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  • 1. Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Ouis, Pernilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Johann Herder, Early Ninetenth-Century Counter-Enlightenment, and the Common Roots of Multiculturalism and Right-Wing Populism2014In: Telos, ISSN 0090-6514, E-ISSN 1940-459X, Vol. 2014, no 169, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In The Democratic Contradictions of Multiculturalism, Jens-Martin Eriksen and Frederik Stjernfelt elaborate on the concept of “culturalism.” In Telos 163 (Summer 2013), Eriksen continues to analyze its intricacies under the heading “Culturalism: When the Culture becomes Political Ideology.”2 Horizontal class divisions are out, vertical cultural barriers are in. Seemingly, culture has squeezed out all other concepts. The present essay shall broaden this discussion by asking the question: What is the relation between the Counter-Enlightenment of the early nineteenth century and today's culturalism?

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  • 2. Arousell, J.
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Larsson, E.
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Essen, B.
    Unintended consequences of gender equality promotion in Swedish contraceptive counselling2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Suppl 1, p. 105-105Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden stands out as an interesting example of potential cross-cultural tensions in reproductive healthcare. On the one hand, most people agree that gender equality between men and women should apply to everyone. On the other hand, people in Sweden report a high level of respect for cultural diversity, emphasising people’s ‘right to be different’. The aim of this study was to explore how midwives communicate gender equality perspectives in encounters with non-Western patients, many of whom have migrated from countries expressing less support for gender equality. Methods: Semi-structured individual interviews as well as focus group interviews were conducted in Denmark and Sweden between 2013 and 2016. Carol Bacchi’s ‘What’s the Problem Represented to be’ approach guided the analysis. Findings: We found that it is difficult for health care providers who are ideologically motivated to promote gender equality in clinical encounters, to simultaneously value and tolerate traditions that are considered to uphold gender-unequal structures. The gender equality standard is thus one example of a liberal, egalitarian value that health care providers appeared to give priority to at the expense of others. Conclusions: That the gender equality ideology is given priority is not necessarily undesirable but nevertheless appears to generate unintended consequences. We argue that a high level of ideological persuasion upon female patients may negatively influence their experience of the encounter, and negatively influence women’s possibilities to obtain adequate support in relation to their individual needs. Main messages: Healthcare providers are also part of cultural systems of norms — such as pertinence to gender equality — although these are seldom problematized ‘Reflexivity’ as a working tool can assist healthcare providers to reflect upon how gender equality norms influence clinical encounters.

  • 3. Arousell, Jonna
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Culture and religious beliefs in relation to reproductive health2016In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, ISSN 1521-6934, E-ISSN 1532-1932, no 32, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of contemporary research publications acknowledge the influence of religion and culture on sexual and reproductive behavior and health-care utilization. It is currently hypothesized that religious influences can partly explain disparities in sexual and reproductive health outcomes. In this paper, we will pay particular attention to Muslims in sexual and reproductive health care.Successful outcomes in sexual and reproductive health of Muslims require both researchers and practitioners to acknowledge religious heterogeneity and variability, and individuals' possibilities to negotiate Islamic edicts. Failure to do so could lead to inadequate health-care provision and, in the worst case, to suboptimal encounters between migrants with Muslim background and the health-care providers in the receiving country.

