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  • 1.
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Difference in speed at fixed reference points, and changes in speed between fixed reference points, during 100 meter swimming races at the European Championships, 20102016Inngår i: Journal of Swimming Research, ISSN 0747-5993, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 22-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine the differences and relationships between speed variables and performance in 100 meter events at the European Championships long course (LC) and short course (SC) for all strokes and gender. Data was collected from the website www.swim.ee, transformed, and analyzed using statistical methods. Swimming speed (SS) at different reference points was significantly different for in both short course (SC) and long course (LC) swimming, SS15>SS35>SS45SS85>SS95. The effect size for all measures was large (Cohen ́s d). The changes in SS between reference points was significantly different in all events for both sexes in both SC and LC swimming, δSS15:35> δSS35:45, but only for SC when comparing δSS85:95> δSS65:85. Correlations of placing at the end of the race, split times for each 50 m segment and SS at different reference points, showed no clear pattern. The differences in the swimming speed variables, can be explained based on the theory of complexity and performance, utilizing previous research findings and the standard equation of drag force in fluids. Thus taking into account all different aspects of performance. The managing of speed through out a race needs to be a special focus in both training and competition. Thus, allowing for a more individualized approach both in utilizing training methods training and analysis of performance in 100 m race.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 2.
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Good practices in transnational coach education development.2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Good practice in developing transnational transparency in coach education system. Introduction: The AEHESIS project (Petry, 2007) developed reference points for comparison of coach education in a transnational perspective. Crucial for developing transparency of these different components of coach education systems is both an understanding of the purpose and current outcomes of the Bologna process (European Commission, 2009) and also a competence on educational development in relation to matching learning outcomes with methods of assessment to monitor the competence development of students (Biggs, 1996). Methods: The project has resourced these three areas and applied two types of methodologies, based on both the AEHESIS project (Petry, 2006) and documentation from the European Observatory of Sports employment, (EOSE, 2009) to develop and describe learning outcomes and assessment methods. An additional important question to address when implementing a new educational structure in coach education has been validation of prior learning (CEDEFOP, 2007) , i.e. recognizing the formal, informal and non formal strategies that have been used on an individual basis to develop the competency needed for the coaching profession. Participants: Based on the participation of and cooperation between different types of organisations (institutions of higher education, national confederations, and national sport federations) in Hungary, Denmark and Sweden, the project “Improving transparency in European Sport Coach Education” has resulted in a variety of outcomes that could be described as “good practice” in the area of coach education system development. Results: The outcomes from the project are both of tangible and intangible nature. On one hand there are results pertaining to such concrete issues as learning outcomes and assessment methods based on the concept of constructive alignment (ITESCE, 2010). On the other hand the project experience lead to realizations in regards to more abstract issues such as learning process (ITESCE, 2010), procedure or course of action, in this project funded by the European commission´s life-long learning programmes through the Leonardo da Vinci initiative.

  • 3.
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    How speed makes a difference: A case study of 100- meter races2016Inngår i: Journal of Swimming Research, ISSN 0747-5993, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 14-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Swimming faster has always been of interest to coaches. How we perceive time and swimming speed is vital to how we train, interpret the results of training, plan for completion and evaluate performance. Modern technology has broadened our perspective on how to interpret performance. The data was collected online (www.swim.ee) and statistical tests were used to analyze the results. In all 100 meter events at the European short course and long course championships, The swimmers were swimming slower as a group from 15 to 95 meters, regardless of stroke, course and sex. The differences that occur in swimming speed during 100 m races are larger than the difference that can have an impact on placing at the end of the race. We hypothesize; that the difference in swimming speed between fixed points occurs continuously because of the density of water creates a high resistance that the swimmer has to over-come, thus leading to a reduction in swimming speed between individual stroke-cycles. Interpreting the difference in time at the finish of the race, or differences in split-times during the race increases the the magnitude of improvements that has to be made in order to improve performance. By looking at swimming speed instead of time differences, a reduction of the magnitude in the improvement-gap becomes manageable. This has implications for both training an d competition, because it changes the perception of how performance can be improved from physiological, biomechanical and psychological perspectives.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 4.
