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  • 1.
    Aggestam, Maria
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Lund University.
    How women entrepreneurs build embeddedness: a case study approach2017In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 252-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to examine how women entrepreneurs are building embeddedness into male-gendered fields and how they are creating embedding in such fields in practice.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The qualitative methodology and three indicative case stories within gastronomic industry are illustrated and analysed.

    Findings

    The contribution of this study lies in the examination of the multifaceted embedding building process from dis-embedded, marginalised and suppressed position by women entrepreneurs. This was achieved with the help of building embedding through two strategies: sameness, that is, becoming one of the boys and then becoming a challenger, thereby enhancing their professional position.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study is subject to limitations; a small sample is not suited for the generalizability of results. The most important implication of this study is the identification of the process of building embeddedness as the most critical resource for women’s entrepreneurship that should be supported by the scholarly and business community.

    Originality/value

    The theoretical framework developed for this study laid the foundation for developing literature on the embeddedness of women’s entrepreneurship and how the process of creating embedding becomes instrumental in business ownership.

  • 2.
    Anna, Blombäck
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Lund University.
    Corporate community responsibility as an outcome of individual embeddedness2014In: Social Responsibility Journal, ISSN 1747-1117, E-ISSN 1758-857X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to improve our understanding of the nature of social responsibility in actual practices and, specifically, the influence of individuals on these processes.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An abductive approach is applied (Alvesson and Sköldberg 1994), i.e. theory is developed by moving between theory and four empirical cases. The stories highlight the importance of the individual and closeness to local stakeholders and the presence of overlapping rationales.

    Findings

    The individuals’ simultaneous roles – as owners, managers and community members – influence how they are held or see themselves as accountable and how they account for the firms’ engagement in the community. The activities are conducted in the name of the firm but originate from private as well as business-oriented concerns. Our conclusions encourage an extension of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) construct to approach it as an entangled phenomenon resulting from the firm and the individual embeddedness in internal and external cultures.

    Originality/value

    This study brings the individual managers and owner-managers into focus and how their interplay with the surrounding context can create additional dimensions of accountability, which impact on the decisions taken in regard to CSR. A micro-perspective is applied. Corporate community responsibility, particularly in smaller and rural communities, contributes to recognize and understand how individuals influence and are influenced by CSR.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Karin Anna Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University School of Business, Sweden.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Using pictures and artefacts in a PAR process to disclose new wor(l)ds of entrepreneurship2012In: Action Research, ISSN 1476-7503, E-ISSN 1741-2617, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 276-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on Freire, this article elaborates on how pictures and artefacts benefit processes of ‘prise de conscience’ and ‘conscientization’ among those with powerful voices. Wor(l)d-making was unfolded in the Swedish think-and-do tank, ‘the Smithy’, emphasizing the intrinsically political nature of promoting ‘societal entrepreneurship’ (SE). New words for SE were formulated and a more inclusive world was discerned where all had a role, not just as ‘helpers’, but as equal members of SE practices. Pictures and artefacts enabled hitherto silenced stories to be told and created a common understanding of how SE contrasted with traditional entrepreneurship. When new words were added to entrepreneurship, it was possible to reflect on the actions taken within the Smithy in a deeper sense, not only focusing on actions for the entrepreneurs ‘out there’, but also initiating self-reflection on the roles all had in the Smithy, or in other settings, to promote SE. 

  • 4. Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Ethnographic Approaches to Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research: What Lessons Can We Learn?2014In: Handbook Of Research Methods And Applications in Entrepreneurship And Small Business / [ed] Alan L. Carsrud, Malin Brännback, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2014, p. 201-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5. Blombäck, Anna
    et al.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Challenging the importance of size as determinant for CSR activities2009In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to contribute to the development and understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by discussing two interrelated characteristics of current literature: a tendency in discourses to portray CSR as equal to the societal activities displayed by and demanded from large, multinational firms; and an increasing focus on and description of “small firm CSR” in research. These two characteristics instigate a limited approach to the meaning of CSR and an unjust dichotomization of CSR based on firm size are posited. A distinction that risks stimulating an un-nuanced CSR discourse. Design/methodology/approach – From reviewing the field, it has been concluded that firm size should not be a feasible main criterion when trying to understand or predict CSR behavior. From examples of far-reaching CSR activities in the small business community and local initiatives by large firms, the distinctions suggested in the current discourse do not appear in practice are shown. Findings – Additional firm features and contextual characteristics to explain the CSR approach in companies are proposed. Local embeddedness, corporate governance, and individual motivation are examples of issues that appear to explain a firm's CSR activities and characteristics, regardless of firm size. Originality/value – The paper concludes by articulating a number of propositions. These are presented as a basis for research to further understand how CSR activities relate to various organizational and operational features.