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  • 4. Arousell, Jonna
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Essen, Birgitta
    Is multiculturalism bad for swedish abortion care? Exploring the diversity of religious counselling in public healthcare institutions2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Suppl 1, p. 122-122Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden has one of the most liberal abortion laws in the world, granting women extensive rights to make autonomous reproductive decisions. At the same time, Swedish policy-makers are keen to protect society’s religious diversity. This ambition is reflected in decisions to grant religious leaders the possibility to provide ‘spiritual care’ in public hospitals. Through interviews with religious representatives in public healthcare institutions, we asked: In what ways would they counsel a religious woman who is seeking their advice about abortion? And how does this advice correspond with Swedish policies on, and provision of, abortion care? Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with religious representatives of the Swedish Church, the Catholic Church, and the Buddhist and Muslim communities. Interviews took place in 2016 and 2017. Findings: We found that informants saw it as their obligation to provide religious people with abortion advice according to religious norms, giving them limited opportunities to harmonise the content of their counselling with Swedish healthcare laws or regulations. Most informants argued that it was their responsibility to inform women about the wrongdoing of terminating a pregnancy, and to provide suggestions about how women could mitigate the sin in order to gain God’s forgiveness. Conclusion: Informants appeared inclined to deliver religious recommendations on abortion that were more conservative than what is established in the Swedish Abortion Act. Main messages: ‘Spiritual care’ in the question of abortion favours the delivery of religious norms at the possible expense of women’s right to non-judgmental abortion counselling. ‘Spiritual care’ is now an integral part of Swedish healthcare institutions. A critical discussion is needed about the extent to which such services should be in compliance with Swedish laws and public health aims on abortion.

  • 5. Arousell, Jonna
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Essen, Birgitta
    Are 'low socioeconomic status' and 'religiousness' barriers to minority women's use of contraception?: A qualitative exploration and critique of a common argument in reproductive health research2019In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 75, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: 'Low socioeconomic status' and 'religiousness' appear to have gained status as nearly universal explanatory models for why women in minority groups are less likely to use contraception than other women in the Scandinavian countries. Through interviews with pious Muslim women with immigrant background, living in Denmark and Sweden, we wanted to gain empirical insights that could inform a discussion about what 'low socioeconomic status' and 'religiousness' might mean with regard to women's reproductive decisions. Design: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Denmark and Sweden between 2013 and 2016. Findings: We found that a low level of education and a low income were not necessarily obstacles for women's use of contraception; rather, these were strong imperatives for women to wait to have children until their life circumstances become more stable. Arguments grounded in Islamic dictates on contraception became powerful tools for women to substantiate how it is religiously appropriate to postpone having children, particularly when their financial and emotional resources were not yet established. Conclusion: We have shown that the dominant theory that 'low socioeconomic status' and 'religiousness' are paramount barriers to women's use of contraception must be problematized. When formulating suggestions for how to provide contraceptive counseling to women in ethnic and religious minority groups in Denmark and Sweden, one must also take into account that factors such as low financial security as well as religious convictions can be strong imperatives for women to use contraception. Implications for practice: This study can help inform a critical discussion about the difficulties of using broad group-categorizations for understanding individuals' health-related behavior, as well as the validity of targeted interventions towards large heterogeneous minority groups in Scandinavian contraceptive counseling. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 6. Arousell, Jonna
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Essen, Birgitta
    Does Religious Counselling on Abortion Comply with Sweden's 'Women-Friendly' Abortion Policies?: A Qualitative Exploration Among Religious Counsellors2019In: Sexuality & Culture, ISSN 1095-5143, E-ISSN 1936-4822, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 1230-1249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abortion discourse in Sweden is marked by historically liberal ideals about women's inviolable right to make autonomous reproductive decisions. However, to respond to the increase in cultural and religious pluralism building up over several decades, religious organizations have been given opportunities to provide so-called spiritual care in affiliation with Swedish hospitals since the 1980s. In this study we asked: in what ways do religious counsellors, affiliated with Swedish hospitals, construct their ideas on abortion, and how well do their ideas comply with Sweden's 'women-friendly' abortion policies? Through interviews with Protestant, Catholic, Muslim, and Buddhist religious counsellors, we wanted to empirically test the presumption underlying the decisions to grant space to religious actors in Swedish healthcare, i.e., that religious counselling serves to complement existing services. We found that it cannot be expected that religious advice on abortion will always comply with Swedish abortion law and with the women-friendly abortion policy that the Swedish state seeks to impose. When policy-makers open up possibilities for diverse norms on abortion to manifest in close affiliation with healthcare institutions, they must be aware that some religious counsellors argue that only God-and not the woman herself-can decide whether a woman can terminate a pregnancy. We argue that the findings in this study speaks to what researchers have referred to as the "diversity-equality paradox", which highlights the tension between the promotion of religious ideas on abortion on the one hand and the promotion of liberal ideas about women's reproductive freedom on the other.

