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  • 1. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Att dela eller inte dela: internetanvändarnas inställning till insamling av personliga data2016In: Ekvilibrium / [ed] Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Ekengren, Maria Solevid, SOM-institutet , 2016, p. 403-418Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To share personal information in a digital context can provide benefits, but also involve risks. Although behavioral data are collected on many of the Swedish websites today, the SOM survey 2015 shows that 60 percent of the Swedish population are resilient to share personal data with companies. Only a small percentage of population fully accepts that the collection takes place. The majority of the population say that they are trying to limit their personal information on the Internet, still only 15 percent carefully read user policies. Perhaps the respondents negative attitudes toward sharing data are lack of awareness regarding when data are collected and what benefits they provide. The question is whether increased awareness will result in a more accepting attitude or if it leads to the opposite? Independent of which direction the development takes, companies will need to be more transparent with how and when behavior data is collected.

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  • 2. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Mediepubliken och stora datamängder2016In: Människorna, medierna & marknaden: Medieutredningens forskningsantologi om en demokrati i förändring: forskningsantologi, Wolters Kluwer, 2016, p. 165-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The media industry's revenue models depend on audience data. Traditionally, this type of data have consisted of measurements from audience panels, audience range, and sales figures. But today these models are also being built around rich behavioral data collected in real-time in digital channels. One challenge for such models is the individual's willingness to share personal data. This chapter discusses the implications for the media industry in light of research on privacy in the collection, processing, interoperability of databases and dissemination of information extracted from behavioral data.

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  • 3. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Tröga processer i en snabb medievärld2019In: På väg mot medievärlden 2030 / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Ingela Wadbring, Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 6, p. 31-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the extent to which technical changes and innovations can be predicted through a demonstration of a number of explanatory models for media development. Furthermore, there is a discussion about how technology change affects the development and dissemination of media and what impact this has on society and journalism. Four factors that influence the success of media are addressed: users, technology development, timing and needs.

  • 4. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Tröga processer i en snabb medievärld: en introduktion till att förutspå medieutveckling2013In: På väg mot medievärlden 2020: journalistik, teknik, marknad / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Ingela Wadbring, Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 41-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the extent to which technological change and innovation can be predicted by a demonstration of a number of explanatory models for media development. Furthermore, it discusses how technology change affects media development and diffusion and its impact on society. Specifically, four factors affecting the success of media will be addressed: users, technology, timing and needs.

  • 5. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    Mediekonsumentens medvetna och omedvetna val: en nyckel till morgondagens mediekonsumtion2014In: Medie-Sverige 2014: statistik och analys / [ed] Ulla Carlsson, Ulrika Facht, Nordicom, 2014, p. 29-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Media Sweden is a publication that provides a wide and updated overview of the Swedish media landscape. This is Nordicom’s tenth edition of the printed edition. The book contains articles in which various research groups and individual researchers at Swedish universities and colleges analyzes and discusses current issues surrounding the media. It also provides a survey of four decades of media development. This is followed by a comprehensive statistical overview of the Swedish media, divided into ten chapters (Media in Sweden, Media companies and ownership, Information & Communication Technology, Newspapers, Magazines, Books, Radio, Audio recordings, Television and Film, Cinema & Video). The goal is to provide an easily accessible knowledge about the media situation in Sweden. The chapter “The media consumers’ conscious and unconscious choices: A key to understanding the news media consumption of tomorrow" discusses the conscious and unconscious choices people make when choosing content in news media and the impact these choices may have on media consumption and the media market. The chapter argues that the choices that are made are strongly related to the production, collection and analysis of data and may increasingly shape the development of communication technologies. It specifically discusses the role of media technology in relation to data, using the Swedish media market as an example. It aims to fill a gap by discussing the interdependency between people’s choices and the market-driven choices made by the media industry.

