Malmö University Publications
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  • 1.
    Falk, Magnus
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Psotta, Carolin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Cirovic, Stefan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Electronic Tongue for Direct Assessment of SARS-CoV-2-Free and Infected Human Saliva-A Feasibility Study2023In: Biosensors, ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic tongue is a powerful analytical instrument based on an array of non-selective chemical sensors with a partial specificity for data gathering and advanced pattern recognition methods for data analysis. Connecting electronic tongues with electrochemical techniques for data collection has led to various applications, mostly within sensing for food quality and environmental monitoring, but also in biomedical research for the analyses of different bioanalytes in human physiological fluids. In this paper, an electronic tongue consisting of six electrodes (viz., gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, iridium, and glassy carbon) was designed and tested in authentic (undiluted, unpretreated) human saliva samples from eight volunteers, collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Investigations of 11 samples using differential pulse voltammetry and a principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish between SARS-CoV-2-free and infected authentic human saliva. This work, as a proof-of-principle demonstration, provides a new perspective for the use of electronic tongues in the field of enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing, highlighting their potential for future applications in non-invasive biomedical analyses.

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  • 2.
    Falk, Magnus
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Psotta, Carolin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Aptusens AB.
    Cirovic, Stefan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Aptusens AB.
    Non-Invasive Electrochemical Biosensors Operating in Human Physiological Fluids2020In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 21, p. 1-28, article id 6352Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-invasive healthcare technologies are an important part of research and development nowadays due to the low cost and convenience offered to both healthcare receivers and providers. This work overviews the recent advances in the field of non-invasive electrochemical biosensors operating in secreted human physiological fluids, viz. tears, sweat, saliva, and urine. Described electrochemical devices are based on different electrochemical techniques, viz. amperometry, coulometry, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. Challenges that confront researchers in this exciting area and key requirements for biodevices are discussed. It is concluded that the field of non-invasive sensing of biomarkers in bodily fluid is highly convoluted. Nonetheless, if the drawbacks are appropriately addressed, and the pitfalls are adroitly circumvented, the approach will most certainly disrupt current clinical and self-monitoring practices.

  • 3.
    Figueiredo, Carina
    et al.
    CSIC, Inst Catalisis & Petroleoquim, C-Marie Curie 2, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Psotta, Carolin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Aptusens AB, S-29394 Kyrkhult, Sweden..
    Jayakumar, Kavita
    Univ Galway, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland.;Univ Galway, Ryan Inst, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland..
    Lielpetere, Anna
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fac Chem & Biochem, Analyt Chem Ctr Electrochem Sci CES, D-44791 Bochum, Germany..
    Mandal, Tanushree
    Univ Galway, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland.;Univ Galway, Ryan Inst, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland..
    Schuhmann, Wolfgang
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fac Chem & Biochem, Analyt Chem Ctr Electrochem Sci CES, D-44791 Bochum, Germany..
    Leech, Donal
    Univ Galway, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland.;Univ Galway, Ryan Inst, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland..
    Falk, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Pita, Marcos
    CSIC, Inst Catalisis & Petroleoquim, C-Marie Curie 2, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Aptusens AB, S-29394 Kyrkhult, Sweden..
    De Lacey, Antonio L.
    CSIC, Inst Catalisis & Petroleoquim, C-Marie Curie 2, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Effect of Protection Polymer Coatings on the Performance of an Amperometric Galactose Biosensor in Human Plasma2024In: Biosensors, ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 14, no 4, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Galactose monitoring in individuals allows the prevention of harsh health conditions related to hereditary metabolic diseases like galactosemia. Current methods of galactose detection need development to obtain cheaper, more reliable, and more specific sensors. Enzyme-containing amperometric sensors based on galactose oxidase activity are a promising approach, which can be enhanced by means of their inclusion in a redox polymer coating. This strategy simultaneously allows the immobilization of the biocatalyst to the electroactive surface and hosts the electron shuttling units. An additional deposition of capping polymers prevents external interferences like ascorbic or uric acid as well as biofouling when measuring in physiological fuels. This work studies the protection effect of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-glycidyl methacrylate (MPC) and polyvinylimidazole-polysulfostyrene (P(VI-SS)) when incorporated in the biosensor design for the detection of galactose in human plasma.

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  • 4.
    Psotta, Carolin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Electrochemical (bio-)sensors operating in human physiological fluids2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on developing electrochemical (bio-)sensors specifically designed to detect biomolecules and bacteria in human physiological fluids. A more comprehensive understanding of their performance can be obtained by exposing the sensors to real human physiological fluids. Thus, four biosensors were designed and tested in saliva, plasma, blood, and urine. Specifically, a voltammetric electronic tongue, integrating six different electrode materials, was developed to qualitatively assess SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples using principal component analysis. A tubular enzyme-based sensor utilizing incorporated cellobiose dehydrogenase in an Os(bpy)PVI redox polymer was employed for continuous glucose sensing in human plasma and undiluted whole blood under homeostatic conditions. Two different sensing concepts were developed for the label-free detection of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in artificial urine and human urine based on metabolic activity due to bacterial growth. The first sensor enabled continuous bacterial detection by reducing Prussian Blue deposited on screen-printed electrodes with wireless data transfer. The second bacterial-sensitive sensor utilized electrochemical characterization to identify three bacteria types based on artificial urine metabolic changes. For a qualitative investigation of the metabolic changes, nuclear magnetic resonance was utilized, and flow cytometry was used to quantify and correlate bacterial growth with electrochemistry. Multivariate statistical data analysis was applied to distinguish bacteria-free and bacteria-infected artificial urine. Finally, an overview of the recent advances in the field of non-invasive electrochemical biosensors operating in secreted human physiological fluids, viz., tears, sweat, saliva, and urine, was given.

