017, s. 337-373Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-aware computing systems are envisaged to exploit the knowledge of their own software architecture, hardware infrastructure and environment in order to follow high-level goals through proactively adapting as their environment evolves. This chapter describes two classes of key enabling techniques for self-adaptive systems: automated synthesis and formal verification. The ability to dynamically synthesize component connectors and compositions underpins the proactive adaptation of the architecture of self-aware systems. Deciding when adaptation is needed and selecting valid new architectures or parameters for self-aware systems often requires formal verification. We present the state of the art in the use of the two techniques for the development of self-aware computing systems and summarize the main research challenges associated with their adoption in practice.

  • 23. Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    Malavolta, Ivano
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Model-Driven Engineering for Mission-Critical IoT Systems2017Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 46-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mission-critical Internet of Things (MC-IoT) systems involve heterogeneous things from both the digital and physical worlds. They run applications whose failure might cause significant and possibly dramatic consequences, such as interruption of public services, significant business losses, and deterioration of enterprise operations. These applications require not only high availability, reliability, safety, and security but also regulatory compliance, scalability, and serviceability. At the same time, they're exposed to various facets of uncertainty, spanning from software and hardware variability to mission planning and execution in possibly unforeseeable environments. Model-driven engineering can potentially meet these challenges and better enable the adoption of MC-IoT systems.

  • 24. Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    MDE4IoT: Supporting the Internet of Things with Model-Driven Engineering2017Inngår i: Intelligent Distributed Computing X / [ed] Badica, C Seghrouchni, AE Beynier, A Camacho, D Herpson, C Hindriks, K Novais, P, Springer, 2017, s. 67-76Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) unleashes great opportunities to improve our way of living and working through a seamless and highly dynamic cooperation among heterogeneous things including both computer-based systems and physical objects. However, properly dealing with the design, development, deployment and runtime management of IoT applications means to provide solutions for a multitude of challenges related to intelligent distributed systems within the IoT. In this paper we propose Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) as a key enabler for applications running on intelligent distributed loT systems. MDE helps in tackling challenges and supporting the lifecycle of such systems. Specifically, we introduce MDE4IoT, an MDE approach enabling the modelling of things and supporting intelligence as self-adaptation of Emergent Configurations in the IoT. Moreover, we show how MDE, and in particular MDE4IoT, can help in tackling several challenges by providing the Smart Street Lights concrete case.