  • 6. Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Isaacs, Eslyn
    Visser, Kobus
    Wigren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Ten years down the road of a transition economy: The role of social entrepreneurship2005In: International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, ISSN 1832-2077, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of social entrepreneurship and its implications for a sustainable development of the Western Cape area in South Africa.

  • 7. Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Isaacs, Eslyn
    Friedrich, Chris
    Visser, Kobus
    Triple Helix Networks in a Multicultural Context: Triggers and Barriers for Fostering Growth and Sustainability2008In: Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1084-9467, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with Triple Helix (university, industry and government cooperation) from an institutional theory perspective. The empirical context is the Western Cape Region in South Africa and the focus is entrepreneurship development. The purpose is two-fold: first, the existing Triple Helix model is adapted to the South African context; and second, facilities and impediments for working according to Triple Helix in South Africa are identified. The empirical material consists of a survey and three longitudinal case studies illustrating the degree of cooperation between the three parties. The article contributes to knowledge about how the Triple Helix model works on a regional level in a developing country. The study draws the following conclusions: when cooperation is to be identified between the three actors, only two of the three are involved; one missing link in the Triple Helix model is the focus on the entrepreneur; cooperation between the three parties are incidental rather than planned and there is lack of structure. In turn, some of these conclusions may be an effect of institutional changes on a national level. For a normative legacy, the article proposes a set of suggestions for incorporating all relevant parties on a practical level.

  • 8. Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Isaacs, Eslyn
    Visser, Kobus
    Ethnic Entrepreneurship in a multicultural context: regional development and the unintended lock-in effects2009In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 449-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on South Africa, home country for several ethnic groups. In this article ethnic entrepreneurship refers to people who share a common national background with some shared culture and who perceive themselves, and are perceived by others, as separate (Waldinger et al., 1990; Yinger, 1998). The purpose is to illustrate how the ethnicity-driven laws and directives formed by a government that has 'bought into' the Western discourse of entrepreneurship and a traditional view on ethnic entrepreneurship create lock-in effects on the individual as well as societal levels. By contrasting this view with the view of ethnic groups as social organisations and the thre perspectives of culture as integration, as differentiation and as fragmentation, we fulfil our purpose. The South African context is introduced to the reader and the paper ends with a discussion where the lock-in effects of ethnic entrepreneurship are brought up: institutional factors, loss of knowledge; a subcultural exchange, a transfer of the Western discourse of entrepreneurship and the lack of a Barthian change agent representing the fragmentation perspective.

  • 9.
    Donati, Letizia
    et al.
    Univ Florence, Dept Econ & Management, Via Pandette 32, I-50127 Florence, Italy..
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    A legitimacy approach to social innovation initiatives at universities2022In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 194-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A striving for research excellence and the implementation of third mission activities in the form of technology transfer have become standard practices at modern higher education institutions. The recent call for universities to include social innovation in their third mission and the apparent lack of involvement of universities in this area indicate that social innovation is not yet perceived as a legitimate activity by the academic community. We examine why this is the case and disentangle the legitimation journey of social innovation in research-intensive environments.

  • 10.
    Göransson, Bo
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Business Adm, Lund, Sweden..
    Donati, Letizia
    Univ Florence, Dept Econ & Management, Florence, Italy..
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Introduction to the special issue on universities and social innovation2021In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 173, article id 121186Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hellström, Tomas
    et al.
    School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Sweden.
    Jacob, Merle
    Research Policy Institute, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Center for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden.
    Organizing for the Third Mission: Structural conditions for outreach andrelevance at two Swedish HEIs2013In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate how Third Mission activities at universities, such as the outreach and technology transfer functions, are anchored in organizational structures and practices, and discuss the implications of this relationship for the success of the activities. They draw on case studies of two Swedish university colleges to illustrate the diversity of mechanisms used to achieve Third Mission functions. It is concluded that choices about how to organize Third Mission activities may be classified with reference to at least three dimensions: (a) decentralization versus centralization of the outreach function; (b) a strong versus weak research connection in outreach; and (c) demand-side versus supply-side strategies for outreach. These dimensions are analysed from the perspective of their relative strengths and weaknesses for the organization by universities of Third Mission activities.

