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  • 1.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Bilde, Rasmus H.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Eskelund, Marc
    Möller Hansen, Line
    Macura, Miroslav
    Gehrke Pedersen, Kasper
    Ostby, Lars
    Scandinavia's Population Groups Originating from Developing Countries: Change and Integration2013Book (Other academic)
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  • 2.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Broomé, Per
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Schölin, Tobias
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Tillväxt och mångfald i skånskt företagande: sammanfattning av rapporten "Företagare i Skåne - kartläggning och analys av inrikes och utrikes födda företagare"2009Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Sweden’s Population Groups Originating from Developing Countries: Change and Integration2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the integration of individuals originating from the six non-western immigrant countries of Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, Turkey and Vietnam and their descendants in Sweden in the ten-year period 1998-2008. The central aim of the report is to analyse the integration patterns of these groups in three important areas: demographic behaviour, educational enrolment and labour market integration. This research has three objectives. The first is to determine when the groups came into being and how they have developed, with a focus on key features of population change, i.e. the overall growth, components of growth and age-sex-structure shifts. The second objective is to analyse two specific aspects: the groups’ integration and participation in the educational system, i.e. educational enrolment, and their integration patterns in the labour market, with a main focus on employment and unemployment. In order to provide a bridge between the analyses of population change and integration, compositions of the groups by selected traits, such as immigrant generation and duration of residence, are also examined. The third objective is to study, where feasible, the impact of selected public policies and practices, particularly those pertaining to immigration and integration. Over the last six decades the size of Sweden’s immigrant population (immigrants and their descendants) has steadily increased. Migration flows into the country have been associated with societal phenomena such as labour demand in the growing economy, family reunions and refugee streams due to wars and political conflicts. Although earlier migration streams appear to have integrated relatively well, concern about the current streams is high on the political agenda. It is thought that more in-depth knowledge about the integration patterns of the demographic, educational and labour market domains could lead to improved integration policies. In 2010, almost one fifth of Sweden’s population consisted of immigrants or descendants of immigrants. To be more exact, 14.7 per cent of the country’s 9,415,570 inhabitants are immigrants in Sweden. Descendants of immigrants amount to 412,960 persons, or 4.4 per cent of the total population. In other words, immigrants from the countries that are in focus in this report and their descendants constitute 20 per cent of the immigrant population in Sweden, with individuals from Iraq making up the largest immigrant group and people from Pakistan the smallest. Since the end of the 1960s Sweden has made use of a number of integration strategies to accommodate immigrants into several areas of society. Of these, Swedish language proficiency and integration into the economic domain have been the most important. According to The Migrant Integration Policy Index (2007), Sweden scores very highly when it comes to granting immigrants access to and rights in the labour market. To summarise the most important results and at the same time return to the first objective of this study, namely the demographic integration in the period 1998-2008, we can see that all six immigrant groups have grown. In particular, the Iraqi and Somali groups have experienced a substantial increase in number. For Iran, Iraq, Somalia and Vietnam the growth is due to both net migration and an increasing number of descendants. For Pakistan, the main reason for the increase is net migration. Overall, the population growth in Sweden in this period is mainly a result of net migration and higher birth rates among immigrants and to a somewhat lower degree their descendants. As might be expected, “older” immigrant groups that have been in Sweden for a longer period of time have more descendants than “younger” immigrant groups. Iran, Turkey and Vietnam can be depicted as “older” groups and Iraq, Pakistan and Somalia as “younger” ones. With the exception of Iran, all the immigrant groups show a higher crude birth rate than that for native Swedes. The immigrant groups are still younger than the native population and have a far lower crude death rate than natives. In general, immigrants are married to individuals from the same group, whereas their descendants tend to be married to natives or individuals from other immigrant groups. The total fertility rate is higher among most of the immigrant groups compared to that for natives. Again, Iranian women are the exception, where descendants show a lower fertility rate than their immigrant parents. The second objective of the study – to analyse two specific aspects of the integration of the groups – includes participation in the educational system, i.e. educational enrolment, and integration patterns in the labour market, with a focus on employment and unemployment. When it comes to enrolment in education, the immigrant groups show a variation. Iraqi and Iranian men and women, as well as males from Pakistan and females from Vietnam, match the enrolment levels of native men and women in the age group 16-19. Moreover, the descendants of immigrants generally show a higher enrolment level than their immigrant counterparts. A positive development is visible over time. Both immigrants and descendants have higher enrolment levels in education at the end of the period compared to the beginning, i.e. 2008 versus 1998. However, Somali men and women have a lower enrolment level at the end of the period compared to the start. Major migration to Sweden and difficulties of entering the regular educational system could be reasons for this result. Descendant females show a higher enrolment level than descendant males. The pattern is similar for immigrants, but at a lower level. For higher education, the results indicate a gender gap with more female than male students. The employment integration of individuals in the core labour market ages of 25-54 is relatively low. However, a positive trend is visible over time. Both females and males from the six immigrant groups have higher employment rates at the end of the period. The gender gap shows that males have higher employment levels than females. The largest gap is detected for Pakistan and Turkey. The employment rates for young immigrants aged 16-24 are lower than those for natives. For women we see no positive development over time, but for males an increasing employment rate is visible. Male and female descendants in this age group have lower employment rates than natives, but higher employment rates than their immigrant counterparts. Following the cohort of 25-39 year-old immigrants over time from 1998 to 2003 to 2008, increasing employment levels can be observed for both females and males. The exceptions are Pakistani and Somali males, which show no increasing employment levels between 2003 and 2008. The unemployment rate for both immigrant females and males drops during the ten-year period, with the exception of Iraqi and Somali immigrants. Female youth unemployment also drops over time for most immigrant groups, again with the exception of Somali immigrants. For males, youth unemployment also decreases. The exceptions here are Iraqi, Somali and native males. Descendant unemployment levels are mainly in parity with or lower than native levels. Inactivity is higher for all immigrant groups compared to natives. However, the inactivity rate drops substantially over the period. With regard to the third objective of the study – to provide insights into the impact of selected public policies and practices, particularly those pertaining to immigration and integration on the chosen aspects of change and integration – we can highlight the following issues. No particular integration policy aimed at immigrant groups deals with demographic aspects. The observed change in the demographic behaviour of the descendants of the six immigrant groups, albeit to differing degrees, is voluntary and shows an adaption to the behaviour of the population in general. Integration policies have a strong focus on educational and labour market integration in Sweden. In addition to the general positive economic business cycle, the economic integration of six immigrant groups and their descendents shows a gradual positive development. Integration policies aimed at immigrants and education policies aimed at the population in general have also had an effect on the successive larger educational enrolment of immigrants and their descendents.