  • 6. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    The media consumers’ conscious and unconscious choices: a key to understanding the news media consumption of tomorrow2014In: Colloque International Communication Électronique Cultures et Identités, 11, 12 & 13 juin 2014, The IUT of Le Havre : Information-Communication Department CIRTAI IDEES (UMR6228) , 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital society of today is dramatically different than that of a decade ago. During the past decades computers have gone from being clearly visible and at the center of attention to becoming an integrated and omnipresent part of our everyday lives. Today, individuals are catching up on a reality where homes, workplaces and society to a large extent consist of microprocessors that collect, analyze and present information. With regards to news and information sharing, it may seem that the users, thanks to greater ability to choose content, hold the upper hand in this process. However, since these data are constantly collected and analyzed for various purposes by companies, for example in the media industry, the users’ choices may not be as unconditional as they may think they are. Using the Swedish media market as an example, this exploratory paper discusses the interdependency between people’s choices and the market-driven choices made by the media industry in relation to news, and the impact these choices may have on media consumption and the media market.

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  • 7.
    Berg, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.
    Engberg, Maria
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.
    Inledning: Varför tekniska mediestudier?2023In: Tekniska mediestudier: En introduktion till metoder och teknologier / [ed] Martin Berg, Maria Engberg & Sara Leckner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 1, p. 11-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Berg, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.
    Engberg, MariaMalmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.Leckner, SaraMalmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.
    Tekniska mediestudier: En introduktion till metoder och teknologier2023Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en tid då medielandskapet är i ständig förändring och traditionell medieforskning konstant utmanas ökar behovet av att förena teknik, humaniora och samhällsvetenskap. Medie- och teknikforskning kräver innovativa angreppssätt för att navigera bland komplexa relationer mellan kultur, samhälle, ekonomi och teknologi.

    I den här boken bjuder ledande forskare in till samtal om teknologins utmaningar och möjligheter. Här presenteras redskap för att utforska, beskriva, begreppsliggöra och förstå nya relationer mellan medieteknologier och deras omvärld – en kunskap som förbereder läsaren att på egen hand kombinera samhällsvetenskapernas kritiska analyser med teknikvetenskapernas tradition att utveckla tillförlitliga och effektiva system.

    Tekniska mediestudier riktar sig till studenter inom ämnen som medieteknik, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, kulturvetenskap, data- och systemvetenskap, interaktionsdesign och informatik.

  • 9.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Andreas Birkbak & Anders Kristian Munk: Digitale metoder2017In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 2, no 39, p. 114-116Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad betyder det egentligen att använda in- ternet i en undersökning? Vilka digitala redskap, plattformar och funktioner nns för att utforska nätet? Hur arbetar man med digitalt födda data? Det är några av de frågeställningar som boken Digitale metoder tar upp.

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  • 10.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Delning av invånardata från ett användarperspektiv2022In: Den (ut)forskande staden: En FoU-innovation i offentlig sektor / [ed] Anna-Karin Bergman; Magnus Andenskog, Helsingborg: FoU Helsingborg , 2022, 1, p. 193-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som ett av fem hypoteslabb i projektet ”Den (ut)forskande staden” kartlade projektet Datalabbet förutsättningarna för att samköra stora datamängder invånardata från Helsingborgs stads olika förvaltningar och bolag under åren 2020–2022. Labbet har utgått från hypotesen att genom avancerad analys av samkörda data, bland annat med hjälp av artificiell intelligens, kan kommunen bättre förstå invånarnas varierande och komplexa behov och ta fram värdeskapande offentliga tjänster som bättre kan tillgodose dessa behov och öka invånarnas livskvalitet.

    Undersökningsmässigt har Datalabbet bestått av två delar: en del som undersökt förutsättningarna för delning av data från ett juridiskt perspektiv och en del som undersökt det utifrån ett användarperspektiv, som presenteras i det här kapitlet. Kapitlet bygger på resultat från en enkätstudie riktad till invånarna i Helsingborgs stad och deras inställning till kommunens hantering av invånardata och användning av datadriven teknologi. Inledningsvis beskrivs Datalabbets övergripande syfte och utmaningen med samkörning av invånardata. Därefter presenteras labbets upplägg och arbetsprocess med tyngdpunkt på användarperspektivet och enkätstudien. I efterföljande avsnitt presenteras resultat och analys av enkätundersökningen. Kapitlet avslutas med en sammanfattning inklusive rekommendationer till kommunen.