  • 12. Karlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Start-ups among university employees: The influence of legitimacy, human capital and social capital2012In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 297-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of 7,260 university employees, we investigate how legitimacy, social and human capital influence the employees’ start-up propensity. We find that scientific legitimacy, as measured by the number of recently published peer reviewed scientific articles, and conference papers accepted had no significant effect. Scientific legitimacy measured as publications in non-peer review journals even had a negative effect. Popular legitimacy showed mixed results. Measured as number of articles in popular science publications showed positive correlations and other public media appearances had a non significant effect on start-up propensity. Individuals who are older and have higher level of human capital, measured as level of education are less likely to start firms. We also found that, people with more social capital, such as contact with external product development teams are more likely to start new firms. Taken together, the findings suggest that activities spanning the university-business divide increase the start-up propensity, while within university activities had no, or negative effects on the propensity. Consequently, universities interested in encouraging their employees to start firms should focus their attention on creating spanning activities rather than improving conditions for within university tenure.

  • 13.
    Korsgaard, Steffen
    et al.
    Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Kolding, Denmark.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (Cefeo), Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hellerstedt, Karin
    Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (Cefeo), Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Alsos, Gry Agnete
    Nord University Business School, Bodo, Norway.
    Grande, Jorunn
    Division of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Nord University Business School, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Entrepreneurship and embeddedness: process, context and theoretical foundations2022In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 34, no 3-4, p. 210-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we introduce the special issue on entrepreneurship and embeddedness. We do so by providing a brief overview of existing research on the topic focused on three important conversations related to process, context and theoretical foundations. The overview highlights essential contributions from extant research and suggests that expansion and advancement in the research conversation can be accomplished by focusing on dynamic and multilayered conceptualizations of embeddedness and by broadening the theoretical foundations of our research. We also present and position the papers in the special issue within the conversations on process, context and theoretical foundations in entrepreneurship research on embeddedness. 

  • 14.
    Staffansson Pauli, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Lund Univ, Dept Business Adm, Lund, Sweden..
    Stevenson, Anna
    Lund Univ, Dept Business Adm, Lund, Sweden..
    "Gender" and "innovation" in facility management: do they matter?2020In: Property Management, ISSN 0263-7472, E-ISSN 1758-731X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 296-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on how the field of facility management is changing and the role a regional innovation system (RIS) can take place to support this change, with a specific focus on the role of gender and innovation. Design/methodology/approach The study builds partly on interactive research, and as a complement, qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews have been conducted. Findings The role of gender and innovations in facility management does matter due to the fact that if aiming at creating innovations, it is necessary to break free from established institutions, both formal and informal. Working with gender demands a norm-critical approach, and to be critical towards what we take for granted might create new solutions. Originality/value The paper contributes to the ongoing discussions how the field of facility management is changing and the importance of including gender in the innovation discussions.

  • 15.
    Storey, David J.
    et al.
    Univ Sussex, Univ Sussex Business Sch, Brighton, England..
    Andersson, Martin
    Entreprenorskapsforum, Saltmatargatan 9, SE-11359 Stockholm, Sweden.;Blekinge Inst Technol BTH, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Henrekson, Magnus
    Res Inst Ind Econ, POB 55665, SE-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jack, Sarah
    Stockholm Sch Econ, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Lancaster, Management Sch, Dept Entrepreneurship & Strategy, Lancaster LA1 4YX, England..
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Res Inst Ind Econ, POB 55665, SE-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thorburn, Karin
    Norwegian Sch Econ, Helleveien 30, NO-5045 Bergen, Norway..
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Zander, Ivo
    Uppsala Univ, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Per Davidsson: recipient of the 2023 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2023In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 1381-1390Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Professor Per Davidsson is the recipient of the 2023 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research. Throughout an extraordinarily productive career, he has made invaluable contributions in building the field of entrepreneurship. His early studies on entrepreneurship and culture and his studies on the growth of small businesses played an important role in the emergence and development of entrepreneurship as a scholarly field of research. He has also, continuously, made more conceptual contributions by critically probing the development of the field, and engaged in writing foundational books that have been used extensively in higher education institutes. By probing and challenging traditional assumptions throughout his career, he has contributed to the refinement and renewal of the field.

