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  • 1.
    Aadland, Torgeir
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hägg, Gustav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Lundqvist, Mats A.
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stockhaus, Martin
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Williams Middleton, Karen
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mitigating the lack of prior entrepreneurial experience and exposure through entrepreneurship education programs2023In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 19-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To increase the understanding of how entrepreneurship education impacts entrepreneurial careers, the purpose of the paper is to investigate the role that a venture creation program (VCP) might have in mitigating or surpassing a lack of other antecedents of entrepreneurial careers. In particular, the authors focus on entrepreneurial pedigree and prior entrepreneurial experience.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Data from graduates of VCPs at three universities in Northern Europe were collected through an online survey. Questions addressed graduate background prior to education, yearly occupational employment subsequent to graduation and graduates' own perceptions of entrepreneurial activity in employment positions. The survey was sent to 1,326 graduates and received 692 responses (52.2% response rate).

    Findings

    The type of VCP, either independent (Ind-VCP) or corporate venture creation (Corp-VCP), influenced the mitigation of prior entrepreneurial experience. Prior entrepreneurial experience, together with Ind-VCP, made a career as self-employed more likely. However, this was not the case for Corp-VCP in subsequently choosing intrapreneurial careers. Entrepreneurial pedigree had no significant effect on career choice other than for hybrid careers.

    Research limitations/implications

    Entrepreneurial experience gained from VCPs seems to influence graduates toward future entrepreneurial careers. Evidence supports the conclusion that many VCP graduates who lack prior entrepreneurial experience or entrepreneurial pedigree can develop sufficient entrepreneurial competencies through the program.

    Originality/value

    This study offers novel evidence that entrepreneurship education can compensate for a lack of prior entrepreneurial experience and exposure for students preparing for entrepreneurial careers.

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    Aadland et al (2023) Mitigating the lack of prior entrepreneurial experience and exposure through entrepreneurship education programs
  • 2.
    Hägg, Gustav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Prudent entrepreneurial graduates that take intelligent action2022In: How to Develop Entrepreneurial Graduates, Ideas and Ventures: Designing an imaginative entrepreneurship program / [ed] Penaluna Kath; Jones Colin; Penaluna Andy, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022, 1, p. 15-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter of Gustav Hägg introduces the idea of the prudent entrepreneurial graduate. Drawing on the past work of Commenius and Dewey, Hägg is concerned with the underlying student capability which must be developed prior to action. Positioning his student's development around the notion of intelligent moral action, Hägg outlines the proactive use of student reflection to develop critical thinkers.

  • 3.
    Hägg, Gustav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Lund University.
    The entrepreneurial diary: a reflective learning activity to enhance the judgmental abilities of student entrepreneurs2021In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1142-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:The purpose of the paper is to theorize how to develop student entrepreneurs' ability to reflect by means of a learning activity called the entrepreneurial diary, which seeks to develop self-regulated learners capable of intelligent entrepreneurial action. The importance of self-regulation in entrepreneurship is linked to the individual's ability to make judgments under conditions of uncertainty, which requires reflective thinking.

    Design/methodology/approach:The paper builds on a synthesized conceptualization of three main literature strands, reflective thinking, cognitive-load theory and experiential entrepreneurship education. In addition to the synthesized conceptualization, it builds on some empirical insights derived from a venture creation master programme in which the learning activity has been developed and refined for the last seven years.

    Findings:The main finding from the paper is the theoretical justification for why reflective thinking deserves an important place in the educational process and how the entrepreneurial diary as a learning activity can create a bridge between theory and practice in venture creation programmes that take an experience-based pedagogical approach. Furthermore, the study also provides some empirical insights of how students create self-awareness of their learning through the method and the metareflection reports. Self-awareness is foundational for developing conditional knowledge on why and when to make entrepreneurial decisions to balance the often action-oriented processes seen in venture creation programmes.

    Originality/value:The paper provides both a practical learning activity to be used in the entrepreneurial classroom and a theoretical contribution on how entrepreneurial experience is transformed into entrepreneurial knowledge to enhance students' judgmental abilities to make entrepreneurial decisions in future entrepreneurial endeavours.