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    fulltext
  • 11.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Ett etiskt perspektiv på datadelning: Kommuninvånarnas inställning till delning, hantering och användning av personliga data2023In: Kommunala myndigheters delning av invånardata: Slutrapport från Datalabbet i Helsingborgs stad / [ed] S. Leckner, J. Ledendal & A. Nilsson, Helsingborg: Avdelningen för innovation och transformation , 2023, p. 18-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är en del i ett tvåårigt projekt som undersökt invånarna i Helsingborgs stads inställning till kommunens nuvarande och önskade dataanvändning och digitaliseringsarbete, specifikt vad rör AI­baseradsamkörning av förvaltningarnas invånardata. Målet har varit att ge Helsingborgs stad, liksom andra kommunder i Sverige, underlag för hur datadriven teknik kan användas på ett etiskt gott sätt, utifrån invånarnas perspektiv.

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    Leckner_Ett etiskt perspektiv på datadelning_2023
  • 12.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Nya innovationer och gammal teknik: Att studera och förstå medieteknologisk utveckling2023In: Tekniska mediestudier: En introduktion till metoder och teknologier / [ed] Martin Berg, Maria Engberg & Sara Leckner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 1, p. 27-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är nytt med nya framväxande medieteknologier? Hur och när blir ny medieteknik gammal? Och går teknikutvecklingen verkligen så snabbt som vi upplever att den gör? Det är några av de frågor som vi kommeratt titta närmare på i det här kapitlet. Syftet är att du ska få inblick ihur du kan förstå och studera medieteknologisk utveckling på ett adekvat sätt. Efter att ha läst kapitlet kommer du kunna ta dig an frågor somrör medieteknologiers interaktion – konkurrens och samexistens – med varandra över tid, samt kritiskt kunna förhålla dig till de möjligheter och utmaningar som finns med nya innovationer och gammal teknik.

  • 13.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Presentation factors affecting reading behaviour in readers of newspaper media - an eyetracking perspective2012In: Visual Communication, ISSN 1470-3572, E-ISSN 1741-3214, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 163-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines reading behaviour in readers of printed and online newspaper media. The aim is to identify how much reading behaviour is dependent on various presentation factors, and how this dependence and its magnitude are related to output media. The work is based on review and analysis of empirical studies, primarily those employing methods using eyetracking. The results show that some factors, such as text-based elements, size and placement, are an important guide to salience in both media. Images, on the other hand, have mostly been found not to elicit major visual attention online, affecting, for example, how ads are perceived. Reading behaviour is, however, a complicated process, and eye-tracking research does not consistently point in one direction.

  • 14.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Sceptics and supporters of corporate use of behavioural data: Attitudes towards informational privacy and Internet surveillance in Sweden2018In: Northern Lights, ISSN 1601-829X, E-ISSN 2040-0586, Vol. 1, no 16, p. 113-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing use of the Internet, companies are increasingly collecting and using personal data for commodifying purposes, resulting in both benefits and privacy risks for users and raising the issue of corporate surveillance. The present article investigates people’s attitudes towards corporate collection of personal data, discusses possible reasons for attitude results in relation to self-regulation, trust and media context, and compares these findings with results from the previous year. The study is based on a survey using a large-n probability sample of the Swedish population. The results are in accordance with the suggested privacy paradox: the majority of the population, as in the previous year, have negative attitudes towards corporate collection of their data, largely independent of context. Nonetheless, they continue to share their data without making any great effort to secure their privacy. Whether this depends on inexperience, ignorance or resignation, everyday corporate surveillance does not meet expectations regarding the just governing of informational privacy. As the results showed that the more positive people were towards sharing their data in various contexts, the more positively this affected their attitudes towards the fact that the data were being used by the collecting companies for various purposes, balancing out the power differences online would benefit not only users but also companies to a great extent.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Sceptics of online privacy and supporters of companies using behavioral data: a study of changing attitudes towards sharing behavioral data in the Swedish population2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased use of the internet, different actors are increasingly collecting and using personal data for various purposes. This study investigates the attitudes of Swedish population towards corporate collection of personal data, and if the attitude has changed between 2015 and 2016. Additionally, the study investigates how the issue of private privacy has been portrayed in Swedish mass media during the same time period, and to what extent this may have affected the citizens’ attitudes. The study is based on a survey using a probability sample conducted in in 2015 and 2016 and a content analysis of a total sample of articles published on the subject in Swedish mass media during the same time period. The results show that the majority of the population is still negative towards corporate data collection, however, they are less negative than the previous year. The issue has not been portrayed more positive in mass media during 2016 than 2015, however, the promotion of a “positive” perspective can have been interpretive prerogative, which may have affected the citizens’ attitudes.