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Improving Transparency in European Sport Coach Education2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Name of Project: Improving Transparency in European Sport Coach Education ( www.itesce.eu ) Presenter: Torsten Buhre, Phd, Malmö University Purpose: The project has a two folded purpose 1) To create structures of coach education in Sweden, Denmark and Hungary that are aligned with the European Framwork for Recognition of Coach Competenci and Qualifications (EFRCCQ) as developed by the European Coaching Council (ECC) and the AEHESIS-project. 2) To test the possibility of financing such a project through Leonardo daVinci “Transfer of Innovations”. Methods and process: To use 6-step model , EQF and EFRCCQ to create transparency for European Sports Coach Education in Hungary, Denmark and Sweden. In addition to this other useful resources has been used i.e. from the International Tennis Federation . The process is a combination of guidance, dialogue, reflexion and work assignments. Two tracks are running parallel to each other 1) at the national level and 2) at the international. Results: In Denmark the coach education is a dual responsibility between the sports confederation and the different national sports federation. Currently we are adjusting the existing program to EQF-levels and analysing the learning outcomes in relation to step four in the 6-step model. In Hungary the coach education is the responsibility of both vocational education institutes and institutions of higher education. The coaching profession requires a coaching certificate regardless of what level of coaching and domain. Currently we are evaluating the existing programs to EQF-levels and analysing learning outcomes to step four in the 6-step model. In Sweden the coach education is the responsibility of the national sport federations. The coaching profession does not require a certificate. Currently we are developing and analyzing learning outcomes in relation to points of reference. Participants: Hungarian Sports Confederation , Danish Sports Confederation , Swedish Sports Confederation, Scania Sport Confederation, Swedish Tennis Federation, Swedish Swimming Federation, Swedish Track and Field Federation , Swedish Soccer Federation, Swedish Floorball Federation, Malmö University and Växjö University .

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Buhre, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Hageskog, Carl-Axel
    Forsberg, Henrik
    Fjeldstad, Niklas
    The organic development of coach education structure for the future: a collaborative effort between higher education and national federations in Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Good practice - developing a future coach education structure Sweden is a country, where coaching can be said to be a blended profession . Out of 335.000 coaches in Sweden, approximately 10% or 33.500 has an income that is directly related to their coaching duties . Based on the international sport coaching framework , a collaboration of four different national federations (swimming, tennis, athletics and floor-ball) and institutions of higher-education (Malmö University and Linnæus University), has developed a model, to make both coach education feasible and also to develop coaching effectiveness in the process, based on this specific context. The model considers aspects of both non-mediated and mediated learning. It takes into consideration aspects of certification, educational content and education-providers. The aspects are considered from both a stakeholders- and education-providers perspective. The model has developing organically (since 2011), using both the AEHESIS-project and the ITESCE-project as templates. It strives for inclusion of stakeholders focusing on; 1) structures of collaboration, 2) educational content and need depending upon coaching level and 3) the process of validation. In the specific context, the process of validation is of utmost importance. The current cohort of coaches within the four national federations, exhibit a range of professional experience. Many coaches have, through non-mediated learning , gained a tacit knowledge that improves their effectiveness. The origin of knowledge can therefore never be a question of debate. Thus aligning a coach education program with the competences of current coaches in the blended profession has been a high priority. At the same time, quality control of coaching competences both through the validation process and educational process needs to be harmonized in order to develop a possible scheme for certification in relation to accredited certification programs. Four aspects under consideration in developing the educational process are: 1) the coaching context , 2) the athletes expected outcome , 3) the need for practical experience to develop coaching effectiveness in younger coaches , and 4) the feasibility to participate in an educational process over a period of years in learning to gain mastery as a coach in relation to current engagements. The current model utilizes the EFRCCQ to provide general competences based on an identification of thematic professional content areas. Aligning the national federation education with higher education courses, allows for both individual flexibility in continuous professional development and quality control in validation process and certification programs. It is based on e-learning, part-time and both mediated and non-mediated learning experiences.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 6.
