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  • 1.
    Boyd, Hannah
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan F
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Welbourn, Rebecca J L
    ISIS Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX, UK.
    Gutfreund, Philipp
    Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38000, France.
    Klechikov, Alexey
    Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38000, France; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Robertsson, Carolina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Barker, Robert
    School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH, UK.
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    A comparison between the structures of reconstituted salivary pellicles and oral mucin (MUC5B) films.2021Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 584, s. 660-668, artikel-id S0021-9797(20)31464-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    HYPOTHESIS: Salivary pellicles i.e., thin films formed upon selective adsorption of saliva, protect oral surfaces against chemical and mechanical insults. Pellicles are also excellent aqueous lubricants. It is generally accepted that reconstituted pellicles have a two-layer structure, where the outer layer is mainly composed of MUC5B mucins. We hypothesized that by comparing the effect of ionic strength on reconstituted pellicles and MUC5B films we could gain further insight into the pellicle structure.

    EXPERIMENTS: Salivary pellicles and MUC5B films reconstituted on solid surfaces were investigated at different ionic strengths by Force Spectroscopy, Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation, Null Ellipsometry and Neutron Reflectometry.

    FINDINGS: Our results support the two-layer structure for reconstituted salivary pellicles. The outer layer swelled when ionic strength decreased, indicating a weak polyelectrolyte behavior. While initially the MUC5B films exhibited a similar tendency, this was followed by a drastic collapse indicating an interaction between exposed hydrophobic domains. This suggests that mucins in the pellicle outer layer form complexes with other salivary components that prevent this interaction. Lowering ionic strength below physiological values also led to a partial removal of the pellicle inner layer. Overall, our results highlight the importance that the interactions of mucins with other pellicle components play on their structure.

  • 2.
    Chavez de Paz, Luis E.
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lemos, José
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sedgley, Christine
    Role of (p)ppGpp in Biofilm Formation by Enterococcus faecalis2012Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 1627-1630Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF and its (p)ppGpp-deficient ΔrelA, ΔrelQ, and ΔrelA ΔrelQ mutants were grown in biofilms and evaluated for growth profiles, biofilm morphology, cell viability, and proteolytic activity. E. faecalis lacking (p)ppGpp had a diminished capacity to sustain biofilm formation over an extended period of time and expressed abundant proteolytic activity.

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  • 3.
    Davies, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Herrman, Annkatrin
    Russell, Wayne
    Svitacheva, Naila
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Respiratory tract mucins: structure and expression patterns2002Ingår i: Novartis Foundation symposium, ISSN 1528-2511, E-ISSN 1935-4657, Vol. 248, s. 27776-93Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Goblet cells produce mainly MUC5AC, but also MUC5B and some MUC2 in apparently ‘irritated’ airways. MUC5B dominates in the submucosal glands although a little MUC5AC and MUC7 are usually present. MUC4 originates from the ciliated cells. After separation into a gel and a sol phase, lysozyme and lactoferrin are enriched in the salivary gel phase suggesting that mucus may act as a matrix for ‘protective’ proteins on the mucosal surface. A salivary MUC5B N-terminal fragment consistent with a cleavage event in the D’ domain was de-tected with antibodies against various N-terminal peptide sequences suggesting that assembly of MUC5B occurs through a mechanism similar to that of the von Willebrand factor. Identification of additional cleavage sites C-terminal to the D’ domain suggests that most of the N-terminal low-glycosylated part of MUC5B may be removed without affecting the oligomeric nature of the mucin. Possibly, the generation of mucins with different macromolecular properties through proteolytic ‘processing’ is one way of adapting the mucus polymer matrix to meet local physiological demands. Monomeric mucins that appear to turn over rapidly in the airway epithelium have been identified using radiolabelled mucin precursors. ‘Shedding’ of such mucins after microbe attachment may prevent colonization of epithelial surfaces.

  • 4.
    Davies, Julia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Thornton, David
    Gel-forming and cell-associated mucins: preparation for structural and functional studies2012Ingår i: Mucins: methods and protocols / [ed] Michael A. McGuckin, David J. Thornton, Humana Press, 2012, s. 27-47Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Secreted and transmembrane mucins are important components of innate defence at the body's mucosal surfaces. The secreted mucins are large, polymeric glycoproteins, which are largely responsible for the gel-like properties of mucus secretions. The cell-tethered mucins, however, are monomeric but are typically composed of two subunits, a larger extracellular subunit which is heavily glycosylated while the smaller more sparsely glycosylated subunit has a short extracellular region, a single-pass transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. These two families of mucins represent high-molecular-weight glycoproteins containing serine and threonine-rich domains that are the attachment sites for large numbers of O-glycans. The high-M ( r ) and high sugar content have been exploited for the separation of mucins from the majority of components in mucus secretions. In this chapter, we describe current and well-established methods (caesium chloride density-gradient centrifugation, gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography, and agarose gel electrophoresis) for the extraction and purification of gel-forming and cell-surface mucins which can subsequently be used for a variety of structural and functional studies.

  • 5.
    Diogo Löfgren, Christina
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Tapia Lagunas, Pablo
    Malmö högskola, Bibliotek och IT (BIT).
    Christersson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    A systematic review of methods to diagnose oral dryness and salivary gland function2012Ingår i: BMC Oral Health, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 12, nr 29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The most advocated clinical method for diagnosing salivary dysfunction is to quantitate unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva (sialometry). Since there is an expected and wide variation in salivary flow rates among individuals, the assessment of dysfunction can be difficult. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the quality of the evidence for the efficacy of diagnostic methods used to identify oral dryness. Methods A literature search, with specific indexing terms and a hand search, was conducted for publications that described a method to diagnose oral dryness. The electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were used as data sources. Four reviewers selected publications on the basis of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from the selected publications using a protocol. Original studies were interpreted with the aid of Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. Results The database searches resulted in 224 titles and abstracts. Of these abstracts, 80 publications were judged to meet the inclusion criteria and read in full. A total of 18 original studies were judged relevant and interpreted for this review. In all studies, the results of the test method were compared to those of a reference method. Based on the interpretation (with the aid of the QUADAS tool) it can be reported that the patient selection criteria were not clearly described and the test or reference methods were not described in sufficient detail for it to be reproduced. None of the included studies reported information on uninterpretable/intermediate results nor data on observer or instrument variation. Seven of the studies presented their results as a percentage of correct diagnoses. Conclusions The evidence for the efficacy of clinical methods to assess oral dryness is sparse and it can be stated that improved standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy are needed in order to assure the methodological quality of studies. There is need for effective diagnostic criteria and functional tests in order to detect those individuals with oral dryness who may require oral treatment, such as alleviation of discomfort and/or prevention of diseases.