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  • 7. Arousell, Jonna
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Essén, Birgitta
    Are 'Low Socioeconomic Status' and 'Religiousness' barriers to minority women's contraceptive use in Sweden and Denmark?: A qualitative interrogation of a common argument in health research2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Suppl 1, p. 121-121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: ‘Low socioeconomic status’ and ‘religious barriers’ have been presented as nearly universal explanatory reasons for why minority women are less likely than majority women in Scandinavian countries to use contraception. Recent studies have warned against giving such statistically ‘objective’ theories undue importance in the formulation of clinical recommendations. Drawing on this recent critique, the aim of this study was to qualitatively explore how ‘low socioeconomic status’ and ‘religiousness’ intersect with Muslim minority women’s contraceptive decisions. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Denmark and Sweden between 2013 and 2016. Data analysis was inspired by naturalistic inquiry. Findings: We found that a low level of education and low income were not necessarily obstacles for women’s use of contraception, but strong imperatives for women to wait having children until their life circumstances were more stable. Arguments grounded in Islamic dictates on contraception became powerful reasons for women to decide it was religiously correct to postpone having children, in case the financial and emotional resources were not yet at hand. Conclusions: We have shown that the dominant theory about that ‘low socioeconomic status’ and ‘religiousness’ are paramount barriers to minority women’s use of contraception must be challenged. When formulating suggestions for how to provide contraceptive counselling to minority women in Denmark and Sweden, one must also take into account factors such as low financial security as well as religious convictions which can be strong imperatives for women to use contraception. Main messages: The use of broad group-categorisations for understanding individuals’ contraceptive behaviours should be challenged The validity of initiating ‘targeted interventions’ towards large heterogeneous minority groups in Scandinavian contraceptive counselling should be critically discussed

  • 8. Arousell, Jonna
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Essén, Birgitta
    Larsson, Elin C.
    Unintended consequences of gender equality promotion in Swedish multicultural contraceptive counseling: a discourse analysis2017In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1518-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore how reproductive health care providers in Sweden, a country often described as one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, incorporate gender equality ideals in multicultural contraceptive counseling. In the tension between gender equality promotion on one hand and respect for cultural diversity and individualized care on the other, we will demonstrate that values of gender equality were often given priority. This is not necessarily undesirable. Nevertheless, our proposal is that the gender equality ideology may inhibit providers’ ability to think differently about issues at stake in contraceptive counseling, which may negatively influence women’s possibilities to obtain adequate support. At the end of the article, we suggest how health care providers’ reflexivity might be used as a working tool for increased awareness about the taken-for-granted cultural norms that exist in their clinical milieu.

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  • 9.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    An Empty Signifier: The Blue and Yellow Islam of Sweden2006In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, ISSN 1360-2004, E-ISSN 1469-9591, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 245-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that multiculturalism, as an ideology, is a problem when it comes to understanding Islam and Muslims in contemporary Sweden. The ideology, which is built upon powerful norms that demand acceptance and tolerance of the Muslim Other, forms an ideational structure that makes Swedish scholars describe all Muslim individuals and groups in terms of Blue-and-Yellow Islam (the colors of the Swedish flag). In the article, with the help of empirical examples mainly from Sweden, it will be shown how the politically good intention to include Muslims and Islam in a new imagined community may have the consequence of silencing social processes among Muslims that would hamper integration. The notion of Blue-and-Yellow Islam has no fixed content. It is an empty signifier used in the ideological struggle of Muslims against Islamophobia. However, scholars use this category in a way that neglects the real problems for Muslims and thus they are creating a situation that has serious consequences for policymaking. The knowledge produced may seem morally/politically correct, but in the end it may be counterproductive for the integration of Islam and Muslims in the Swedish nation-state.