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  • 4.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Rönnqvist, Sofia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Sweden2010In: Migration, Employment and Labour Market Policies in The European Union, Part 1: Migration and the Labour Markets in the European Union (2000-2009) / [ed] Anna Platonova, Giuliana Urso, IOM International Organization for Migration , 2010, p. 295-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Rönnqvist, Sofia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Sweden2010In: Migration, Employment and Labour Market Policies in The European Union, Part 2: Labour Market Integration Policies in the European Union (2000-2009) / [ed] Anna Platonova, Giuliana Urso, IOM International Organization for Migration , 2010, p. 241-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Broomé, Per
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Schölin, Tobias
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Organisations as Gateways for Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both public organisations, such as local governments, and private organisations, can be seen as gateways for immigrants into the new country. This paper discusses the manner in which such organisations address fundamental gateway concepts such as empowerment and diversity, and how the interpretations of these affect their actions.

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  • 7.
    Broomé, Per
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Schölin, Tobias
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Quantitative Indicators of Diversity: Content or Packaging?2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the possibilities of measuring diversity in organisations. In the fi rst section of the study we develop three quantitative dimensions of diversity: the Total Dimension that measures horizontal and vertical representations, the Role-model Dimension that measures representation at the top level of the organisation, and the Services Dimension that measures the organisation’s ‘diversity sensitivity’. These three dimensions or measures were developed and critically discussed before being tested on Malmö city’s administration, i.e. the central offi ce and the health and social service supply.

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  • 8.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Education and labor market integration: the role of formal education in the process of ensuring a place in the occupational structure for natives and immigrants2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Occupational Match: Over- and Undereducation Among Immigrants in the Swedish Labor Market2011In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 12, p. 349-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to study the differences in the match/mismatch of education and job level as well as the differences between the native and immigrant population in the occupational match. A distinction is made between educational levels and general and vocational education. A sample consisting of native Swedes and nine immigrant groups, based on register data, was selected for analysis. Descriptive statistics are presented and analyzed as well as logistic regression analysis controlling for basic human capital and immigrant specific variables. The main conclusions of the article are that there are considerable differences between vocational and general education in the match/mismatch, as well as differences between natives and immigrants. The vocationally educated population shows a higher match compared to the generally educated, but the generally educated population shows a higher proportion of undereducated individuals compared to the vocationally educated population. Although there are considerable differences between the studied immigrant groups, the general conclusion is that the immigrated population shows a lower match between educational level and skills level of the job as well as a higher level of overeducation compared to the native population.