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  • 6. Glimvall, Pontus
    et al.
    Wickstrom, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Jansson, Henrik
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Elevated levels of salivary lactoferrin, a marker for chronic periodontitis?2012Ingår i: Journal of Periodontal Research, ISSN 0022-3484, E-ISSN 1600-0765, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 655-660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Whole saliva is a complex mixture of fluids essential for the well-being of the oral hard and soft tissues. Saliva contains numerous anti- microbial proteins that help protect the oral ecosystem from infectious agents. Chronic periodontitis is an infectious chronic inflammatory condition that affects the tooth-supporting structures and leads to their destruction. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in concentrations of salivary lacto- ferrin in subjects with and without periodontal disease and correlate these values with clinical variables associated with periodontal disease. Material and Methods: Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 17 subjects with chronic periodontitis and 17 periodontally healthy control subjects. Data relating to bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and horizontal bone loss were registered. Concentrations of lactoferrin, lysozyme and IgA in stimulated whole saliva were quantified using ELISA. Results: Subjects with chronic periodontits showed higher concentrations of lac- toferrin in stimulated whole saliva compared with periodontally healthy control subjects (p < 0.05). Salivary concentrations of lactoferrin were positively corre- lated with bleeding on probing (p < 0.001) and the number of sites with probing pocket depth ‡ 6 mm (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Lactoferrin is raised in stimulated whole saliva in subjects with chronic periodontitis and is correlated with probing pocket depth ‡ 6 mm.

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  • 7.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan F
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Boyd, Hannah
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Gutfreund, Philipp
    Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38000, France.
    Welbourn, Rebecca J L
    ISIS Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.
    Robertsson, Carolina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV).
    Richardson, Robert M
    School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Prescott, Stuart W
    School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australi.
    Barker, Robert
    School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH, United Kingdom.
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV).
    MUC5B mucin films under mechanical confinement: A combined neutron reflectometry and atomic force microscopy study.2022Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 614, s. 120-129, artikel-id S0021-9797(22)00109-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    HYPOTHESIS: Among other functions, mucins hydrate and protect biological interfaces from mechanical challenges. Mucins also attract interest as biocompatible coatings with excellent lubrication performance. Therefore, it is of high interest to understand the structural response of mucin films to mechanical challenges. We hypothesized that this could be done with Neutron Reflectometry using a novel sample environment where mechanical confinement is achieved by inflating a membrane against the films.

    EXPERIMENTS: Oral MUC5B mucin films were investigated by Force Microscopy/Spectroscopy and Neutron Reflectometry both at solid-liquid interfaces and under mechanical confinement.

    FINDINGS: NR indicated that MUC5B films were almost completely compressed and dehydrated when confined at 1 bar. This was supported by Force Microscopy/Spectroscopy investigations. Force Spectroscopy also indicated that MUC5B films could withstand mechanical confinement by means of steric interactions for pressures lower than ∼ 0.5 bar i.e., mucins could protect interfaces from mechanical challenges of this magnitude while keeping them hydrated. To investigate mucin films under these pressures by means of the employed sample environment for NR, further technological developments are needed. The most critical would be identifying or developing more flexible membranes that would still meet certain requirements like chemical homogeneity and very low roughness.

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  • 8. Henssge, Uta
    et al.
    Do, Thuy
    Gilbert, Steven C.
    Cox, Steven
    Clark, Douglas
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.
    Radford, David R.
    Beighton, David
    Application of MLST and Pilus Gene Sequence Comparisons to Investigate the Population Structures of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces oris2011Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 6, artikel-id e21430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces oris are members of the oral biofilm. Their identification using 16S rRNA sequencing is problematic and better achieved by comparison of metG partial sequences. A. oris is more abundant and more frequently isolated than A. naeslundii. We used a multi-locus sequence typing approach to investigate the genotypic diversity of these species and assigned A. naeslundii (n=37) and A. oris (n=68) isolates to 32 and 68 sequence types (ST), respectively. Neighbor-joining and ClonalFrame dendrograms derived from the concatenated partial sequences of 7 house-keeping genes identified at least 4 significant subclusters within A. oris and 3 within A. naeslundii. The strain collection we had investigated was an under-representation of the total population since at least 3 STs composed of single strains may represent discrete clusters of strains not well represented in the collection. The integrity of these sub-clusters was supported by the sequence analysis of fimP and fimA, genes coding for the type 1 and 2 fimbriae, respectively. An A. naeslundii subcluster was identified with both fimA and fimP genes and these strains were able to bind to MUC7 and statherin while all other A. naeslundii strains possessed only fimA and did not bind to statherin. An A. oris subcluster harboured a fimA gene similar to that of Actinomyces odontolyticus but no detectable fimP failed to bind significantly to either MUC7 or statherin. These data are evidence of extensive genotypic and phenotypic diversity within the species A. oris and A. naeslundii but the status of the subclusters identified here will require genome comparisons before their phylogenic position can be unequivocally established.

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  • 9.
    Kindblom, Christian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Salivary proteins promote proteolytic activity in Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 and Streptococcus mutans2012Ingår i: Molecular Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2041-1006, E-ISSN 2041-1014, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 362-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A major function of the salivary pellicle on oral surfaces is to promote colonization of the commensal microbiota by providing binding sites for adherence. Streptococcus mitis is an early colonizer of the oral cavity whereas Streptococcus mutans represents a later colonizer. To survive and grow, oral bacteria produce enzymes, proteases and glycosidases, which allow them to exploit salivary proteins as a nutrient source. In this study, adherence and proteolytic activity of S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans were investigated in a flow-cell model in the presence of different populations of surface-associated salivary proteins. Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 adhered well to surfaces coated with both a MUC5B-enriched fraction and a pool of low-density proteins containing MUC7, amylase, cystatin, gp340, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme and statherin, whereas adherence of S. mutans to these proteins was poor. In environments of MUC5B or the low-density proteins, both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans showed high levels of proteolytic activity. For S. mitis in the MUC5B environment, most of this activity may be attributable to contact with the molecules in the fluid phase although activity was also enhanced by adherence to surface-associated MUC5B. These data suggest that although they differ in their capacity to adhere to surface-associated salivary proteins, in the natural environment exploitation of saliva as a nutrient source can contribute to survival and colonization of the oral cavity by both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans.