    Buhre, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Ingrell, Joakim
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Reflekterande extraherande tentamina som bedömning av studenters prestationer (RET-BSB)2011Inngår i: Erfarenhet vs. Forskning – Hur utvecklas vi som högskolelärare?: Programbok, Malmö högskola, Akademiskt Lärarskap (AKL) , 2011, s. 54-57Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Buhre, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Lagergren, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Fundberg, Jesper
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    A Child´s perspective in football coach education: an action research project2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This action-research project was initiated by a Regional Football association in Sweden. The region encompasses, 380 clubs, 2.500 youth teams and approximately 25.000 players between the age of 6 and 12 years. 150 football-coaching courses are completed yearly and a total 2.710 coaches have completed these courses, since 2010. A board decision was made (10/1/2016): To make a shift down-sizing the importance of winning that exists at the youth-level to focusing on the individual soccer-development of all participants. This decision was made because the drop-out rate has increased in the age-group around the age of 10, and reports of both physical and verbal abuse has increased during the later years. The Association contacted Malmö University with an initial request to enforce the board decision: What research is available on positive youth development in sports and children´s development over time? Initial actions: The process started with 10 two hour meetings, discussing definitions and perspectives to gain a common ground of understand both the problem at hand and the interpretations of possible mechanisms creating the problem. The collective view on what needed to be done after these initial meetings, was a change in perspective away from a focus on sports to a see the world from a child´s perspective. Thus, a major culture change is needed on all levels in order to alleviate the problem at hand. Consequences of actions: The greatest leverage for a cultural change is the coach education. Coaches are the “keeper” of values and belief systems on the grass-root level. The initial collective analysis revealed a gap between the research and the material distributed by the National Football Federation, based on the UEFA standards. The gap was between “what to do in organized football” and “how to do it, from a child´s perspective”. In the material, the sport transpose it´s importance and the child gets lost in translation. Further actions: The next step is in progress and it entails participation in coach education courses, analyzing course evaluations and further discussions to the identified the incongruences between the child´s perspective and the focus on football. Initial analysis has identified three problematic factors: The lack of participation of youth soccer players, the focus on ball-movement in all videos and the constant use of a grown-up terminology in analyzing the game of football. To alleviate this problem the use of authentic learning is suggested, by the research team.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 8.
    Buhre, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Steding, Katarina
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Engblom, Henrik
    Mosén, Henrik
    Wohlfart, Björn
    Arheden, Håkan
    Total heart volume independantly predicts maximal work capacity in normals and athletes2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 9.
    Buhre, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Tschernij, Oscar
    Sample Distribution and Research Design Are Methodological Dilemmas When Identifying Selection and Using Relative Age as an Explanation of Results2018Inngår i: The Sport journal, E-ISSN 1543-9518, nr 2018-03-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of a statistical test, such as the chi-squared test, to determine if selection has occurred within a sport has been used frequently in research. The assumed distribution of a sample could influence the occurrence of significant outcomes. The occurrence of significance is generally interpreted as RAE and explained as a result of selection within the sport. Most studies in this field have been done using a cross-sectional design. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of using different types of distribution when testing for significance, in swimming as an example, over a nine-year period of six cohorts in age by gender groups. 1/10 Results show that using either an assumed uniformed distribution or a proportional distribution of the national population distribution will lead to an increased number of significant results, in comparison to using either a distribution of the actual sample of the specific age by gender group or the distribution of the previous year within the age by gender group. In addition, when using a longitudinal design over a nine-year period, the occurrence of significance decreased over time. In order to interpret significant results as a consequence of selection within a sport the use of a sport specific and age by gender distribution and a longitudinal design is proposed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Buhre, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Tschernij, Oscar