  • 10.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Over-Education amongst the Children of Immigrants in Sweden2015In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of the article is whether immigrants' descendants have the same occupational mismatch as immigrants, or whether their experiences reflect those of the population with Swedish-born parents. Register data for the entire population of Sweden for the year 2007 is used for a multivariate analysis. All employed individuals aged between 25 and 64 have been selected. The main results show that the descendant generation has lower levels of mismatch compared to the immigrant generation: the male descendant population shows higher odds of being over-educated, whereas the female descendant population does not significantly differ in this from Swedish-born individuals with two Swedish-born parents.

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  • 11.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Swedish Match? Education, Migration and Labor market Integration in Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze and examine the role of education, for both immigrants and their descendants, in the process of becoming a part of the labor market of the host society. In other words, the relationship between education and work. The questions addressed in the thesis are: Does type of education matter for labor market access? Does the educational level of the individual match the skill level of the job: Is the occupational match dissimilar for different country of birth groups? Do the children of immigrants have a higher occupational match than their parents? What does the relationship between education and work look like when a part of the population has obtained their education in another country? The thesis consists of an introductory chapter in which the results from the three independent articles are discussed. The first article focuses on the chances of getting a job in the Swedish labor market depending on the individuals’ background and education. Article two and three focus on the occupational match and mismatch in the Swedish labor market, i.e. the degree to which individuals work in jobs where the skill level of the job correspond to the educational level of the individual. Article two focuses on the immigrant generation and article three on the descendant generation. The thesis shows that success on the labor market in terms of employment rate and occupational match depends on individual characteristics such as country of birth, time in the country and type of education (general or vocational). There is a large difference between those who have a vocational education and those who do not, in that the former have a higher chance of obtaining employment that matches their education. The largest differences can be seen in the occupational mismatch where the foreign born population are over-represented among those who are working on a lower skill-level than their educational level, at the same time as the native-born population are over-represented among those who are working on a skill-level that is above their educational level. Article three shows that the descendant generation does better than the parental generation in terms of occupational match.

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  • 12.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    General Versus Vocational Education and Employment Integration of Immigrants in Sweden2010In: Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, ISSN 1556-2948, E-ISSN 1556-2956, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 158-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the effect of human capital on the employment acquisition of foreign-born men and women in Sweden. Besides categorizing different levels of education, a distinction is made between type of education, general and vocational, and where education is obtained, home or host country. The data used is based on register data for the year 2003 held by Statistics Sweden. The population under consideration is the total population subdivided by the following countries of birth: Sweden, Former Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Poland, Romania, Chile, Germany, Iraq, Iran, and Lebanon. The analysis shows that foreign-born individuals have a higher probability of employment with a vocational and host country education as opposed to a general and home country education.

  • 13.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Emilsson, Henrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Growing apart: Increasing labour market segmentation of EU-13 workers in Sweden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates labour market segmentation of EU-13 workers in Sweden. Labour market segmentation is a driver of income differences between natives, EU-15 migrants and EU-13 migrants in many EU member states. There are, however, indications that labour market inequalities as a result of segmentation among EU-13 migrants is less pronounced in Sweden. Previous research, both quantitative and qualitative, has shown surprisingly low levels of labour market segmentation among the employed. The structural differences on the labour market has, instead, been between the employed and unemployed, with a large employment gap between natives and all migrant groups including EU-13 migrants. We address the functional integration in the labour market from a longitudinal perspective, using several quantitative indicators to measure the degree of labour market segmentation. Natives and other migrant groups (EU-15 and refugees) are used as reference groups. Our results shows a low but increasing labour market segmentation among the employed born in EU-13 countries. The dissimilarity between employed natives and EU-13 workers is increasing, especially among men. Men from EU-13 countries is the only category where the occupational position has deteriorated. From having a similar occupational position as EU-15 migrants in 2007, their position in the labour market in 2015 is more similar to the refugee group. This development is driven by a large increase of Polish construction workers on the Swedishlabour market.