  • 10.
    Leo, Fredrik
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Genovis AB, Kävlinge, Sweden.
    Lood, Rolf
    Genovis AB, Kävlinge, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Infection Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thomsson, Kristina A.
    Proteomics Core Facility, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Proteomics Core Facility, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Characterization of MdpS: an in-depth analysis of a MUC5B-degrading protease from Streptococcus oralis2024Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 15, artikel-id 1340109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral biofilms, comprising hundreds of bacteria and other microorganisms on oral mucosal and dental surfaces, play a central role in oral health and disease dynamics. Streptococcus oralis, a key constituent of these biofilms, contributes significantly to the formation of which, serving as an early colonizer and microcolony scaffold. The interaction between S. oralis and the orally predominant mucin, MUC5B, is pivotal in biofilm development, yet the mechanism underlying MUC5B degradation remains poorly understood. This study introduces MdpS (Mucin Degrading Protease from Streptococcus oralis), a protease that extensively hydrolyses MUC5B and offers an insight into its evolutionary conservation, physicochemical properties, and substrate- and amino acid specificity. MdpS exhibits high sequence conservation within the species and also explicitly among early biofilm colonizing streptococci. It is a calcium or magnesium dependent serine protease with strict physicochemical preferences, including narrow pH and temperature tolerance, and high sensitivity to increasing concentrations of sodium chloride and reducing agents. Furthermore, MdpS primarily hydrolyzes proteins with O-glycans, but also shows activity toward immunoglobulins IgA1/2 and IgM, suggesting potential immunomodulatory effects. Significantly, MdpS extensively degrades MUC5B in the N- and C-terminal domains, emphasizing its role in mucin degradation, with implications for carbon and nitrogen sequestration for S. oralis or oral biofilm cross-feeding. Moreover, depending on substrate glycosylation, the amino acids serine, threonine or cysteine triggers the enzymatic action. Understanding the interplay between S. oralis and MUC5B, facilitated by MdpS, has significant implications for the management of a healthy eubiotic oral microenvironment, offering potential targets for interventions aimed at modulating oral biofilm composition and succession. Additionally, since MdpS does not rely on O-glycan removal prior to extensive peptide backbone hydrolysis, the MdpS data challenges the current model of MUC5B degradation. These findings emphasize the necessity for further research in this field.

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  • 11.
    Leo, Fredrik
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Genovis AB, Lund, Sweden..
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Lood, Rolf
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Infect Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Characterization of a highly conserved MUC5B-degrading protease, MdpL, from Limosilactobacillus fermentum2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1127466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    MUC5B is the predominant glycoprotein in saliva and is instrumental in the establishment and maintenance of multi-species eubiotic biofilms in the oral cavity. Investigations of the aciduric Lactobacillaceae family, and its role in biofilms emphasizes the diversity across different genera of the proteolytic systems involved in the nutritional utilization of mucins. We have characterized a protease from Limosilactobacillus fermentum, MdpL (Mucin degrading protease from Limosilactobacillus) with a high protein backbone similarity with commensals that exploit mucins for attachment and nutrition. MdpL was shown to be associated with the bacterial cell surface, in close proximity to MUC5B, which was sequentially degraded into low molecular weight fragments. Mapping the substrate preference revealed multiple hydrolytic sites of proteins with a high O-glycan occurrence, although hydrolysis was not dependent on the presence of O-glycans. However, since proteolysis of immunoglobulins was absent, and general protease activity was low, a preference for glycoproteins similar to MUC5B in terms of glycosylation and structure is suggested. MdpL preferentially hydrolyzed C-terminally located hydrophobic residues in peptides larger than 20 amino acids, which hinted at a limited sequence preference. To secure proper enzyme folding and optimal conditions for activity, L. fermentum incorporates a complex system that establishes a reducing environment. The importance of overall reducing conditions was confirmed by the activity boosting effect of the added reducing agents L-cysteine and DTT. High activity was retained in low to neutral pH 5.5-7.0, but the enzyme was completely inhibited in the presence of Zn2+. Here we have characterized a highly conserved mucin degrading protease from L. fermentum. MdpL, that together with the recently discovered O-glycanase and O-glycoprotease enzyme groups, increases our understanding of mucin degradation and complex biofilm dynamics.

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  • 12.
    Lima, Bruno P.
    et al.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Johnstone, Karen F.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Hall, Jeffrey W.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Biol Sci, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Streptococcus gordonii Poised for Glycan Feeding through a MUC5B-Discriminating, Lipoteichoic Acid-Mediated Outside-In Signaling Circuit2022Ingår i: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 204, nr 6, artikel-id e00118-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many oral bacteria employ cell wall-anchored adhesins to bind to the salivary films coating the teeth and mucosal surfaces. Surface binding prevents clearance and facilitates catabolism of salivary film glycoproteins. We asked whether Streptococcus gordonii adhesin expression changes in response to surface salivary cues using a eukaryote-like, outside-in recognition and signaling circuit. To determine whether the cues were discriminated, S. gordonii was tested during cell adhesion and biofilm formation on a MUC5B-rich or lower-molecular-mass salivary fraction or an uncoated abiotic surface. Cells were recovered and analyzed for differences in gene expression and proteins in cell wall fractions. In salivary-free conditions, planktonic S. gordonii presented three prominent cell wall LPXTG-motif proteins, SGO_1487, SGO_0890, and MbpA (mucin-binding protein A; SGO_0707). During biofilm formation on MUC5B-coated surfaces, MbpA, a MUC5B-binding protein, and key genes in the tagatose and quorum-sensing pathways were strongly promoted. The response to MUC5B required the two-component system (TCS), streptococcal regulator of adhesins sensor and regulator (SraSR, SGO_1180/81), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and the homologous paired adhesins, SspA and SspB (SspAB). LTA appears to link the outside signal (MUC5B) to intramembrane SraSR. Tagatose pathway gene expression may poise cells to metabolize MUC5B glycans and, with a quorum-sensing gene (luxS), may direct formation of a consortium to facilitate glycan cross-feeding by S. gordonii. We now show that a Gram-positive bacterium discriminates specific surface environmental cues using an outside-in signaling mechanism to apparently optimize colonization of saliva-coated surfaces. IMPORTANCE All organisms throughout the tree of life sense and respond to their surface environments. To discriminate among mucosal surface environmental cues, we report that Streptococcus gordonii recognizes a high-molecular-weight mucin glycoprotein, MUC5B, using the paired adhesins SspAB and lipoteichoic acid; the latter bridges the outside signal to an intramembrane two-component system to transcriptionally regulate a MUC5B-specific adhesin and genes that may facilitate glycan catabolism. All organisms throughout the tree of life sense and respond to their surface environments. To discriminate among mucosal surface environmental cues, we report that Streptococcus gordonii recognizes a high-molecular-weight mucin glycoprotein, MUC5B, using the paired adhesins SspAB and lipoteichoic acid; the latter bridges the outside signal to an intramembrane two-component system to transcriptionally regulate a MUC5B-specific adhesin and genes that may facilitate glycan catabolism.