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  • 5.
    Psotta, Carolin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Aptusens AB, S-29394 Kyrkhult, Sweden..
    Chaturvedi, Vivek
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan F
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Falk, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Portable Prussian Blue-Based Sensor for Bacterial Detection in Urine2023In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial infections can affect the skin, lungs, blood, and brain, and are among the leading causes of mortality globally. Early infection detection is critical in diagnosis and treatment but is a time- and work-consuming process taking several days, creating a hitherto unmet need to develop simple, rapid, and accurate methods for bacterial detection at the point of care. The most frequent type of bacterial infection is infection of the urinary tract. Here, we present a wireless-enabled, portable, potentiometric sensor for E. coli. E. coli was chosen as a model bacterium since it is the most common cause of urinary tract infections. The sensing principle is based on reduction of Prussian blue by the metabolic activity of the bacteria, detected by monitoring the potential of the sensor, transferring the sensor signal via Bluetooth, and recording the output on a laptop or a mobile phone. In sensing of bacteria in an artificial urine medium, E. coli was detected in similar to 4 h (237 +/- 19 min; n = 4) and in less than 0.5 h (21 +/- 7 min, n = 3) using initial E. coli concentrations of similar to 10(3) and 10(5) cells mL(-1), respectively, which is under or on the limit for classification of a urinary tract infection. Detection of E. coli was also demonstrated in authentic urine samples with bacteria concentration as low as 10(4) cells mL(-1), with a similar response recorded between urine samples collected from different volunteers as well as from morning and afternoon urine samples.

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  • 6.
    Psotta, Carolin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Aptusens AB, S-29394 Kyrkhult, Sweden..
    Cirovic, Stefan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Gudmundsson, Petri
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Falk, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Mandal, Tanushree
    Univ Galway, Sch Chem & Ryan Inst, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Reichhart, Thomas
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Food Sci & Technol, BOKU, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.;DirectSens Biosensors GmbH, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria..
    Leech, Donal
    Univ Galway, Sch Chem & Ryan Inst, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Ludwig, Roland
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Food Sci & Technol, BOKU, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.;DirectSens Biosensors GmbH, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria..
    Kittel, Roman
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Food Sci & Technol, BOKU, A-1190 Vienna, Austria..
    Schuhmann, Wolfgang
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fac Chem & Biochem, Analyt Chem Ctr Electrochem Sci, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Aptusens AB, S-29394 Kyrkhult, Sweden..
    Continuous ex vivo glucose sensing in human physiological fluids using an enzymatic sensor in a vein replica2023In: Bioelectrochemistry, ISSN 1567-5394, E-ISSN 1878-562X, Vol. 152, article id 108441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing blood glucose can affect important clinical outcomes during the intraoperative phase of surgery. However, currently available instruments for glucose monitoring during surgery are few and not optimized for the specific application. Here we report an attempt to exploit an enzymatic sensor in a vein replica that could continuously monitor glucose level in an authentic human bloodstream. First, detailed investigations of the superficial venous systems of volunteers were carried out using ocular and palpating examinations, as well as advanced ultrasound measurements. Second, a tubular glucose-sensitive biosensor mimicking a venous system was designed and tested. Almost ideal linear dependence of current output on glucose concentration in phosphate buffer saline was obtained in the range 2.2-22.0 mM, whereas the dependence in human plasma was less linear. Finally, the developed biosensor was investigated in whole blood under homeostatic conditions. A specific correlation was found between the current output and glucose concentration at the initial stage of the biodevice operation. However, with time, blood coagulation during measurements negatively affected the performance of the biodevice. When the experimental results were remodeled to predict the response without the influence of blood coagulation, the sensor output closely followed the blood glucose level.

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  • 7.
    Psotta, Carolin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Nilsson, Emelie J.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Sjöberg, Thomas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Falk, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Bacteria-Infected Artificial Urine Characterization Based on a Combined Approach Using an Electronic Tongue Complemented with 1H-NMR and Flow Cytometry2023In: Biosensors, E-ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 916-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing form of bacterial infection is within the urinary tract, encompassing a wide array of bacteria that harness the urinary metabolome for their growth. Through their metabolic actions, the chemical composition of the growth medium undergoes modifications as the bacteria metabolize urine compounds, leading to the subsequent release of metabolites. These changes can indirectly indicate the existence and proliferation of bacterial organisms. Here, we investigate the use of an electronic tongue, a powerful analytical instrument based on a combination of non-selective chemical sensors with a partial specificity for data gathering combined with principal component analysis, to distinguish between infected and non-infected artificial urine samples. Three prevalent bacteria found in urinary tract infections were investigated, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. Furthermore, the electronic tongue analysis was supplemented with 1H NMR spectroscopy and flow cytometry. Bacteria-specific changes in compound consumption allowed for a qualitative differentiation between artificial urine medium and bacterial growth.

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