  • 10.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Annorlunda etnicitet och kultur i skolan2005In: Vera, ISSN 1397-4157, no 31, p. 36-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussion of the pluralistic paradox of being culturally different while at the same time being an equal member of the majority society.

  • 11.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Bellman blev en nykter man när han sökte sig till islam1999In: Tidskrift för Mellanösternstudier, no 3, p. 71-78Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussion of how young Muslims in Sweden re-think Islam in a Swedish context.

  • 12.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Blocking out sexual fantasies for a fantasy of eternal sex: islamist views2015In: Sexual fantasies: at the convergence of the cultural and the individual / [ed] Mariah Larsson, Sara Johnsdotter, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 99-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Enklaven utmanar nationalstaten2005In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 31-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of how ethnic enclavisation challenges the sovereignty of the nation-state.

  • 14.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Faran med att använda ett reduktionistiskt synsätt på förorten2007In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, no 4, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critique of the reductionist argument that explains ethnic and/or religious segregation only in terms of discrimination/xenophobia.

  • 15.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Gemenskap eller utanförskap2000In: Invandrare och minoriteter, no 1, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic segregation

  • 16.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Individ och social kontext: hypoteser kring psykisk ohälsa i ett segregerat område2008In: Migration och psykisk ohälsa / [ed] Margareta Östman, Malmö högskola, Hälsa och samhälle , 2008, p. 165-207Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskussion om individualistiska respektive kollektivistiska strategier att hantera och förstå psykisk ohälsa.

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  • 17.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö University, Centre for Sexology and Sexuality Studies (CSS).
    Islamisk aktivism och konkurrensen om sexuella normer i det mångkulturella samhället2021In: Sexualitet och migration i välfärdsarbete / [ed] Pernilla Ouis, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 1, p. 201-224Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Islamisk aktivism på gott och ont2009In: I & M : invandrare & minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A discussion of Islamic activism and its pros and cons in segregated neighbourhoods.

  • 19.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Islamisk sexualrådgivning: ett globalt fenomen2012In: Sexualitetsstudier; / [ed] Lars Plantin, Sven-Axel Månsson, Liber, 2012, p. 254-276Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Jämställdhet versus kulturell mångfald, en svårhanterlig motsättning2017In: Feminism och jämställdhetssträvanden i religioner i världen / [ed] Bodil Liljefors Persson, Nils-Åke Tidman, Föreningen lärare i religionskunskap (FLR) , 2017, p. 24-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Livet i stadsdelen Alna2012In: Apollon : Forskningsmagasin for Universitetet i Oslo, ISSN 0803-6926, E-ISSN 0806-3702Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Mångkulturalismen och den politiska mobiliseringen av islam2006In: Bortom stereotyperna?: invandrare och integration i Danmark och Sverige / [ed] Ulf Hedetoft, Bo Petersson, Lina Sturfelt, Makadam förlag i samarbete med Centrum för Danmarksstudier vid Lunds universitet , 2006, p. 26-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of how multiculturalism is used by Islamists in order to mobilize politically for Islam.

  • 23.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Oförutsedda konsekvenser av dialog med självutnämnda muslimska ledare2009In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, no 3-4, p. 369-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I argue that the strategy to conduct dialogue and cooperation with self-appointed Muslim leaders has unintended consequences. These leaders are often part of the Islamic/Islamist movement and these have as a political goal to separate Muslims from the non-Muslim majority population.

  • 24.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    På vej mot integration i etniske enklaver2005In: Social forskning: Temanumer om etniska minoriteter, ett nytt proletariat?, p. 40-46Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussion of ethnic enclavisation and de-industrialisation in the city of Malmö, Sweden.

  • 25.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Review: Islam in Denmark: The challenge of diversity2013In: ID : International Dialogue, A Multidisciplinary Journal of World Affairs, ISSN 2155-160X, Vol. 3, p. 236-241Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of "Islam in Denmark - the challenge of diversity" / edited by Jørgen S. Nielsen, Lexington Books, c2011, ISBN 978-0739150924

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  • 26.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    The Islamist2006In: Men of the Global South, A Reader / [ed] Adam Jones, Zed Books, London , 2006, p. 356-360Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Description of how an individual Islamist (male) are integrated in a transnational political network.