  • 13.
    Lindh, Liselott
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS).
    Glantz, Per-Olof
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Wickstrom, Claes
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS).
    Adsorption of MUC5B and the role of mucins in early salivary film formation2002Ingår i: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 139-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Salivary mucins are known to play important roles in the formation of oral salivary films. The aims of the present study were to investigate the behaviour of salivary mucins at solid surfaces with different wettabilities, as well as the influence of electrolyte on the adsorption behaviour. A pure preparation of human salivary MUC5B was used together with a commercial one of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM). Amounts adsorbed from freshly prepared solutions onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces versus time were measured in situ by ellipsometry. At low concentrations, larger amounts were adsorbed onto hydrophobic than onto hydrophilic silica indicating a higher affinity for the former surfaces. Furthermore, on hydrophilic surfaces adsorbed amounts of MUC5B and BSM show good agreement at low concentrations (<0.10 mgml^-^1). However, at higher concentrations MUC5B adsorbed to a lower extent than BSM. At hydrophobic surfaces, isotherm shapes were similar for the two preparations, but the amounts were shifted to higher values for MUC5B. Finally, the presence of electrolyte increased adsorption and the increase was more pronounced on hydrophilic surfaces. The increased adsorption at a higher ionic strength indicates a more compact structure of the mucin due to electrostatic screening and the fact that the effect was more pronounced on the hydrophilic surfaces points to a higher relative importance of electrostatic interactions in this case. We conclude that the two mucins investigated behave in a qualitatively similar manner and show the highest affinity for hydrophobic surfaces.

  • 14. Lindén, Sara
    et al.
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindell, Gert
    Gilshenan, Kristen
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Four Modes of Adhesion are Used During Helicobacter pylori Binding to Human Mucins in the Oral and Gastric Niches2008Ingår i: Helicobacter, ISSN 1083-4389, E-ISSN 1523-5378, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 81-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and the oral cavity is likely to serve as a reservoir for this pathogen. We investigated the binding of H. pylori to the mucins covering the mucosal surfaces in the niches along the oral to gastric infection route and during gastric disease and modeled the outcome of these interactions. Materials and Methods: A panel of seven H. pylori strains with defined binding properties was used to identify binding to human mucins from saliva, gastric juice, cardia, corpus, and antrum of healthy stomachs and of stomachs affected by gastritis at pH 7.4 and 3.0 using a microtiter-based method. Results: H. pylori binding to mucins differed substantially with the anatomic site, mucin type, pH, gastritis status, and H. pylori strain all having effect on binding. Mucins from saliva and gastric juice displayed the most diverse binding patterns, involving four modes of H. pylori adhesion and the MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC5AC mucins as well as the salivary agglutinin. Binding occurred via the blood-group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), the sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA), a charge/low pH-dependent mechanism, and a novel saliva- binding adhesin. In the healthy gastric mucus layer only BabA and acid/ charge affect binding to the mucins, whereas in gastritis, the BabA/Leb- dependent binding to MUC5AC remained, and SabA and low pH binding increased. Conclusions: The four H. pylori adhesion modes binding to mucins are likely to play different roles during colonization of the oral to gastric niches and during long-term infection.

  • 15.
    Neilands, Jessica
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Boisen, Gabriella
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Robertsson, Carolina
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Formation and Analysis of Mono-species and Polymicrobial Oral Biofilms in Flow-Cell Models2023Ingår i: Bacterial Pathogenesis: Methods and Protocols,, Springer, 2023, s. 33-52Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral microbiota, which is known to include at least 600 different bacterial species, is found on the teethand mucosal surfaces as multi-species communities or biofilms. The oral surfaces are covered with a pellicleof proteins absorbed from saliva, and biofilm formation is initiated when primary colonizers, which expresssurface adhesins that bind to specific salivary components, attach to the oral tissues. Further developmentthen proceeds through co-aggregation of additional species. Over time, the composition of oral biofilms,which varies between different sites throughout the oral cavity, is determined by a combination ofenvironmental factors such as the properties of the underlying surface, nutrient availability and oxygenlevels, and bacterial interactions within the community. A complex equilibrium between biofilm communities and the host is responsible for the maintenance of a healthy biofilm phenotype (eubiosis). In the faceof sustained environmental perturbation, however, biofilm homeostasis can break down giving rise todysbiosis, which is associated with the development of oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis.In vitro models have an important part to play in increasing our understanding of the complex processesinvolved in biofilm development in oral health and disease, and the requirements for experimental system,microbial complexity, and analysis techniques will necessarily vary depending on the question posed. In thischapter we describe some current and well-established methods used in our laboratory for studying oralbacteria in biofilm models which can be adapted to suit the needs of individual users. 

  • 16.
    Neilands, Jessica
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Kinnby, Bertil
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hall, Jan
    Friberg, Bertil
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Bacterial profiles and proteolytic activity in peri-implantitis versus healthy sitesBacterial profiles and proteolytic activity in peri-implantitis versus healthy sites2015Ingår i: Anaerobe, ISSN 1075-9964, E-ISSN 1095-8274, Vol. 35, s. 28-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Peri-implantitis is a biofilm-induced destructive inflammatory process that, over time, results in loss of supporting bone around an osseointegrated dental implant. Biofilms at peri-implantitis sites have been reported to be dominated by Gram-negative anaerobic rods with a proteolytic metabolism such as, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Tannerella, as well as anaerobic Gram-positive cocci. In this study, we hypothesized that protease activity is instrumental in driving bone destruction and we therefore compared the microbial composition and level of protease activity in samples of peri-implant biofluid (PIBF) from 25 healthy subjects (H group) and 25 subjects with peri-implantitis (PI group). Microbial composition was investigated using culture techniques and protease activity was determined using a FITC-labelled casein substrate. The microbial composition was highly variable in subjects both in the H and PI groups but one prominent difference was the prevalence of Porphyromonas/Prevotella and anaerobic Gram positive cocci which was significantly higher in the PI than in the H group. A subgroup of subjects with peri-implantitis displayed a high level of protease activity in the PIBF compared to healthy subjects. However, this activity could not be related to the presence of specific bacterial species. We propose that a high level of protease activity may be a predictive factor for disease progression in peri-implantitis. Further longitudinal studies are however required to determine whether assessment of protease activity could serve as a useful method to identify patients at risk for progressive tissue destruction.