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  • 4.
    Hägg, Gustav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    The moral perils when positioning student entrepreneurs in real life contexts: Balancing the nature-nurture of educative live case experience2022In: Reframing the case method for entrepreneurship education: Cases from the Nordic Countries / [ed] Ligger Karin; Aaboen Lise; Haneberg Dag; Jakobsen Siri and Lauvås Thomas, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022, p. 87-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present chapter focuses on moral dilemmas that are an implicit part of entrepreneurial action. Taking the moral question into the educational setting and, more specifically, the experiential context on which entrepreneurship education rests is important due to the current contextual changes in learning, where the walls of the classroom disappear. The purpose of this chapter is to address the potential moral and ethical dilemmas that might arise when activating young emerging adults using action-oriented entrepreneurial tools in a 'real' entrepreneurial context, where pushing the boundaries is part of the game. A main outcome of bringing in a moral discourse is to balance and create awareness of potential consequences that entrepreneurial acts might lead to. It is not a full learning activity but a sub-process that follows the use of live cases or real-life entrepreneurial activities that are currently championed in entrepreneurship education.

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  • 5.
    Hägg, Gustav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Why so little talk about how to build legitimacy in the domain of entrepreneurial education?: A reflection considering progression and capitalization rate2023In: Revue de l’Entrepreneuriat / Review of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1630-7542, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short essay does not seek to provide clear answers, but instead to further address the importance of building legitimacy in an educational domain. I do so by pondering the role of how we build academic progression of the domain in higher education and the potential that capitalization rate might have as a food for thought vis-à-vis building the sought-after legitimacy. 

  • 6.
    Hägg, Gustav
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Haataja, Vera
    Aalto Univ, Sch Business, Aalto, Finland..
    Kurczewska, Agnieszka
    Univ Lodz, Fac Econ & Sociol, Lodz, Poland.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway..
    McKelvie, Alexander
    Syracuse Univ, Whitman Sch Management, Syracuse, NY USA..
    Entrepreneurial Responsibility: A Conceptual Framework to Understand Ethical Dualism Throughout the Entrepreneurial Process2024In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs have been promoted as a main engine of progress. However, recent scandals and questionable behavior have led to increased discussion of entrepreneurs' ethics. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize entrepreneurial responsibility throughout the entrepreneurial process from an ethical viewpoint. We model entrepreneurial responsibility based on normative ethics (deontology and teleology), enabling us to better understand entrepreneurs' active and conscious responses to their ethical duties and the consequences thereof. Our theorizing opens new avenues for scholarly research related to the ethical nature of opportunities, the interconnection of entrepreneurial intentions and outcomes from a moral perspective, and potential societal impact.

  • 7.
    Hägg, Gustav
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Lund Univ Ekonomihogskolan, Sten K Johnson Ctr Entrepreneurship, Lund, Sweden..
    Jones, Colin
    Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, Ipswich, Australia..
    Educating towards the prudent entrepreneurial self: an educational journey including agency and social awareness to handle the unknown2021In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 82-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper explores the idea of the prudent entrepreneurial self, through re-conceptualizing prudence into the domain of entrepreneurial education, to unite the two processes of becoming enterprising and entrepreneurial. It is argued that developing a capacity for prudence among graduates involves past, present and conjecture forms of knowledge that the authors find in the interplay between individuation and social awareness. Design/methodology/approach Building on Palmer's idea of wholeness, the authors discuss six poles of paradoxes in entrepreneurial education and in conjunction establish a philosophical argument for the idea of stimulating the development of prudence as fundamentally important to contemporary notions of entrepreneurial education. Findings The paper presents a model to develop a schema that moves students towards becoming prudent entrepreneurial selves. The model rests on two interrelated developmental processes - individuation and social awareness - conditional for developing the three forms of knowledge (past, present and conjecture) that makes up prudence where developing prudence is a means to handle or cope with the unknown. Research limitations/implications This paper argues that for enterprise and entrepreneurship education to realize their potential contributions, both the relationships between each field and the overarching purpose that ties the fields together need to be rethought, and the poles of paradoxes need to be connected to further develop both fields and creating wholeness for the emerging scholarly discipline. Practical implications To educate towards the prudent entrepreneurial self means educating towards an unknown end where student development aims to meet both the objectives of individual development and the growth in social awareness required to handle the changing nature of contemporary society. Originality/value This study philosophically conceives a united enterprise and entrepreneurship education landscape in which deeper student learning makes possible the notion of the prudent entrepreneurial self.

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  • 8.
    Hägg, Gustav
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Kurczewska, Agnieszka
    University of Lodz .
    Entrepreneurship Education: Scholarly Progress and Future Challenges2021 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion around whether entrepreneurship can be taught is becoming obsolete as the number of entrepreneurship courses, specializations and degrees is rising at an unprecedented rate all over the world and the demand for entrepreneurial education teachers or instructors is constantly growing. The global community of entrepreneurial education proponents is enthusiastic about the possibility of spreading the idea of entrepreneurship, as it is believed to benefit societies and economies in addition to influencing human development on an individual level. The fervour is nurtured by public policies and the development of an enterprising culture in the public discourse. In this discourse, entrepreneurship is treated as a panacea for numerous social and economic problems.