  • 25.
    De Sanctis, Martina
    et al.
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Laquila, Italy..
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Trubiani, Catia
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Laquila, Italy..
    QoS-Based Formation of Software Architectures in the Internet of Things2019Inngår i: SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE, ECSA 2019 / [ed] Bures, T Duchien, L Inverardi, P, Springer, 2019, s. 178-194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecting Internet of Things (IoT) systems is very challenging due to the heterogeneity of connected objects and devices, and their dynamic variabilities such as mobility and availability. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated when considering Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints. Indeed, reasoning about multiple quality attributes, e.g., power consumption and response time, makes the management of IoT systems even more difficult since it is necessary to jointly evaluate multiple system characteristics. The focus of this paper is on modelling and analysing QoS-related characteristics in IoT architectures. To this end, we leverage on the concept of Emergent Architectures (EAs), i.e., a set of things temporarily cooperating to achieve a given goal, by intertwining EAs with QoS-related constraints. Our approach provides the automated formation of the most suitable EAs by means of a QoS-based optimisation problem. We developed an IoT case study and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • 26. Götz, Sebastian
    et al.
    Gerostathopoulos, Ilias
    Krikava, Filip
    Shahzada, Adnan
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Adaptive exchange of distributed partial models@run.time for highly dynamic systems2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE/ACM 10th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS): Proceeding, 2015, s. 64-70Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future software systems will be highly dynamic. We are already experiencing, for example, a world where Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) play a more and more crucial role. CPSs integrate computational, physical, and networking elements; they comprise a number of subsystems, or entities, that are connected and work together. The open and highly distributed nature of the resulting system gives rise to unanticipated runtime management issues such as the organization of subsystems and resource optimization. In this paper, we focus on the problem of knowledge sharing among cooperating entities of a highly distributed and self-adaptive CPS. Specifically, the research question we address is how to minimize the knowledge that needs to be shared among the entities of a CPS. If all entities share all their knowledge with each other, the performance, energy and memory consumption as well as privacy are unnecessarily negatively impacted. To reduce the amount of knowledge to share between CPS entities, we envision a role-based adaptive knowledge exchange technique working on partial runtime models, i.e., models reflecting only part of the state of the CPS. Our approach supports two adaptation dimensions: the runtime type of knowledge and conditions over the knowledge. We illustrate the feasibility of our technique by discussing its realization based on two state-of-the-art approaches.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 27. Lewis, Grace
    et al.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    ICSA 2018 Early Career Researchers Forum: Message from the Chairs2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE 15th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C 2018), IEEE, 2018, s. 39-39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Mihailescu, Radu-Casian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Heyer, Clint
    Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    A Role-Based Approach for Orchestrating Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things2017Inngår i: Internet of Agents;2, 2017, s. 18-35Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is envisioned as a global net- work of connected things enabling ubiquitous machine-to-machine (M2M) communication. With estimations of billions of sensors and devices to be connected in the coming years, the IoT has been advocated as having a great potential to impact the way we live, but also how we work. How- ever, the connectivity aspect in itself only accounts for the underlying M2M infrastructure. In order to properly support engineering IoT sys- tems and applications, it is key to orchestrate heterogeneous ’things’ in a seamless, adaptive and dynamic manner, such that the system can ex- hibit a goal-directed behaviour and take appropriate actions. Yet, this form of interaction between things needs to take a user-centric approach and by no means elude the users’ requirements. To this end, contextu- alisation is an important feature of the system, allowing it to infer user activities and prompt the user with relevant information and interactions even in the absence of intentional commands. In this work we propose a role-based model for emergent configurations of connected systems as a means to model, manage, and reason about IoT systems including the user’s interaction with them. We put a special focus on integrating the user perspective in order to guide the emergent configurations such that systems goals are aligned with the users’ intentions. We discuss related scientific and technical challenges and provide several uses cases outlining the concept of emergent configurations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 29. Muccini, Henry
    et al.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Moghaddam, Mahyar T.
    Sharaf, Mohammad
    Self-adaptive IoT Architectures2018Inngår i: Ecsa 2018: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference On Software architecture: Companion Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2018, artikkel-id 19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with the rapid growth of IoT technologies and devices, their solutions are currently being applied on various domains such as health-care, transportation and agriculture, but mainly on crowd monitoring and emergency handling. The latter is a safety critical IoT system based on collecting and analyzing the real-time data to perform proper actuation. In order to engineer such a high quality IoT application, a proper software architecture should be designed. In order for the software architecture to be able to optimize critical requirements such as fault-tolerance, performance and energy consumption, it ought to: 0 adapt itself to real-time environment transformation, ii) be designed in a proper level of elements distribution. In this paper, we critically analyze a set of IoT distribution and self-adaptation patterns to identify their suitable architectural combinations. Further, we use our IoT modeling framework (CAPS) to model an emergency handling system. Based on these, we design two quality driven architectures to be used for a forest monitoring and evacuation example and qualitatively evaluate and compare them.

  • 30. Nostro, Nicola
    et al.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Di Giandomenico, Felicita
    Inverardi, Paola
    Achieving functional and non functional interoperability through synthesized connectors2016Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 111, s. 185-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our everyday life is pervaded by the use of a number of heterogeneous systems that are continuously and dynamically available in the networked environment to interoperate to achieve some goal. Goals may include both functional and non functional aspects and the evolving nature of such environment requires automated solutions as means to reach the needed level of flexibility. Achieving interoperability in such environment is a challenging problem. Even though some of such systems may in principle interact since they have compatible functionalities and similar interaction protocols, mismatches in their protocols and non functional issues arising from the environment may undermine their seamless interoperability. In this paper, we propose an approach for the automated synthesis of application layer connectors between heterogeneous Networked Systems (NSs) addressing both functional and some non functional interoperability. Our contributions are: (i) an automated connectors synthesis approach for NSs interoperability taking into account functional, performance and dependability aspects spanning pre-deployment time and run-time; (ii) a connector adaptation process, related to the performance and dependability aspects; and (iii) a stochastic model-based implementation of the performance and dependability analysis. In addition, we implemented, analysed, and critically discussed a case study.

  • 31.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    De Sanctis, Martina
    Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), L’Aquila, Italy.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Shaping IoT Systems Together: The User-System Mixed-Initiative Paradigm and Its Challenges2023Inngår i: Software Architecture: 17th European Conference, ECSA 2023, Istanbul, Turkey, September 18–22, 2023, Proceedings / [ed] Bedir Tekinerdogan, Catia Trubiani, Chouki Tibermacine, Patrizia Scandurra, Carlos E. Cuesta, Springer, 2023, s. 221-229Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) systems are often complex and have to deal with many challenges at the same time, both from a human and technical perspective. In this vision paper, we (i) describe IoT-Together , the Mixed-initiative Paradigm that we devise for IoT user-system collaboration and (ii) critically analyze related architectural challenges.