  • 16.
    Thomasson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Sten K. Johnson Centre for Entrepreneurship, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hybridizing the Triple Helix: A prerequisite for managing wicked issues2020In: Financial Accountability and Management, ISSN 0267-4424, E-ISSN 1468-0408, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 207-222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Thomasson, Anna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sch Econ & Management, Lund, Sweden..
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Scheller, Christin
    Lund Univ, Sch Econ & Management, Sten K Johnsson Ctr Entrepreneurship, Lund, Sweden..
    What Constitutes Failure?: The Influence of Public Interests in Securing Accountability in Triple Helix Initiatives2021In: Triple Helix, ISSN 2590-0366, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 128-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is to examine a specific case of a failing regional innovation system (RIs). Our study focuses on a specific project that was conducted in a triple helix constellation where public actors occupy the centre of the triple helix constellation. By examining and interpreting this single case, we aim to illustrate the consequences that result from uncertainty over who the triple helix constellation is accountable to as well as the consequences that has for the overall assessment of the outcome of the triple helix. We show how the overall initiative constituted a failure, but when one considers the activities that were organized and implemented by the RIS, then it is problematic to define it as a failure. This leads us to the conclusion that we should evaluate RIS from different perspectives and on different levels, and we need to consider the time dimension in our evaluation.

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  • 18.
    Wigren, Caroline
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Melin, Leif
    Fostering A Regional Innovation System: Looking into the Power of Policy-Making2009In: The Politics and Aesthetics of Entrepreneurship: A fourth movements in entrepreneurship book / [ed] Daniel Hjort, Chris Steyaert, Edward Elgar Publ. , 2009, p. 31-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Aggestam, Maria
    Lunds universitet.
    Entrepreneurship education and gender: The man-made entrepreneur2021In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the literature on entrepreneurship education grows, the issue of equality in entrepreneurship education has been raised; i.e., whether students are educated to become entrepreneurs equally. This article provides a critical and thought-provoking analysis of a portfolio of practices that, on the surface, appear to be successful in training entrepreneurs. To this purpose, we initiate a debate on what entrepreneurship education programmes tend to omit. We provide an argument within entrepreneurship scholarship that takes into consideration the diversity and complexity of gender in entrepreneurship. We present an insightful example of what we do in our university classrooms whilst calling for a more encompassing perspective of gender within present-day teaching practice. We acknowledge that academic entrepreneurship education is gendered (Ahl, 2006) and we show how hegemonic masculine-framed foundations of entrepreneurship influence the vocabulary of teaching and learning in Sweden. The paper provides insights into how both teachers and students unluckily, fail to identify the masculinisation of entrepreneurship education.

  • 20.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Lund Univ, Sten K Johnson Ctr Entrepreneurship, LUSEM, Lund, Sweden..
    Aggestam, Maria
    Lund Univ, Sten K Johnson Ctr Entrepreneurship, LUSEM, Lund, Sweden..
    Exploring the masculinization of innovation practice within a municipality2021In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 243-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to generate an empirically informed theoretical framework which can be used to analyze the relationship between gender and innovation in the context of a municipality. The authors present and analyze three illustrative tales from a feminist perspective. The authors thus offer a more balanced approach to the conceptualization of gendered ascriptions with respect to the possible outcomes of innovation work in a public context. Design/methodology/approach An ethnographic account which employed "shadowing" as a method of observation. Findings The article presents a debate on how the social construction of gender and innovation can be placed in the context of a municipal reality. Our analysis reveals how the complexities of a gendered work life within a municipality can create paradoxes. A constructionism approach was used in the identification of hidden and unspoken paradoxes that exist in public spheres. Research limitations/implications The authors used empirical tales from a very specific context, namely a Swedish municipality. The central implication of this study is the recognition of innovation as being masculine-gendered within the feminine context. This implication thereby deepens our understanding of gender paradoxes in the public sector. Practical implications This study provides insights to practitioners who intend to work with innovation in a public organization. Social implications The social implications of this study is that when a male-gendered concept like innovation is implemented in a female-gendered context, like a municipality, it is of importance to contextualize the concept. Originality/value The empirical value of examples of a gendered work landscape at a Swedish municipality.