  • 17.
    Robertsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Blum, Zoltan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV).
    Jakobsson, Magnus E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Immunotechnol, Lund, Sweden..
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Proteomic response in Streptococcus gordonii DL1 biofilm cells during attachment to salivary MUC5B2021Ingår i: Journal of Oral Microbiology, E-ISSN 2000-2297, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 1967636Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Salivary mucin MUC5B seems to promote biodiversity in dental biofilms, and thereby oral health, for example, by inducing synergistic 'mucolytic' activities in a variety of microbial species that need to cooperate for the release of nutrients from the complex glycoprotein. Knowledge of how early colonizers interact with host salivary proteins is integral to better understand the maturation of putatively harmful oral biofilms and could provide key insights into biofilm physiology. Methods The early oral colonizer Streptococcus gordonii DL1 was grown planktonically and in biofilm flow cell systems with uncoated, MUC5B or low-density salivary protein (LDP) coated surfaces. Bacterial cell proteins were extracted and analyzed using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based workflow, and differentially expressed proteins were identified. Results and conclusions Overall, the proteomic profiles of S. gordonii DL1 were similar across conditions. Six novel biofilm cell proteins and three planktonic proteins absent in all biofilm cultures were identified. These differences may provide insights into mechanisms for adaptation to biofilm growth in this species. Salivary MUC5B also elicited specific responses in the biofilm cell proteome. These regulations may represent mechanisms by which this mucin could promote colonization of the commensal S. gordonii in oral biofilms.

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  • 18.
    Robertsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Blum, Zoltan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle (HS), Institutionen för biomedicinsk vetenskap (BMV).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Intracellular Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome of the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii DL12020Ingår i: BMC Microbiology, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To respond and adapt to environmental challenges, prokaryotes regulate cellular processes rapidly and reversibly through protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. This study investigates the intracellular proteome and Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome of the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Intracellular proteins from planktonic cells of S. gordonii DL1 were extracted and subjected to 2D-gel electrophoresis. Proteins in general were visualized using Coomassie Brilliant Blue and T-Rex staining. Phosphorylated proteins were visualized with Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain. Proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and sequence analysis.

    RESULTS: In total, sixty-one intracellular proteins were identified in S. gordonii DL1, many of which occurred at multiple isoelectric points. Nineteen of these proteins were present as one or more Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylated form. The identified phosphoproteins turned out to be involved in a variety of cellular processes.

    CONCLUSION: Nineteen phosphoproteins involved in various cellular functions were identified in S. gordonii. This is the first time the global intracellular Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation profile has been analysed in an oral streptococcus. Comparison with phosphoproteomes of other species from previous studies showed many similarities. Proteins that are consistently found in a phosphorylated state across several species and growth conditions may represent a core phosphoproteome profile shared by many bacteria.

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  • 19.
    Robertsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Davies, Julia R
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Bay Nord, Anders
    Swedish NMR Centre, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malmodin, Daniel
    Swedish NMR Centre, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Malmö universitet, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Synergistic metabolism of salivary MUC5B in oral commensal bacteria during early biofilm formation2023Ingår i: Microbiology Spectrum, E-ISSN 2165-0497, Vol. 11, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial metabolism in oral biofilms is comprised of complex networks of nutritional chains and biochemical regulations. These processes involve both intraspecies and interspecies networks as well as interactions with components from host saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and dietary intake. In a previous paper, a large salivary glycoprotein, mucin MUC5B, was suggested to promote a dental health-related phenotype in the oral type strain of Streptococcus gordonii DL1, by regulating bacterial adhesion and protein expression. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to examine the effects on the metabolic output of monospecies compared to dual species early biofilms of two clinical strains of oral commensal bacteria, S. gordonii and Actinomyces naeslundii, in the presence of MUC5B. The presence of S. gordonii increased colonization of A. naeslundii on salivary MUC5B, and both commensals were able to utilize MUC5B as a sole nutrient source during early biofilm formation. The metabolomes suggested that the bacteria were able to release mucin carbohydrates from oligosaccharide side chains as well as amino acids from the protein core. Synergistic effects were also seen in the dual species biofilm metabolome compared to the monospecies, indicating that A. naeslundii and S. gordonii cooperated in the degradation of salivary MUC5B. A better understanding of bacterial interactions and salivary-mediated regulation of early dental biofilm activity is meaningful for understanding oral biofilm physiology and may contribute to the development of future prevention strategies for biofilm-induced oral disease.

    IMPORTANCE: The study of bacterial interactions and salivary-mediated regulation of early dental biofilm activity is of interest for understanding oral microbial adaptation to environmental cues and biofilm maturation. Findings in oral commensals can prove useful from the perspectives of both oral and systemic health of the host, as well as the understanding of general microbial biofilm physiology. The knowledge may provide a basis for the development of prognostic biomarkers, or development of new treatment strategies, related to oral health and disease and possibly also to other biofilm-induced conditions. The study is also an important step toward developing the methodology for similar studies in other species and/or growth conditions.

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  • 20. Rosseau, Karine
    et al.
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Whitehouse, David B
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Swallow, Dallas M
    New monoclonal antibodies to non-glycosylated domains of the secreted mucins MUC5B and MUC72003Ingår i: Hybridoma and hybridomics, ISSN 1536-8599, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 293-299Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The separation and characterization of salivary mucins is not straightforward because of their large size, heterogeneity, and molecular interactions. The MUC5B and MUC7 mucins are major glycoprotein components of saliva that are thought to play a vital role in maintaining oral health. MUC5B is also a major component of respiratory mucus and is produced by the tracheal and bronchial glands, while MUC7 has a more limited pattern of expression in the bronchial tree. MUC5B is a gel-forming mucin and thus confers viscosity, whereas MUC7 is much smaller. MUC7 has anti-fungal activity, and both mucins interact with bacteria. The aim of this work was to produce new monoclonal antibodies that can be used to quantify and characterize these mucins by standard laboratory procedures. Peptide sequences in non-conserved and non-glycosylated regions were selected and monoclonal antibodies produced by an efficient immunization and cloning strategy, and screening against purified mucins. Three new antibodies-EU-MUC5Ba and EU-MUC5Bb (against MUC5B) and EU-MUC7a (against MUC7)-were isolated that do not show cross-reactivity with other gel-forming mucins. All work on immuno-histochemistry can be used for semi-quantitative immunoblotting after agarose gel electrophoresis. These reagents are valuable tools to study changes in these mucins in oral and respiratory disease, and unlike other monoclonal antibodies to these mucins they recognize epitopes that are not affected by glycosylation.