    This book is a solid reference point for all who are interested in conducting research on entrepreneurial education or engaged in teaching entrepreneurship. It is a compendium of knowledge about entrepreneurial education as a research field, seen from the perspective of the last four decades, its complete contemporary history. It reviews the progress of the field from the outset to the present in terms of its socio-economic context, changes in the academic community, but also its research focus and methodological development. This uniquely comprehensive book is a resource of both knowledge on entrepreneurial education research and inspiration for future studies within the field.

    This timely and relevant book provides practical insights for educators when developing their teaching practice and will be of interest to entrepreneurship educators and entrepreneurship education researchers.

  • 9.
    Hägg, Gustav
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Sten K. Johnson Centre for Entrepreneurship, Lund University.
    Kurczewska, Agnieszka
    Faculty of Economics and Sociology, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Guiding the first-year student entrepreneur: A conceptual map to nudge towards the reversal effect in learning2022In: Theorising undergraduate entrepreneurship education: Reflections on the development of the entrepreneurial mindset / [ed] Larios-Hernandez, G. J.; Walmsley, A.; Lopez-Castro, I, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022, 1, p. 33-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses a recent argumentation in entrepreneurship education for the term odigogy, meaning to guide. The role of guidance has so far been discussed in relation to the balance between pedagogy and andragogy as well as between teacher- and student-led learning. The purpose of this chapter is to further develop odigogy, conceptualise a map for how to reason when facing first-year student entrepreneurs and discuss the challenges they encounter when entering higher education. Hence, it aims to contribute to the discussion on how to synthesise knowledge from different educational theories when developing our understanding of how to create conducive and progressive learning environments in entrepreneurship education.

  • 10.
    Hägg, Gustav
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Kurczewska, Agnieszka
    University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, Lodz, Poland.
    Guiding the student entrepreneur: Considering the emergent adult within the pedagogy–andragogy continuum in entrepreneurship education2020In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 62, no 7/8, p. 759-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to build on current discussions about the need for and role of guidance in learning and teaching, as well as to theoretically develop its specifics to further advance our scholarly understanding of how to structure and enhance entrepreneurship education.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a synthesizing conceptual approach, built on developmental psychology, instructional science, expertise research as well as the pedagogy–andragogy discussion and the role of guidance in contemporary entrepreneurship education research. In addition, a new term, odigogy, is developed.

    Findings – Odigogy, from the Greek word odigos (to guide), addresses how to navigate student entrepreneurs in higher education. The term seeks to correspond both to the specifics of entrepreneurship as a subject and the characteristics of students in the classroom who are in a transitional phase between adolescence and adulthood.

    Practical implications – The paper contributes to current entrepreneurship education discussions by offering a more balanced terminology positioned between how to teach (pedagogy) and how adults learn (andragogy). The paper provides insights for teachers when developing teaching methods and learning activities in higher education.

    Originality/value – By introducing the term odigogy the paper seeks to contribute an enhanced understanding of the entrepreneurial learning process in higher education, which does not match pedagogical assumptions on how to teach children or adolescents, nor andragogical assumptions on how adults learn, or how to engage students in self-directed learning as presented in heutagogy.

  • 11.
    Winborg, Joakim
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sch Econ & Management, Sten K Johnson Ctr Entrepreneurship, Lund, Sweden..
    Hägg, Gustav
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Lund Univ, Sch Econ & Management, Sten K Johnson Ctr Entrepreneurship, Lund, Sweden..
    The role of work-integrated learning in preparing students for a corporate entrepreneurial career2023In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 674-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose In the literature there is limited knowledge about how to prepare students for a corporate entrepreneurial career. The purpose is therefore to develop a framework for understanding the role corporate development projects play in corporate entrepreneurship education, and to examine the potential role of the design of the project. The study defines a corporate development project as a project being part of an academic education to provide students with working experiences situated in an experiential learning process. Design/methodology/approach Based on work-integrated learning literature, the authors first develop a conceptual framework. Thereafter, they undertake a multiple case study using data from a Master's Program in Corporate Entrepreneurship. Starting from the conceptual framework, the authors employ deductive thematic analysis in order to analyze data and finally to develop an elaborated framework. Findings In the framework, the authors identify and label five categories of learning outcomes from the corporate development project. The framework helps understand the interplay between the different learning outcomes in students' learning process and shows how the design of the project shapes the learning process. Practical implications The framework can assist educators in designing and integrating the corporate development project as a key module within a corporate entrepreneurship academic program. Originality/value Based on the framework, the study develops the knowledge about the design of corporate entrepreneurship education. Future research should test the framework using data from other academic programs in corporate entrepreneurship.

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