  • 32.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    Eklund, Ulrik
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    INTERO: an Interoperability Model for Large Systems2020Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 38-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is one of the key challenges in present and future software-intensive systems that are large, distributed, and increasingly built as integration of existing and third parties components or systems, of legacy parts, and of newly developed parts. Moreover, such systems evolve over time due to different reasons, e.g., features are added, changed or removed, new protocols are supported, standards are changed, refactoring.To help large companies identifying how to manage and improve interoperability among their evolving software systems, our objective is to develop an interoperability model for large systems by focusing on software development.Our method to conceive and evaluate the model is through a tight collaboration among two universities and five large international companies.The results of our work are the INTERO model and the INTERO evaluation framework. They permit to analyse the specific interoperability problem, to conceive strategies to enhance interoperability, and finally to re-evaluate the problem in order to understand whether there is an improvement in terms of software interoperability.

  • 33.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Platenius, Marie C.
    Becker, Steffen
    Engels, Gregor
    IoT-ASAP 2018: Message from the Chairs2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE 15th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C 2018), IEEE, 2018, s. 8-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017 we organized the first IoT-ASAP - International Workshop on Engineering IoT Systems: Architectures, Services, Applications, and Platform. Given the great success of its first edition (19 paper submissions and 41 registered attendees, including organizers), in 2018 we organized the second IoT-ASAP.

  • 34.
    Spalazzese, Romina
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Platenius, Marie Christin
    Becker, Steffen
    Engels, Gregor
    Persson, Per
    Message from the IoT-ASAP Chairs2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture: Side Track Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, s. 70-71Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) includes billions of things, i.e., connected objects and devices that are heterogeneous, distributed, and possibly intelligent and run applications and services from the Internet of Services (IoS). Things span, for instance, RFID tags, sensors, computers, plants, lamps, autonomous robots, and self-driving vehicles. Often, things are connected through heterogeneous platforms also providing support for, e.g., data collection, management, and applications deployment. Additionally, things can offer their functionalities as (web) services facilitating their dynamic interaction.

  • 35.
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Dong, Yuji
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Emruli, Blerim
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Lund University.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    What is an Open IoT Platform?: Insights from a Systematic Mapping Study2020Inngår i: Future Internet, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 12, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) is mainly associated with vertically integrated systems that often are closed and fragmented in their applicability. To build a better IoT ecosystem, the open IoT platform has become a popular term in the recent years. However, this term is usually used in an intuitive way without clarifying the openness aspects of the platforms. The goal of this paper is to characterize the openness types of IoT platforms and investigate what makes them open. We conducted a systematic mapping study by retrieving data from 718 papers. As a result of applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 221 papers were selected for review. We discovered 46 IoT platforms that have been characterized as open, whereas 25 platforms are referred as open by some studies rather than the platforms themselves. We found that the most widely accepted and used open IoT platforms are NodeMCU and ThingSpeak that together hold a share of more than 70% of the declared open IoT platforms in the selected papers. The openness of an IoT platform is interpreted into different openness types. Our study results show that the most common openness type encountered in open IoT platforms is open-source, but also open standards, open APIs, open data and open layers are used in the literature. Finally, we propose a new perspective on how to define openness in the context of IoT platforms by providing several insights from the different stakeholder viewpoints.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Dorthé, Lotti ()
    Malmö universitet, Malmö universitetsbibliotek.
    Olsson, Annsofie ()
    Malmö universitet, Malmö universitetsbibliotek.
    Spikol, Daniel (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Linde, Per (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för konst, kultur och kommunikation (K3). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Leckner, Sara (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Russo, Nancy (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Eriksson, Jeanette (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmberg, Johan (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus (, )
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Brandström, Maria ()
    Malmö universitet, Malmö universitetsbibliotek.
    Tosting, Åsa ()
    Malmö universitet, Malmö universitetsbibliotek.
    Egevad, Per ()
    Malmö universitet, Malmö universitetsbibliotek.
    Svensson, Anneli ()
    Malmö universitet, Malmö universitetsbibliotek.
    Topgaard, Richard ()
    Malmö universitet, Gemensamt verksamhetsstöd. Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Forskarnas galleri #5: People have the power: IOTAP on exhibit2018Kunstnerisk output (Ogranskad)
    Abstract [sv]

    Överallt samlar sensorer data som analyseras för att räkna ut hur man sparar energi, hur mycket insulin som ska injiceras, var den närmaste hyrbilen finns, hur många människor som fortfarande är kvar inne i en brinnande byggnad... Denna snabba spridning av teknik kallas för Sakernas Internet, eller IoT. Människor har makten, eller har vi verkligen det? Hur mycket värderar vi vår integritet? Vilka internetanslutna gadgets hjälper oss att leva ett hälsosamt och hållbart liv - och vilka prylar kommer bara att öka vår stressnivå? När blir användningen missbruk? Utställningen undersöker hur IoT påverkar människor, samhälle och industri. Forskningsprojekt i utställningen: Emergent Configuration for IoT Systems (ECOS+), Smart energy management and security (SEMS), Fair Data, Walk the ward, Dynamic Intelligent Sensor-Intensive Systems (DISS), PELARS-projektet och Busrunner presenteras i "IOTAP-labbet"

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