  • 21.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ericson, Dan
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Kinnby, Bertil
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Glycoprotein 340 and sialic acid in minor-gland and whole saliva of children, adolescents, and adults2011Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 6, nr 119, s. 435-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycoprotein 340 (gp-340) is a bacterial-binding glycoprotein observed in major and minor gland saliva. Sialic acid, a common terminal structure of salivary glycoproteins, interacts with microorganisms and host ligands, as well as free radicals. This study investigated the content of gp-340 and sialic acid in minor gland and whole saliva of children (3-yr-olds), adolescents (14-yr-olds) and adults (20 to 25-yr-olds). Labial and buccal gland saliva was collected on filter paper and un-stimulated whole saliva by draining into a tube. The relative amount of gp-340 and sialic acid was determined by ELISA and ELLA, respectively. In minor gland saliva, no statistically significant differences in gp-340 and sialic acid were seen between the age-groups. Significantly lower amounts of gp-340 and sialic acid were seen in labial saliva compared to buccal among adults (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In whole saliva, the amount of gp-340 was significantly lower among adults compared to children (P < 0.01). No differences between genders were seen. Stable gp-340 and sialic acid contents in minor-gland saliva across the age-groups and higher gp-340 content in the whole saliva of the youngest age-group (3-yr-olds) compared with the adult-group may reflect a vital innate factor of immunity in children’s saliva.

  • 22.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö universitet, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Glucosidase activity in dental biofilms in adolescent patients with fixed orthodontic appliances - a putative marker for white spot lesions - a clinical exploratory trial2019Ingår i: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 102, s. 122-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Approximately 25% of the adolescents in the Scandinavian population are treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA). Adverse effects such as enamel decalcification (white spot lesions - WSL), seem to affect over 30% of patients. WSL have only a limited ability to improve, thus seriously jeopardising the treatment outcome. The aim of present study was to explore the biofilm phenotype by investigating plaque collected: 1) adjacent to brackets, and 2) in gingival margin of maxillary incisors in adolescents with FOA. Incidence of WSL after treatment was also assessed. Design: In eight adolescent patients treated with FOA, supra-gingival plaque formed on: 1) brackets, and 2) along the gingival margin of the maxillary incisors, was collected after 6-8 months of treatment. The patients were documented before and after treatment by intraoral photos. Plaque samples were tested for glycosidase(fluorogenic substrates) and protease (FITC-labelled casein substrate) activities. The plaque samples were visualised by Live/Dead BacLight stain, following which cells were investigated by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Results: In the collected plaque samples, all enzymes tested displayed small variations in activity between the individuals, except glucosidases, which varied significantly. Four patients developed WSL. The patients displayed higher glucosidase activity in plaque of brackets compared to patients without WSL. In seven patients, plaque at the gingival margin displayed higher protease activity than plaque of brackets. Conclusions: The current study shows two distinct environmentally induced biofilm phenotypes: 1) brackets with higher glucosidase activity, and 2) gingival margin with higher protease activity. Glucosidase activity might thus be used as a putative biomarker for risk of WSL.

  • 23.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Kinnby, Bertil
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Ericson, Dan
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Matsson, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Mucins MUC5B and MUC7 in minor salivary gland secretion of children and adults2008Ingår i: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 53, nr 6, s. 523-527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to investigate the relative amount of MUC5B and MUC7 in minor salivary glands in children and adults, in order to test the hypothesis that secretion of salivary mucins changes between childhood and adulthood. METHODS: Ninety individuals in the age-groups 3-year-olds, 14-year-olds, and young adults 20-25 year-olds were recruited. Sialopapers were applied on the labial and the buccal mucosa and then placed in the Periotron 8000 (Proflowtrade mark) for calculation of the amount of saliva. The assessment of MUC5B and MUC7 was carried out in an ELISA using the LUM5B-2 and the LUM7-1 antiserum, respectively. RESULTS: MUC5B and MUC7 were detected in the labial minor gland saliva in all age groups. In buccal gland saliva, only a few individuals in each age group showed detectable amounts of the mucins. In the labial area, a significantly lower level of MUC7 was noted in 3-year-olds compared with adults. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a site-dependent difference in minor gland mucin secretion and an age-related difference in the labial gland secretion of MUC7.

  • 24. Svensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Westman, Johannes
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Jönsson, Daniel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Herwald, Heiko
    Nilsson, Bengt-Olof
    Human endogenous peptide p33 inhibits detrimental effects of LL-37 on osteoblast viability2015Ingår i: Journal of Periodontal Research, ISSN 0022-3484, E-ISSN 1600-0765, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 80-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: High levels of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, are detected in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with chronic periodontitis. LL-37 not only shows antimicrobial activity but also affects host-cell viability. The objective of the present study was to identify endogenous mechanisms that antagonize the detrimental effects of LL-37 on osteoblast viability, focusing on the human peptide p33 expressed on the surface of various cell types. Material and Methods: Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells and human hFOB1.19 osteoblasts were treated with or without LL-37 in the presence or absence of p33. Recombinant human p33 was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was assessed using an enzymatic spectrophotometric assay. DNA synthesis was determined by measuring [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Cell number was assessed by counting cells in a Bu€rker chamber. Intracellular Ca2+ was monitored by recording Fluo 4-AM fluorescence using a laser scanning confo- cal microscope. Cellular expression of p33 was determined by western blotting. Results: LL-37 caused a concentration-dependent release of LDH from human osteoblasts, showing a half-maximal response value (EC50) of 4 lM and a rapid and sustained rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of osteoblasts, sug- gesting that LL-37 forms pores in the cell membrane. p33 (10 lM) inhibited the LL-37-induced LDH release and LL-37-evoked rise in intracellular Ca2+ con- centration, suggesting that p33 prevents LL-37-induced permeabilization of the cell membrane. Moreover, p33 blocked LL-37-induced attenuation of osteoblast numbers. Also, mucin antagonized, at concentrations representative for nonsti- mulated whole saliva, LL-37-evoked LDH release, whilst cationic endogenous polyamines had no impact on LL-37-induced LDH release from osteoblasts. Conclusions: The endogenous peptide p33 prevents LL-37-induced reduction of human osteoblast viability. Importantly, this mechanism may protect the osteo- blasts from LL-37-induced cell damage in patients suffering from chronic peri- odontitis associated with high levels of LL-37 locally.