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  • 14.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Rönnqvist, Sofia
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Timing och samverkan i organiserad vidareflytt: Utvärdering av JobBo 22011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    JobBo är ett utvecklingsprojekt som syftar till att ge stöd till nyanlända flyktingar att flytta från arbetslöshet och trångboddhet till arbete och lämpliga boendemiljöer genom att finna arbetssätt för samverkan och flexibla lösningar. Projektet kan sägas vara en form av organiserad eller frivillig vidareflytt med syftet att hjälpa nyanlända att orientera sig när det gäller val av bostadsort. Denna utvärderingsrapport syftar till att, utifrån ett individ- och processinriktat perspektiv, betrakta och tolka arbetet i projektet och dess utveckling samt att värdera detta i förhållande till projektmålen och peka på viktiga erfarenheter för en framtida implementering i ordinarie verksamhet. Frågeställningarna innefattar hur brukaren uppfattar de processer som han eller hon går igenom i projektet samt att identifiera hinder och möjligheter i organiseringen av projektet och i omvärlden. Utvärderingen utgår från ett programteoretiskt perspektiv som operationaliseras genom att projektdokumentation, intervjuer med personal och projektdeltagare analyseras. Det empiriska material som utvärderingen utgår från är förutom projektdokumentation, intervjuer med all projektpersonal samt alla styrgruppsmedlemmar, en enkät som brukarna har fått fylla i samt intervjuer med ett urval av flyttare. JobBo är ett projekt som innefattar många olika aktörer och därför har vi valt att intervjua alla i styrgruppen och arbetsgruppen så att alla aktörer får möjlighet att ge sin bild av projektet. De olika aktörerna har bidragit med att ge olika perspektiv av projektet i utvärderingen. För att få en bild av hur de mottagande kommunerna uppfattade projektet skickades en enkät ut till dessa. Den enkät flyttarna fick fylla i besvarades av 24 av de totalt 57 vuxna som har flyttat med hjälp av projektet under perioden 2009-2011. Detta ger en relativt låg svarsfrekvens (42%) vilket innebär att enkäten kanske inte ger en heltäckande bild men väl en fingervisning om hur flyttarna upplever sin situation och vad flytten har inneburit för dem. Som ett komplement till enkäten genomfördes också intervjuer med åtta flyttare i två småstadskommuner. Enkäterna och intervjuerna ger delvis olika bilder av upplevelserna av flytten. Resultaten av enkäterna är tämligen entydiga, alla utan undantag upplever att de har förbättrat sin livssituation genom att flytta från Malmö till en mindre kommun. Resultaten från intervjuerna pekar mot att de som har flyttat med familj och barn är mer positiva än de som har flyttat ensamma. Slutsatserna från intervjuerna med styrgrupp och arbetsgrupp visar på att själva flyttprocessen är en svår och komplicerad process som påverkas av en mängd olika faktorer och involverar en mängd olika organisationer, organisationer som delvis har haft olika syn på vad som är viktigt. Projektet har trots detta lyckats att finna metoder och kunskap som är värdefulla för både den individuella och organisatoriska delen i organiserad vidareflytt. De metoder och de erfarenheter som projektet har arbetat fram pekar på en rad olika element som är viktiga att tänka på i arbetet med organiserad vidareflytt. Det är viktigt att se processen som en lärandeprocess så att individen kan ta flyttbeslutet på basis av korrekt information. Det är även viktigt att ha i åtanke att individens primära incitament att flytta inte alltid är arbete utan ofta handlar om att man vill ha en bättre social situation vad gäller exempelvis boende och utbildning. Dessutom visar projektet på nyttan av studiebesök i den tilltänkta kommunen som ett ytterst viktigt inslag i lärandeprocessen. Timing och matchning är också grundläggande element som måste fungera, timing gällande lediga bostäder och lediga arbeten och matchning gällande rätt individ till rätt kommun. Erfarenheterna från projektet pekar också mot att det är de som flyttar med familj som är mest nöjda med att ha flyttat varför organiserad vidareflytt med fördel kan riktas till de som har familj och de som inom en snar framtid får sin familj till Sverige. Ett antal personer har läst och kommenterat rapporten och bidragit med värdefulla kommentarer under arbetets gång. Vi som har skrivit rapporten vill därför tacka Mats Fred, Anders Wigerfelt, Mirjam Hagström, Christian Fernandez och Benny Carlson.

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