  • 27.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Villkorad heterogenitet i den svenska forskningen om islam2010In: Goda sanningar: debattklimatet och den kritiska forskningens villkor / [ed] Sara Johnsdotter, Aje Carlbom, Nordic Academic Press, 2010, p. 129-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses ideological and social problems with political Islam. It is argued that moderate Islamism builds on a totalitarian thinking with a political goal to establish a parallell Islamic sphere in European societies. It is also discussed that statements like these are omitted from mainstream research of Islam.

  • 28.
    Carlbom, Aje
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Hedin, Ulla-Carin
    Månsson, Sven-Axel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Religion och social förändring. En introduktion2009In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, no 3-4, p. 226-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inledning till temanummer i Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift (nr 3-4/2009) om religion och social förändring.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Lise
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Dudas, Victor
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Perceived religious discrimination in healthcare2023In: Culture, Spirituality and Religious Literacy in Healthcare: Nordic Perspectives / [ed] Daniel Enstedt, Lisen Dellenborg, Routledge, 2023, p. 90-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish healthcare providers must comply with the Patient Act's principles of equal and accessible care and account for patients’ religious backgrounds by offering culturally sensitive care. This chapter explores what characterizes patients’ and their relatives’ expectations in healthcare encounters perceived as religiously discriminatory in the diverse Swedish healthcare system. It analyses perceived religious discrimination in healthcare through the interpretative phenomenological analysis of complaints submitted to the Equality Ombudsman in Sweden from 2012 to 2021, which registered 92 complaints as religious discrimination in healthcare, 66 of which were included in this study's analytical sample. The complaints addressed unfulfilled expectations related to cultural and religious literacy, equal treatment in relation to religious symbols or medical records, affirmative action in medical treatment that takes beliefs into account, and a secular environment that forbids religious symbols in healthcare encounters. One-third of the complaints were submitted by Muslims or individuals presumed to be Muslim. Several complaints concerned healthcare providers’ reactions to patients wearing hijabs or other ethnic or religious attributes. The study indicates that healthcare providers face difficulties in conforming to the partially contradictory ideals of equal treatment and cultural sensitivity, whose relation to religious diversity has not yet been clearly defined.

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  • 30.
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Aregai, Rishan
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Moussa, Kontie
    Essén, Birgitta
    Aldrig mina döttrar: en studie om attityder till kvinnlig omskärelse bland etiopier och eritreaner i Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Asfa, Ali
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Det som egentligen ingen vill2000In: Invandrare och minoriteter, no 5, p. 32-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Ingvarsdotter, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Östman, Margareta
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Koran reading and negotiation with jinn: strategies to deal with mental ill health among Swedish Somalis2011In: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 741-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss traditional Somali concepts of mental ill health.Qualitative interviews were conducted with some 20 Swedish Somali interviewees about factors causing mental ill health, traditional classification, strategies to deal with mental ill health, and attitudes to the mental health care services in Sweden. Social mobilisation and religious healing are cornerstones of traditional Somali measures to deal with mental suffering. Traditional Somali views of mental ill health stand in stark contrast to classification of mental ill health in the western biomedical model. These views deserve attention since they may have an impact on health-seeking behaviour among Somali immigrants in western countries. Yet a too strong focus on cultural aspects may over-shadow the fact that much mental suffering among Somali migrants must be understood within social, economic, and political contexts.