  • 16.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    The (be)coming of the book: the transformation of a text medium in the late age of print2015In: Northern Lights, ISSN 1601-829X, E-ISSN 2040-0586, Vol. 1, no 13, p. 105-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has changed the preconditions for most media in recent decades, offering a rare opportunity to develop and change traditional media and the media market. The book medium is no exception. What is to be considered a book is being challenged, or, for some, threatened. As the e-book market grows there is, as with other media, still ambiguity in the direction of the development and the normalization of the e-book concept. This article discusses the extent to which physical form, genre and utilization are important when defining the book medium in the late age of print, contributing to the debate regarding the future of the book. The article is based on interviews with four prominent scholars in the research area of the digitization of text media. The findings show that, despite good arguments for how the e-book should be defined, its definition is highly context-dependent. However, as the e-book moves towards more enhanced digital versions and away from digitized ones, genre will grow increasingly important for the definition of a ‘book’ in the digital environment. This means that, in moving towards a more converging understanding of the future of the book, its definitions will diverge.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Vem är positiv till insamling av användargenererade data på internet?2018In: Sprickor i fasaden: SOM-undersökningen 2017 / [ed] Ulrika Andersson, Anders Carlander, Elina Lindgren, Maria Oskarson, SOM-institutet , 2018, p. 55-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Olika aktörer registrerar i allt högre uträckning vårt beteende när vi använder deras tjänster på internet, på gott och ont. Det har aktualiserat användarnas inställning till hanteringen av personliga data och personlig integritet. Detta kapitel undersöker svenskarnas attityd till registrering av personliga data för kommersiella syften och vilka bakgrundsfaktorer och mediekontexter som kan förklara denna inställning. Analysen visar att majoriteten av svenskarna är negativa till företagens insamling, en uppfattning som hållit sig relativt konstant de senaste tre åren. Men användares kunskap om var och när företag samlar in data har betydelse; de med högre kunskap gör i större utsträckning aktiva val för att kunna surfa anonymt, men är samtidigt mer positiva till registrering. Vidare skiljer sig attityden till insamling i olika kommersiella mediesammanhang mellan de som är positiva och gemene man. Kunskap om inte- gritet och medieteknik, liksom vissa sociodemografiska faktorer, tycks därmed vara viktiga faktorer för att förklara attityden till registrering av personliga data på nätet.

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  • 18.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Appelgren, Ester
    The audience’s willingness to share Internet-traffic data: an emerging ethical challenge for the media industry2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Media companies partly base strategies on data generated by the audience. With an increased richness of data, focus has transformed from if the user would like to share content, to what he or she is sharing, when and where. From the user’s perspective, the collecting of Internet behavioural traffic data is not necessarily an open and obvious process. This study examines the users’ willingness to share Internet behavioural traffic data with companies and organizations, depending on the degree of interactivity and intimacy of the content and activity of the shared and collected data. The study is based on a survey and collected Internet traffic data from two small samples of Swedish Internet users. The results show that the subjects were more willing to share activities with lesser interaction and intimacy (e.g. visiting news sites and watching video), less willing to share activities with increased site interaction (like social media services), and the majority of the respondents were unwilling to share activities from the personal interaction group (e.g. e-mails). Very few of the respondents were willing to share all of their activities. If the user become increasingly resistant to sharing some type of content or activity, or do not care as much about other types of content, this may entail a bias in the data collected and what will be possible to collect. This will be a challenge for media companies, since their business models are increasingly becoming dependent on such data, i.e. cross-platform Internet data collected without the users’ awareness and of a consent.