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  • 21.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Hellerstedt, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Stevenson, Anna
    Sten K. Johnson Centre for Entrepreneurship, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Aggestam, Maria
    Sten K. Johnson Centre for Entrepreneurship, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Rethinking embeddedness: a review and research agenda2022In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 34, no 1-2, p. 32-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct a comprehensive review of embeddedness in entrepreneurship research. Although the term “embeddedness” is frequently used in this field of study, less is known about the ways in which it is operationalized and applied. Using criterion sampling, we analyse 198 articles in order to investigate how embeddedness is conceptualized and what role it plays in the extant entrepreneurship literature. We categorize our findings based on different phases of the entrepreneurial process (early, mature and exit) and outline the dominant focus and the main conceptualization of embeddedness for each phase. We highlight important learnings for each of the three phases and identify potential areas for conceptual development. Across the phases, we find that embeddedness and context are often used interchangeably. We thus call for construct clarity in the field. In the existing literature, entrepreneurs are generally portrayed as reactive to embeddedness, resulting in a loss of entrepreneurial agency. To remedy this, we introduce the term agencement, which takes into account the relationship between the entrepreneurship and embeddedness. Further, entrepreneurs are found to be embedded in multiple contexts at the same time, and embeddedness can be understood at different levels and to different degrees. To address this complexity, it is relevant to focus on the embedding process itself, acknowledging that it takes place in social interactions including cultural, cognitive, and emotional aspects between contexts and across levels. While the extant literature supports the notion that embeddedness is important for understanding entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs, it does not necessarily support our understanding of how embeddedness takes form or why it takes certain forms. We therefore include a call for future research to turn to process and practice theories. 

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  • 22.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    et al.
    LUSEM, Lunds Universitet.
    Hellerstedt, Karin
    Aggestam, Maria
    Stevenson, Anna
    Brundin, Ethel
    Disembeddedness, Prior Industry Knowledge and Opportunity Creation Processes2019In: Rigour and Relevance in Entrepreneurship Research, Resources and Outcomes:: Frontiers in European entrepreneurship research / [ed] Eddy Laveren, Robert Blackburn, Ulla Hytti, Hans Landström, Cheltenham, UK.: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Languilaire, Jean-Charles Emile
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö högskola, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Melin, Leif
    Blurred Boundaries between the Work and Non-Work domains in Rural Entrepreneurial Family Businesses2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research (Bjuggren & Duggal, 2012) shows that more than half of all family businesses in Sweden are located in rural areas. This fact has, however, not been much noticed in research so far. Unique for rural entrepreneurship is that the business and the family home often are located at the same physical place; sometimes it is literally the same place. In that regards, boundaries between work and non-work are blurred. Rural entrepreneurship may be comparable to the "pre-industrial" society where integration was seen as a norm, but the development of our society lead to value separation between work and non-work, today it is a cultural norm to separate between the two. In rural context, separation of work place and home place is indeed observable. Today, however, new entrepreneurship is developed, like "bed and breakfast", like "experience one week-end at the farm", like "riding school" and so forth. What we observe is thus a panel of ways to which boundaries between work and non-work are defined by rural entrepreneurs. We use theories from the field of work non-work boundary theory and management (integration, segmentation, permeability of boundaries, flexibility of boundaries) to frame this phenomenon. So far, this theoretical framework has been scarcely applied on the field of family businesses and only recently used in rural entrepreneurship (see for example Andersson-Cederholm and Hultman, 2010) especially with consequences on individual's well-being. Considering that rural entrepreneurship is central to of the rural economic development, it becomes central to further understand rural entrepreneurial family businesses and how the family and the business construct boundaries between work and non-work activities. This is the aim of this paper.

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