  • 25.
    Wickstrom, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Muciner utgör ramverket i munhålans försvarsbarriär2003Ingår i: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, Vol. 95, nr 6, s. 52-54Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Torsdagen den 28 november 2002 försvarade Claes Wickström avhandlingen ”muc5b from the oral cavity – Identification of ’insoluble’ assemblies and putative regulatory proteolytic events” vid Malmö Högskola för avläggande av odontologie doktorsexamen. Syftet med avhandlingen var att studera de stora glykoproteiner, så kallade muciner, som utgör ramverket för den skyddande slemfilm som täcker den orala slemhinnan. Det dominerande gelbildande mucinet i saliv är muc5b. Både dess struktur och interaktioner med andra komponenter i det skyddande nätverket studerades. Fakultetsopponent var professor Arie van Nieuw Amerongen, Department of Oral Biochemistry, acta – Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. Huvudhandledare under avhandlingsarbetet har varit professor Ingemar Carlstedt vid Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, bmc, Lunds universitet.

  • 26.
    Wickström, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Dental plaque proves useful in oral cavity2009Ingår i: DentalProductsReport.comArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 27.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    N-terminal cleavage of the salivary MUC5B mucin. Analogy with the Van Willebrand propolypeptide?2001Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 276, nr 50, s. 47116-47121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sequence similarities between the oligomeric mucins (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B) and the von Willebrand factor suggest that they may be assembled in a similar way. After oligomerization, a fragment corresponding to the D1 and D2 domains is released from the von Willebrand factor. This cleavage does not appear to occur in pig submaxillary mucin, the only mammalian mucin in which this cleavage has been examined thus far, but whether other oligomeric mucins undergo N terminus proteolysis is not known. Antibodies recognizing the D1, D2, D3, and the first Cys domains in MUC5B were established and used to investigate to what extent proteolytic cleavage occurs within the N-terminal part of salivary MUC5B. The antibodies against the D1 and D2 domains identified a polypeptide corresponding in size to a MUC5B fragment generated by cleavage within the D' domain analogously with the von Willebrand factor propolypeptide. The antibodies did not recognize the main mucin population, suggesting that the major part of salivary MUC5B is subjected to this cleavage. An antibody recognizing the D3 domain was used to reveal a second cleavage site in the "soluble" but not in the "insoluble" MUC5B fraction: the first structural difference observed between soluble and insoluble salivary MUC5B. The identification of these cleavage events shows that the N-terminal sites for MUC5B oligomerization are present in the D3 domain and/or in domains located C-terminal to this part of the molecule.

  • 28.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Mucosal Biology Group, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Molecular Pathogenesis, Lund University, P. O. Box 94, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Christersson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD). Mucosal Biology Group, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Molecular Pathogenesis, Lund University, P. O. Box 94, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Mucosal Biology Group, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Molecular Pathogenesis, Lund University, P. O. Box 94, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Macromolecular organization of saliva: identification of ‘insoluble’ MUC5B assemblies and non-mucin proteins in the gel phase2000Ingår i: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 351, nr 2, s. 421-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulated human submandibular’sublingual (HSMSL) and whole saliva were separated into sol and gel phases and mucins were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation in CsCl/4M guanidinium chloride. MUC5B and MUC7 were identified using anti-peptide antisera raised against sequences within the MUC5B and MUC7 apoproteins respectively. MUC7 was found mainly in the sol phase of both HSMSL and whole saliva, but some MUC7 was consistently present in the gel phase, suggesting that this mucin may interact with the salivary gel matrix. In HSMSL saliva, MUC5B was found in the gel phase ; however, most of the materialwas‘ insoluble ’inguanidiniumchlorideandwasonly brought into solution by reduction. In whole saliva, the MUC5B mucin was present both in the sol and gel phases although some materialwasagain‘ insoluble ’.Rate-zonalcentrifugationof whole saliva showed that MUC5B mucins in the sol phase were smaller than those in the gel phase, suggesting differences in oligomerization and/or degradation. Antibodies against IgA, secretory component, lysozyme and lactoferrin were used to study the distribution of non-gel-forming proteins in the different phases of saliva. The majority of these proteins was found in the sol phase of both HSMSL and whole saliva. However, a significant fraction was present in the gel phase of whole saliva, suggesting a post-secretory interaction with the salivary gel matrix. A monoclonal antibody against a parotid salivary agglutinin was used to show that this protein is present mainly in the gel phase of both whole saliva and parotid secretion.

  • 29.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Chávez de Paz, Luis
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Surface-associated MUC5B mucins promote protease activity in Lactobacillus fermentum biofilms2013Ingår i: BMC Oral Health, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 13, nr 43, artikel-id 43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mucosal surfaces are coated with layers of mucus gel that protect the underlying tissues and promote colonization by members of the commensal microflora. Lactobacillus fermentum is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts and is one of the most important lactic acid bacteria contributing to the formation of a healthy intestinal microflora. We have investigated the proteolytic activity in L. fermentum in response to interactions with the MUC5B mucin, which is a major component of mucus gels at sites colonized by this micro-organism. Methods: Biofilms of Lactobacillus fermentum were established in mini-flow cells in the presence or absence of human salivary MUC5B. The proteolytic activity of biofilm cells was examined in a confocal scanning laser microscope with a fluorescent protease substrate. Degradation of MUC5B by L. fermentum was analysed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting with antisera raised against the MUC5B peptide. Cell surface proteins differentialy expressed in a MUC5B-rich environment were identified with the aid of comparative two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS. Results: Lactobacillus fermentum adhered well to surfaces coated with MUC5B mucin and in biofilms of L. fermentum formed in a MUC5B environment, the proportion of proteolytically-active cells (47 ± 0.6% of the population), as shown by cleavage of a fluorescent casein substrate, was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in biofilms formed in nutrient broth (0.4 ± 0.04% of the population). Thus, the presence of MUC5B mucins enhanced bacterial protease activity. This effect was mainly attributable to contact with surface-associated mucins rather than those present in the fluid phase. Biofilms of L. fermentum were capable of degrading MUC5B mucins suggesting that this complex glycoprotein can be exploited as a nutrient source by the bacteria. Comparison of the surface proteomes of biofilm cells of L. fermentum in a MUC5B environment with those in nutrient broth using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy, showed that the enhanced proteolytic activity was associated with increased expression of a glycoprotease; O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase, as well as chaperone proteins such as DnaK and trigger factor. Conclusions: Adhesion to mucin-coated surfaces leads to a shift towards a more protease-active phenotype within L. fermentum biofilms and proteases produced within the biofilms can degrade MUC5B mucins. The enhanced proteolytic activity was associated with an increase in O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase on the cell surface. We propose that the upregulation of chaperone proteins in the mucin environment may contribute to the protease-active phenotype through activation of the glycopeptidase. This would represent one way for commensal lactobacilli e.g. L. fermentum to exploit complex substrates in their local environment in order to survive on mucosal surfaces.