  • 19.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Bjur, Jakob
    Cavenius, Håkan
    Trolls, fake news and bots: Attitudes towards privacy and political information on the internet before the Swedish parliamentary election 20182019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The internet is a growing part of the political arena. During the Swedish election 2018, 71 percent of the Swedish population used the internet to access political information. In 2014, less than half of the citizens used the internet for this purpose. While digital media are becoming increasingly important for the democratic discourse, aspects such as fake news, foreign troll factories and bots auto-generating political posts, as well as personal privacy threats, have been put on the global agenda. So also in Sweden. In the light of the Swedish election 2018, computational propaganda emerged as a prominent issue. This study examines the Swedish population’s attitudes towards the dissemination of disinformation, privacy abuse and the influence of various actors on political opinion before the Swedish election 2018. The analysis is based on a representative sample (n=1,006) of the Swedish population, collected through Kantar-Sifo’s web panel one week before the election 2018. The results present 1) people’s interest in politics and their attitude towards different sources of information for participation in the political debate, 2) attitudes towards the influence on public opinion by different actors and whether these actors prevent or disseminate disinformation, and 3) the extent to which people feel that they have the ability and the opportunity to value the truthfulness of the political information that is distributed online. The study aims to contribute to knowledge about attitudes towards privacy and information online, in particular regarding political information on social media.

  • 20.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Facht, Ulrika
    A Sampler of International Media and Communication Statistics 20102011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contemporary media culture raises more complex issues than ever before. Digital technologies, and advances of media such as the Internet, have driven the development. In this changing media landscape, traditional media, such as television, radio and newspapers, remain powerful, but their preconditions are affected. ‘A Sampler of International Media and Communication Statistics 2010’ is a collection and compilation of statistics from a large number of sources. The aim of the publication is to provide a comprehensive overview of international media and communication statistics, primarily concerning television and the Internet, but also, to a lesser extent, newspapers and radio. The emphasis of this publication is on the Internet and television. These two sections are divided into two parts, respectively ‘The world’ for comparisons between different parts of the world, and in ‘Regions’ for comparisons within different parts of the globe.

  • 21.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Ledendal, Jonas
    Institutionen för handelsrätt, Ekonomihögskolan, Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Avdelningen för innovation och transformation, Helsingborgs stad.
    Kommunala myndigheters delning av invånardata: Slutrapport från Datalabbet i Helsingborgs stad2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna upprätthålla välfärden, och möta de många utmaningar samhället står inför, måste den offentliga sektorn hitta nya, effektivare sätt att arbeta. En möjlig väg för att effektivisera den offentliga verksamheten, skulle kunna vara att utveckla nya sätt att använda data som kommunen samlar in. I detta projekt har Helsinborgs kommun velat utforska den outnyttjade potential av kunskap som finns i de data invånarna har delat med sig av till kommunen. Utgångspunkten är att om data från olika förvaltningar kunde kombineras och analyseras på nya relevanta sätt, oberoende av förvaltningsgränserna, skulle man få en mer komplett förståelse för invånarnas situation och på så sätt kunna erbjuda bättre service och tjänster. En sådan samordning av data skulle dock innebära en ny form av intrång i kommuninvånarnas integritet och det är inte säkert att invånarna förstår eller vill ge sitt samtycke till det. Det är också oklart vad förvaltningarna och kommunen som helhet juridiskt får göra när det kommer till datadelning. Delning av invånardata väcker med andra ord både etiska (vad bör man göra?) och rättsliga frågor (vad får man göra?). Rapporten undersöker medborgarnas inställning till kommunens nuvarande och önskade dataanvändning, samt de rättsliga förutsättningarna för att dela data mellan kommunala myndigheter, och sätter de båda utgångspunkterna i relation till varandra.

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    Leckner, Ledendal, Nilsson 2023-Kommunala myndigheters delning av invånardata
  • 22.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Changes in the local news ecosystem: the use and importance of local media in Sweden from the audience perspective2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The local media landscape has become more complicated as citizens increasingly get news from the local community in other ways than through traditional local news media. Simultaneously with the established media’s decreasing coverage of the local community due to economic reasons, new types of local media are growing in many countries (e.g. Kleis Nielsen, 2015); so called hyperlocal media are becoming new news platforms for the citizens (Williams et al., 2015). These alternative media are often semi-professional with a higher potential of interaction with the consumers. Users can to a higher extent be utilized to track, tip, rate and/or create print-ready articles and self-service advertising, i.e. various kinds of user-generated content. Thus, such media are more dependent on semi- and non-professional content. But, there are challenges with such content, for example quality, sustainability, ethics, motivation and democratic functions (e.g. Hermida, 2011; Jönsson and Örnebring, 2011). Using the Swedish national SOM survey, with a representative sample of the Swedish population, and a telephone survey to municipality representatives in all municipalities in Sweden, this paper examines the audience’s willingness to participate in the creation of local news; what content is contributed, who is contributing, and what channels are used for the contribution? What are the challenges and benefit in relation to established and new local news media? The results show that the shared content consists of comments, shorter texts and images, not complete articles or letters to the editor. It’s more common to participate if you are a man, are politically interested, between 30-49 years old, and living in a larger city. The results also show that the desire to contribute is higher in online media and social media like Facebook, than for analogue media such as newspapers. In general, however, the eagerness to participate is not as high independent of media form. Moreover, the results show that hyperlocal news media funded and driven by professional actors are more sustainable than those funded by non-professionals and semi-professionals. Hence, slogans like "today everyone is a journalist" is a qualified truth (e.g. McCullogh et al., 2016).