    The impact of relative age on sampling and performance in Swedish age-group swimming system2018Inngår i: The Sport journal, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 20, nr Sept 30, 2018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomena of relative age effect (RAE) has been investigated thoroughly in the sport and school settings. However, different measures and research designs have been applied in the various settings. At the same time different constructs, such as sampling, participation, and performance have been investigated in separate studies. Most interpretations have been done in a de-contextualized manner. That is, results have not been interpreted based on the functioning of the age-grouping system over time, but rather on a general level of grouping individuals based on chronological age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of RAE in sampling, competitive participation, and selection for national competition in the Swedish age-group swimming system based on a thorough understanding of the specific impacts of age and gender of this system over time. Results show that there is inconclusive evidence suggesting that RAE occurs due to the age-grouping system in Swedish swimming. The system does not create a bias based on either relative age difference or gender. Based on this study and future suggestions the continued research on RAE should be expanded to include longitudinal studies following specific age by gender groups over time. In addition, measures of performance and criteria of selection should be investigated in order to draw conclusions if systematic discrimination is embedded within a specific country and sport age-grouping system in favor of athletes that could be attributed to a relative age.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 11. Carlsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Hard, Lars
    Eliasson, Matilda
    Mosén, Henrik
    Ugander, Martin
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Arheden, Håkan
    The quantitative contribution of AV-plane motion to LV pumping in controls, athletes and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy measured by MR imaging2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantitative contribution of AV-plane motion to LV pumping in controls, athletes and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy measured by MR imaging Carlsson M, Hard L, Eliasson M, Mosén H, Ugander M, Buhre T, Arheden H. INTRODUCTION: Previous studies using echocardiography in healthy subjects have reported conflicting data regarding the percentage of the stroke volume resulting from atrioventricular plane motion (AVPM). AIM: To quantify the percentage of SV explained by AVPM in controls, athletes and patients with decreased left ventricular function due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS: 12 healthy subjects (mean age 24 years, 5 women), 12 elite triathletes (mean age 35 years, 4 women) and 12 patients with DCM and ejection fraction below 30 % (mean age 54 years, 4 women) were examined by cine CMR. Maximum AVPM between end-diastole and end-systole was measured at two points in each of three long axis planes and expressed as the average of the six points. The SV was calculated from contiguous short axis images by established techniques. The mean epicardial area of the largest short axis slices in end-diastole was multiplied by the AVPM and divided by the SV to calculate the percentage of SV explained by longitudinal function (AVPM/SV). Data is presented as mean±SEM. RESULTS: SV for controls was 116±6 ml. SV was increased in athletes 140±4 ml (p=0.01) and decreased in patients 72±7 ml (p<0.001). AVPM for controls was 16±0 mm. AVPM was unchanged for athletes 17±1 mm (p=ns) and decreased for patients 7±1 mm (p<0.001). AVPM/SV for controls was 60±2 %. AVPM/SV was unchanged for athletes 57±2 % (p=ns) and for patients 67±4 % (p=ns). CONCLUSIONS: AV-plane motion is the primary contributor to LV pumping accounting for about 60 % of the stroke volume. Although AVPM is less than half in patients with DCM compared to controls and athletes, the contribution of AVPM to LV function is maintained which can be explained by the larger short-axis area in the dilated left ventricle.

  • 12. Carlsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Ugander, Martin
    Mosén, Henrik
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Arheden, Håkan
    Atrioventricular displacement is the major contributor to left ventricular pumping in healthy adults, athletes and patients with dialated cardiomyopathy2007Inngår i: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 292, nr 3, s. H1452-H1459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies using echocardiography in healthy subjects have reported conflicting data regarding the percentage of the stroke volume (SV) of the left ventricle (LV) resulting from longitudinal and radial function, respectively. Therefore, the aim was to quantify the percentage of SV explained by longitudinal atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) in controls, athletes, and patients with decreased LV function due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Twelve healthy subjects, 12 elite triathletes, and 12 patients with DCM and ejection fraction below 30% were examined by cine magnetic resonance imaging. AVPD and SV were measured in long- and short-axis images, respectively. The percentage of the SV explained by longitudinal function (SVAVPD%) was calculated as the mean epicardial area of the largest short-axis slices in end diastole multiplied by the AVPD and divided by the SV. SV was higher in athletes [140 ± 4 ml (mean ± SE), P = 0.009] and lower in patients (72 ± 7 ml, P < 0.001) when compared with controls (116 ± 6 ml). AVPD was similar in athletes (17 ± 1 mm, P = 0.45) and lower in patients (7 ± 1 mm, P < 0.001) when compared with controls (16 ± 0 mm). SVAVPD% was similar both in athletes (57 ± 2%, P = 0.51) and in patients (67 ± 4%, P = 0.24) when compared with controls (60 ± 2%). In conclusion, longitudinal AVPD is the primary contributor to LV pumping and accounts for ~60% of the SV. Although AVPD is less than half in patients with DCM when compared with controls and athletes, the contribution of AVPD to LV function is maintained, which can be explained by the larger short-axis area in DCM.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13. Engblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Steding, Katarina