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  • 30.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hamilton, Ian R
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Differential metabolic activity by dental plaque bacteria in association with two preparations of MUC5B mucins in solution and in biofilms2009Ingår i: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 155, s. 53-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Salivary mucin, MUC5B, is an oligomeric glycoprotein, heterogeneous in size and with a diverse repertoire of oligosaccharides, which differ in composition and charge. Since complex salivary glycoproteins are considered to be the major source of nutrients for the oral supragingival microbiota, the major aim of the current study was to determine whether different preparations of non-denatured MUC5B could be isolated exhibiting different biological properties in relation to the microflora associated with the surfaces of the oral cavity. Two preparations, solMUC5B and gelMUC5B, were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation and were shown to have different buoyant densities, carbohydrate content and surface-adsorbing characteristics. To ascertain differences in biological activity, the two mucin preparations, both in solution and adsorbed to a model surface, were incubated with freshly isolated dental plaque and assayed for metabolic (dehydrogenase) activity with the fluoresecent substrate CTC (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride). The plaque bacteria exhibited higher metabolism with the solMUC5B preparation in solution, with 79.4 % active plaque cells compared to the controls without mucin (9.6 %), while gelMUC5B showed 48.2 % active cells with the same plaque population. In contrast, the same mucins adhered to a surface elicited a significantly lower metabolic response, with surface-associated plaque cells showing only 12.1 % active cells with solMUC5B and 29.2 % with gelMUC5B. These results suggested that the metabolism by the plaque cells adsorbed to surface-associated mucins was downregulated compared to the same cells suspended in mucin solution. This was confirmed in an experiment where active dispersed plaque/solMUC5B suspensions were shown to lose significant metabolic activity (e.g. 74.9 to 19.3 %) when allowed to interact with gelMUC5B adsorbed to a surface. Clearly, the solMUC5B and gelMUC5B preparations exhibited different biological activity when assayed with freshly plaque bacteria in suspension and in a biofilm.

  • 31.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Hamilton, Ian R
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Subpopulations of MUC5B elicit different metabolic responses in dental plaque (Malmö)2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Beighton, David
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Proteolytic degradation of human salivary MUC5B by dental biofilms2009Ingår i: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 155, s. 2866-2872Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of complex substrates, like salivary mucins, requires an arsenal of glycosidases and proteases to sequentially degrade the oligosaccharides and polypeptide backbone. The mucin MUC5B is a complex oligomeric glycoprotein, heterogeneous in molecular mass (14-40 x 10(6) Da), with a diverse repertoire of oligosaccharides, differing in composition and charge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether proteolytic degradation of the mucin polypeptide backbone could be identified and if cooperation of dental biofilm bacteria was required. Cooperative bacteria-mediated proteolysis of MUC5B was determined by comparing individual species and mixed consortia of strains isolated from supragingival plaque, and freshly harvested supragingival plaque. Proteolytic activity was analysed using fluorescent labelled substrate and by visualizing mucin degradation by SDS-PAGE. Dental plaque degraded the polypeptide backbone of the salivary MUC5B mucin. The mucin was also degraded by a specific consortium of isolated species from supragingival plaque, although individual species and other consortia did not. Certain bacteria in supragingival dental plaque therefore cooperate as a consortium to proteolyse human salivary MUC5B and hydrolyse glycosides.

  • 33.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Degradation of salivary MUC5B mucin by oral biofilm bacteria (Malmö)2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Herzberg, Mark C
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Degradation of salivary MUC5B mucin by oral biofilm bacteria (Toronto)2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Lindén, S
    Mucins in Helicobacter Pylori infection - a dynamic and responsive defence2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Salivary gel-forming mucin MUC5B: a nutrient for dental plaque bacteria2008Ingår i: Molecular Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2041-1006, E-ISSN 2041-1014, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 177-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Model systems with oral bacteria from dental plaque have demonstrated that the utilization of complex glycoproteins as a food source cannot be undertaken by single species but requires concerted degradation by a multi-species consortium, with each member contributing one or a few hydrolytic enzymes. Unlike previous studies, the aim of the present investigation was to explore the ability of fresh dental plaque to degrade salivary mucin, MUC5B, isolated by methods designed to retain intact the natural polymeric structure and physiological conformation, in an attempt to mimic the naturally occurring interaction between the oral microbiota and salivary mucins. METHODS: Human salivary MUC5B was isolated from whole saliva by density-gradient centrifugation and incubated with freshly isolated supragingival dental plaque with samples subjected to fluorescent staining for viability and metabolic activity. In addition, the degradation of MUC5B oligosaccharide side chains was studied using a lectin assay, recognizing three different carbohydrate epitopes commonly found on mucin oligosaccharide side chains. RESULTS: The addition of purified salivary MUC5B elicited a strong metabolic response from the biofilm cells, whereas individual strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus gordonii isolated from the same plaque were not able to utilize the MUC5B. The degradation of terminal saccharide moieties on the MUC5B was demonstrated by a marked decrease in both sialic acid and fucose reactivity. CONCLUSION: These results have shown that dental plaque is capable of utilizing human salivary MUC5B as a nutrient source, a process possibly requiring the synergistic degradation of the molecule by a consortium of oral bacteria in the plaque community.

  • 37.
    Wickström, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Svensäter, Gunnel
    Malmö högskola, Odontologiska fakulteten (OD).
    Subpopulations of MUC5B elicit different metabolic responses in dental plaque (Helsinki)2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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