  • 23.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Det lokala och hyperlokala medielandskapet: nyhetspublicering utanför de etablerade medierna2016In: Mediestudiers årsbok - tillståndet för journalistiken 2015/2016 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Institutet för Mediestudier , 2016, p. 42-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We do no longer take part in media the same way as we did a few years ago. For any change in our behaviour, media journalism and news content has become more difficult to finance, not the least the local journalism. This book monitors the media development in Sweden 2016, in order to provide citizens, industry and politics with an overview of the current state of the news media, and the local news media and journalism in particular. The aim is to provide a foundation for a qualified media policy debate that is still missing.

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  • 24.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    The digital tourist bureau: Challenges and opportunities when transferring to a digital value creation2020In: The Routledge Companion to Media and Tourism / [ed] Maria Månsson, Annæ Buchmann, Cecilia Cassinger, Lena Eskilsson, New York: Routledge, 2020, p. 372-381Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Malmö Turism-a tourist bureau in the south of Sweden-as a case, this chapter examines its digital transformation; from being based foremost on promoting storytelling of real-life interactions with a few expert assistants at a physical tourist bureau, towards becoming a primary digitally based cross-and transmedia operation, where support of the hosting relied on a larger number of connected media and actors. Based on interviews with the organization before and after the reorganization, the chapter analyses the drivers, determinants and challenges that faced the organization during the transformation. It contributes with insight and understanding from a novel case that other tourism organizations may contrast their findings with, a challenge many of them are likely to embrace in the future.

  • 25.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Packmohr, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Lindgren, Ylva
    User attitudes towards crowdfunding of journalism: a study of viable business models for the newspaper industry2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the newspaper industry faces major structural changes, it strives to find viable business models that can complement and replace old sources of revenue. Crowdfunding is one source which has emerged as a possible model for financing journalism. The present study, which uses survey data (n=1,006) gathered from the Swedish population, examines whether there is a potential market for crowdfunded journalism. The results of the study indicate that there is not much awareness of crowdfunding, and that most respondents had a negative attitude towards using the model for financing news. However, knowledge about the model made respondents’ attitudes more positive towards using it for funding news and, in turn, increased their likelihood of paying for news using such a model. The conclusion is that the market for crowdfunding news is still immature, but it may be of value to newspaper companies as an additional revenue model. By increasing awareness of the model, there is potential to sway certain demographics in the population towards a more positive attitude and, as a result, increase the likelihood of them paying for news in accordance with the model.

  • 26.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Packmohr, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Spikol, Daniel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Creating innovation: reflecting on the MEDEA studio at Malmö University2015In: eLearning Papers, E-ISSN 1887-1542, Vol. 41, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MEDEA Studio was a research centre founded at Malmö University. It focused on collaborative media and design to promote research and practice in connection with its surrounding environment for better innovation and outreach. During its history, MEDEA has undergone several changes leading to diverse challenges. This field report examines MEDEA’s development from the perspectives of knowledge acquisition and learning with the aim to analyse factors for success and failures. As society and especially academia struggle with understanding how to innovate and connect, reflecting on the different instantiations of the MEDEA studio can bring insights for researchers, practitioners, administrators and the studio’s future development.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Severson, Pernilla
    Department of Media and Journalism, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Exploring the Meaning Problem of Big and Small Data Through Digital Method Triangulation2019In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 40, no Special issue 1, p. 79-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, knowledge building through combinations of methods in a digital context is discussed and explored. Two types of digital bigger and smaller data-driven media studies are used as examples: digital focus groups and the combination of internet traffic measurements, surveys and diaries. The article proposes the concept of digital method triangulation. Digital method triangulation is argued to be a way to approach the “meaning problem” to make sense of small and big data. Digital method triangulation is argued 1) to stimulate the innovative use of known methods for unexpected dimensions within the studied topic; 2) with appropriate theoretical and meta-theoretical reflections, to provide more certainty in conclusions; and 3) to assist in constructing a more comprehensive perspective on specific analyses. The conclusion is that triangulation is even more important in the digital realm, as it facilitates dialogue between conventional and digital methods, dialogue that seems crucial to capture the complexities of the onlife.