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Mosén, Henrik
    Hedén, Bo
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Ekmehag, Björn
    Arheden, Håkan
    Peak oxygen uptake in relation to total heart volume discriminates heart failure patients from healthy volunteers and athletes2010Inngår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, ISSN 1097-6647, E-ISSN 1532-429X, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background An early sign of heart failure (HF) is a decreased cardiac reserve or inability to adequately increase cardiac output during exercise. Under normal circumstances maximal cardiac output is closely related to peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) which has previously been shown to be closely related to total heart volume (THV). Thus, the aim of this study was to derive a VO2peak/THV ratio and to test the hypothesis that this ratio can be used to distinguish patients with HF from healthy volunteers and endurance athletes. Thirty-one patients with HF of different etiologies were retrospectively included and 131 control subjects (60 healthy volunteers and 71 athletes) were prospectively enrolled. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by maximal exercise test and THV was determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. The VO2peak/THV ratio was then derived and tested. Results Peak oxygen uptake was strongly correlated to THV (r2=0.74, p<0.001) in the control subjects, but not for the patients (r2=0.0002, p=0.95). The VO2peak/THV ratio differed significantly between control subjects and patients, even in patients with normal ejection fraction and after normalizing for hemoglobin levels (p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis the VO2peak/THV ratio was the only independent predictor of presence of HF (p<0.001). Conclusions The VO2peak/THV ratio can be used to distinguish patients with clinically diagnosed HF from healthy volunteers and athletes, even in patients with preserved systolic left ventricular function and after normalizing for hemoglobin levels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14. Mosén, Henrik
    et al.
    Eliasson, Matilda
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Persson, Anders
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Arheden, Håkan
    A study of structural and heart characteristics in male triathletes compared to normals2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Normal hjärtfunktion hos förstorade idrottshjärtan – en MR-studie av manliga elittriatleters hjärtan Henrik Mosén1, Mathilda Eliasson1, Marcus Carlsson1, Andreas Persson1, Torsten Buhre2 och Håkan Arheden1. Avdelningen för klinisk fysiologi, Universitetssjukhuset i Lund1, Idrottsvetenskap, Malmö högskola2. Bakgrund: Endast ett fåtal studier av uthållighetstränade elitidrottares hjärtan har gjorts med kardiovaskulär MR-teknik (CMR). Tidigare studier har ofta använt ekokardiografi som undersökningsmodalitet, men MR-tekniken är i många avseenden en bättre metod när särskild exakthet i mätningar och mycket god reproducerbarhet är önskvärd. Syftet med studien var därför att med modern CMR-teknik jämföra elitidrottares hjärtan med hjärtan hos normalt tränade personer, med avseende på struktrella och funktionella parametrar. Metod: 13 svenska manliga elittriatleter, 33,3  5,7 år gamla, genomförde ett maximalt arbetsprov med gasanalys för att fastställa deras arbetsfysiologiska status. Hjärtparametrarna studerades med moderna MR-sekvenser, som steady state free precession (SSFP). Studien gjordes som 4 delstudier, där målet var att klargöra om man kan finna några hjärtfysiologiska skillnader mellan elitidrottarna och normaltränade individer. Vänsterkammarmassa (LVM), vänsterkammarvolymer och cardiac index (CI) studerades. Dessutom gjordes mätningar av total hjärtvolym (THV) och total hjärtvolymsvariation (THVV) hos elitidrottarna, något som inte gjorts tidigare. Resultat: CI var något, men inte signifikant (p = 0,10), förhöjt hos elitidrottarna jämfört med normala. LVM och slutdiastoliska och slutsystoliska volymer var högre än referensvärden för åldersmatchade normala, men ejektionsfraktionen hos idrottarna skilde sig inte från de normalas. Idrottarna hade en signifikant (p<0,001) större THV men skilde sig inte från normaler vad gäller THVV. Sammanfattning: Vi konstaterar att hjärtat hos de uthållighetstränade elitidrottare vi studerat skiljer sig från normala hjärtan vad gäller storleken, där både vänsterkammaren såväl som hela hjärtat är större hos elitidrottarna. Vad gäller funktionen är den helt normal vad gäller alla studerade parametrar, vilket kan tolkas som att förstoringen av idrottshjärtat är en väl balanserad anpassning till högre krav på hjärtat som pump.