  • 33.
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Moussa, Kontie
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Aregai, Rishan
    Essén, Birgitta
    "Never My Daughters": A Qualitative Study Regarding Attitude Change Toward Female Genital Cutting Among Ethiopian and Eritrean Families in Sweden2009In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 30, p. 114-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore attitudes toward female genital cutting (FGC) in a migration perspective, qualitative interviews were conducted with men and women from Ethiopia and Eritrea in Sweden. We found firm rejection of all forms of FGC and absence of a guiding motive. Informants failed to see any meaning in upholding the custom. We conclude that children of Ethiopian or Eritrean parents resident in Sweden run little risk of being subjected to FGC. A societal structure prepared to deal with suspected cases of FGC with a high level of alertness should be combined with a healthy sceptical attitude toward exaggerations of risk estimates.

  • 34. Mohammadi, Soheila
    et al.
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Taheripanah, Robabeh
    Essen, Birgitta
    Experiences of inequitable care among Afghan mothers surviving near-miss morbidity in Tehran, Iran: a qualitative interview study2017In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing equitable maternal care to migrants is a seriously challenging task for hosting countries. Iran, the second-most accessed country for refugees from Afghanistan, has achieved maternal health improvement. However, Afghan women with near-miss morbidity faced pre-hospital delays and disparity in maternal care at hospitals. This study explores experiences of maternal care among Afghan women surviving near-miss morbidity to increase insight into healthcare improvements for migrants. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted at university hospitals in Tehran, from April 2013 to May 2014. A total of 11 Afghan women and 4 husbands were interviewed when women recovered from near-miss morbidity that occurred around the childbirth period. Mothers were identified prospectively using the WHO maternal near-miss approach. Thematic analysis was used along with a data-driven approach to organize data guided by the 'three delays model' theoretical framework. Results: Mistreatment in the form of discrimination and insufficient medical attention were key experiences. Participants commonly perceived poor women-professional communication and delays in recognizing obstetric complications despite repeated care-seeking. Financial constraints, costly care, lack of health insurance, and low literacy were experienced barriers to accessing care to a lesser extent. Non-somatic consequences of near-miss morbidity affected mothers and families for extended periods. Conclusions: Near-miss survivors' experiences provided remarkable insights into maternal care of Afghans in Iran. The challenge for the health system and professionals is to provide equitable care with dignity and improve communication skills with caring attitudes toward ethnic minorities. Antenatal visits provide the best and most appropriate opportunities to tackle health illiteracy in Afghan women.

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  • 35.
    Ouis, Pernilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Adamson, Göran
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Is multiculturalism good for children?: the rights of the child and multiculturalist policies in Sweden2013In: ID: International Dialogue A Multidisciplinary Journal of World Affairs, ISSN 2155-160X, Vol. 3, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, the objective is to investigate if multiculturalism is good for children. The method is to use secondary sources, as well as current examples from Swedish society, to show how multiculturalist policies have negative consequences for minority children's rights. The paper, as well as previous research, reveals that parents of immigrant origin often forbid children to attend school activities such as camps, gymnastics, swimming, and lessons in music and religion. Parents motivate their actions with reference to their traditions and religion, and a fear that their children might learn sexual immorality. The wishes of parents are accepted by schools because of the prevailing multiculturalist policy in Sweden. The result shows that by not attending schools activities like other children, these children will be disqualified for higher education as they do not get grades in all disciplines due to their absence. Furthermore, it is argued in the paper that the prohibitions by their parents violate the rights of these children. The policy of equal treatment is transformed into a practice of unequal treatment of children with immigrant origin. The conclusion of this policy analysis suggests that this approach is not in the best interest of the child and is a case of real discrimination.

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  • 36.
    Ouis, Pernilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö högskola, Centre for Sexology and Sexuality Studies (CSS).
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA). Malmö högskola, Centre for Sexology and Sexuality Studies (CSS).
    "Hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck" i relation till sexualitet och reproduktion är komplext2015In: Jordemodern, ISSN 0021-7468, Vol. 128, no 12, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Plantin, Lars
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Män, migration och stöd i föräldraskapet2010In: Migrationens utmaningar inom hälsa, omsorg och vård; / [ed] Jenny Malmsten, Stadskontoret, Malmö stad , 2010, p. 79-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
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