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  • 28.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Severson, Pernilla
    Young audiences' preferences and willingness to pay: A study of demand and use of cross-media consumption at home2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the media landscape are becoming increasingly differentiated (structure), segmented (supply) and fragmented (use), cross-media consumption is not a new occurrence, in particularly not for younger consumers. This target group is also highly sought after by the media industry, but it has proven hard to get to pay, especially for non-entertaining content, thus challenges the development and sustainability of the media industry’s digital business models (e.g., Chiou and Tucker 2013; Goyanes 2014). In the present study, based on a survey of Swedish participants aged 16-31 (n=1,287), we investigate the cross-media demand of younger people and their preferences and willingness to pay for media at home; What platforms and content do they use, what are their preferences in terms of demand and supply, what do they pay for, why, and how much, and what are their attitudes towards their media consumption. By studying attitudes to access as well as actual inventories of access among young people, media consumption and perceptions can be understood in terms of return on investment. The present article draws on a theoretical framework related to the concept of “perceived worthwhileness” (see e.g., Schrøder and Larsen 2010), which implies that people will only use the (news) media that they deem to be worthwhile in terms of investments, such as time, money, and energy. The preliminary results of the present study indicate that the respondents both use and highly value access to both analogue and digital services, and want to gain access to general as well as particular content. But in line with previous research, consumers do not always use what they prefer and are not willing to pay for what they use (e.g. Chyi and Lee 2013; Cook and Attari 2012). Price and supply were considered important, but currently they “solved their media consumption in other ways” than paying, however, streaming services, as well as particular content, were found to be more attractive to pay for. Subscription-based revenue models also appeared more appealing than one-time payments. These results indicates that it is important to look beyond individual media and consider the everyday media consumption from a cross-media perspective in order to capture the actual needs and purchasing behaviour of younger people.

  • 29.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Tenor, Carina
    Everybody is a journalist? User participation in hyperlocal news media in Sweden2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Locally based, community-oriented hyperlocal news have been suggested to incline a higher level of citizen participation than established legacy news media, both in terms of starting and running, as well as participation in the news production, ranging from smaller tips to civic and participatory journalism. Previous studies have, however, found low levels of uptake of user-generated content, both among journalists/producers and consumers. Through two surveys – a probability sample of the Swedish population and a total sample of hyperlocal actors in Sweden – and interviews with 13 selected hyperlocal actors in Sweden, the present study examines the level of user participation in the content production of hyperlocal news in Sweden. The results show that looking at the population as whole, the citizens state that their contribution to content creation in news media is low. Most content in hyperlocal media is produced by the hyperlocal publishers themselves; often a sole individual with a background as a professional journalist, but also by the audience, although their contribution consist of Although “amateur reporting” does not account for a significant part of the hyperlocal media, and the thesis “everybody is a journalist” is a truth with modification – both regarding content breadth and engagement – submissions from the audience are both wanted and encouraged by the hyperlocal operations.

  • 30.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Tenor, Carina
    Karlstad universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Searching for a foothold: The (re)structuring of a new(s) media landscape2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries the news media landscape has changed significantly in recent decades, particularly the locally based media have decreased in number or become more geographically remote. Hyperlocal media – locally based, community- oriented news with a high level of audience-participation possibilities – has been proposed as a potential replacement for established media that are quickly moving away from recognized norms, but have demonstrated a variety of possibilities as well as challenges in terms of structure, resources, and sustainability. Based on an extensive mapping of the Swedish news media landscape, this study traces the consistency and change of legacy and alternative media over the period 2016-2021. The aim is to make sense of the declining stability, the emergence of “news deserts'', and alternative forms of news media, by focusing on the structuring forces behind hyperlocal operations.