  • 15. Steding, Katarina
    et al.
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Arheden, Håkan
    Wolhfart, Björn
    Respiratory indices by gas analysis and fat metabolism by indirect calorimetry in normal subjects and triathletes2010Inngår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 146-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The effects of exercise on different indices reflecting the metabolism have been of interest for a long time, and a relationship between anaerobic indices and maximal oxygen uptake has been established. The inter-relationship between different respiratory indices during an exercise test remains to be studied in order to understand differences between individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine three respiratory indices and investigate their inter-relationship in individuals with highly variable working capacity. A second aim was to investigate the fat metabolism at the VO(2) corresponding to the respiratory compensation point (Pq) in the different subjects using indirect calorimetry. METHODS: Sixty control subjects (20 female) and 18 triathletes (six female) performed an exercise test with gas analysis. Three respiratory indices, derivative crossing (Dx), point of crossing (Px) and respiratory compensation point (Pq), were calculated using a computerized method. Fat metabolism at Pq was calculated using indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Two different sequences of the respiratory indices were found: Dx

  • 16. Steding, Katarina
    et al.
    Engblom, Henrik
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Mosén, Henrik
    Wolhfart, Björn
    Arheden, Håkan
    Relation between cardiac dimensions and peak oxygen uptake2010Inngår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, ISSN 1097-6647, E-ISSN 1532-429X, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background: Long term endurance training is known to increase peak oxygen uptake ( VO2peak ) and induce morphological changes of the heart such as increased left ventricular mass (LVM). However, the relationship between VO2peak and the total heart volume (THV), considering both the left and right ventricular dimensions in both males and females, is not completely described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that THV is an independent predictor of VO2peak and to determine if the left and right ventricles enlarge in the same order of magnitude in males and females with a presumed wide range of THV. Methods and Results: The study population consisted of 131 subjects of whom 71 were athletes (30 female) and 60 healthy controls (20 female). All subjects underwent cardiovascular MR and maximal incremental exercise test. Total heart volume, LVM and left- and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV, RVEDV) were calculated from short-axis images. VO2peak was significantly correlated to THV, LVM, LVEDV and RVEDV in both males and females. Multivariable analysis showed that THV was a strong, independent predictor of VO2peak (R2 = 0.74, p <0.001). As LVEDV increased, RVEDV increased in the same order of magnitude in both males and females (R2 = 0.87,p < 0.001). Conclusion: Total heart volume is a strong, independent predictor of maximal work capacity for both males and females. Long term endurance training is associated with a physiologically enlarged heart with a balance between the left and right ventricular dimensions in both genders.

  • 17. Steding, Katarina
    et al.
    Engblom, Henrik
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Mosén, Henrik
    Buhre, Torsten
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen (LUT), Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Wohlfart, Björn
    Arheden, Håkan
    The Athlete’s Heart: Gender Aspects2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Athlete’s Heart – Gender Aspects K. Steding1, H. Engblom1, M. Carlsson1, H. Mosén1, T. Buhre2, B. Wohlfart1, H. Arheden1 1Dept. Clinical Physiology, Lund University, 2Dept. Sport Sciences, Malmö University Introduction: Training induced morphological changes to the heart in male subjects has previously been well described. Only a few studies include females. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if the morphological response to training differs between male and female athletes. Methods: Eighteen triathletes (6 female) and 59 controls (19 female) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Total heart volume (THV), left ventricular mass (LVM) and end diastolic volume (EDV) was calculated using planimetry derived from steady state free precession cine images. Mann-Whitney non-parametric t-test was used to compare THV/body surface area (BSA), LVM/THV and EDV/THV in the four groups. Results: THV/BSA was significantly higher in athletes, both for males and females (p<0.0001, p<0.001 respectively). Male controls had a significantly higher THV/BSA when compared to female controls (p=0.004) and also LVM/THV (p=0.001). However, there were no significant differences between male and female athletes for any of the variables studied. Conclusion: Long term endurance training increases THV in the same order of magnitude in both male and female athletes. The differences seen between male and female control subjects are not found in male and female athletes.

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