    The results show a transforming media landscape, with a reduced presence of legacy media, and a variety of hyperlocal news operations; from economically viable, small-scale organizations to idealistic individual projects, based on public, non-profit models. The restructuring of the landscape does not turn out to be so much about growing news deserts, as a thinning of news scrutiny, where legacy and hyperlocal media go in different directions in terms of business strategies: Where legacy media consolidates, the hyperlocals lean on idealism and localism. While the latter sometimes can be described as poor business skills, they can also be viewed as low-risk strategies, enabling trial and error and organic growth. Yet, highly personal and locally anchored rationales behind many hyperlocal initiatives make them challenging from a sustainability perspective. The conclusion is that the transforming media landscape can be described as a form of mutually related restructuring, where established and alternative media coexist in new ways. 

  • 31.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Tenor, Carina
    Södertörn University.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University.
    What About the Hyperlocals?: The drivers, organization and economy of independent news media in Sweden2019In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 68-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a survey of a sample of hyperlocal actors in Sweden (N = 178), this article examines preconditions, motivations and sustainability for hyperlocal media operations, outside the traditional media chains, in order to provide a picture of their function in the current media landscape, and to further build on the understanding of the hyperlocal business model. This study extends the hyperlocal definition by including media platforms other than websites. The results show that the operations indeed aim to support and foster citizenship, strengthen democracy and mirror the local community. At the same time, as shown by other studies, the fact that they are not large-scale, highly profitable operations may challenge their sustainability. Nonetheless, most of them claim to be profitable, largely because of the print platform, and have a positive outlook on the future. Revenues from advertising and readership are currently less substantial for Web-based operations, which reinforces the need to broaden the definition of hyperlocal publishing platforms when talking about financial sustainability. Currently, hyperlocal media in Sweden, with small resources and a lower publishing frequency, cannot be viewed as a replacement of established media, but play important roles as complementary alternative voices and contribute to media plurality in the local community.

  • 32. Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Facebook och hyperlokalt i de lokala mediernas ekosystem2016In: Ekvilibrium: SOM-undersökningen 2015 / [ed] Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Oscarsson, Maria Solevid, SOM-institutet , 2016, p. 329-348Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local newspapers have been the backbone of the Swedish media system. In the last ten years, however, local newspapers have decreased their coverage and closed down local offices, while citizens increasingly remain oriented on the local community in other ways than through traditional local media. How is this change noticeable in people's media habits and in the opinion regarding local media? The 2015 SOM survey shows that traditional media are still regarded as important for the Swedish citizens, but free newspapers, local news sites and Facebook have many users. Above all, there is a dividing line between those below and above 50 years of age. And despite the increased possibility of interactivity, there are still very few users who contribute to the production of news media, especially in the traditional local media. New types of local media have thus not yet replaced the old, but fills an increasingly important role in people's everyday lives.

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  • 33.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Tenor, Carina
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Hyperlocals and Legacy Media Media Ecologies in Transition2018In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining legacy media seriously affects local journalism in Sweden. Since 2004, nearly every second local office for local newspapers has been closed, and local coverage is diminishing. In a parallel development, new types of hyperlocal media are growing, according to a national mapping of local media ecologies. The study presented here is based on two surveys: one of local municipalities and one of independent hyperlocals. The key question is: are hyperlocals filling the gap? In many cases, the motivation behind new hyperlocal media has been discontent with declining media coverage from legacy media. In general, however, the pattern is more complicated; most hyperlocals grow in places where legacy media is also present. The main conclusion is that hyperlocals are only partly filling the gaps from declining legacy media, while parts of Sweden are becoming "news deserts." Another important result is that hyperlocals are developing both in print and online, often in combination, to create a sustainable business model.

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  • 34. Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Tenor, Carina
    Hyperlocals filling the gap in Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local newspaper has been the spine of Swedish media industry for more than a century. But the last 10 years, local newspapers and local journalism has suffered hard setbacks – newsrooms have been reduced and more than one third of the local offices have been closed (Nygren and Althén 2014). Coverage of local issues is diminishing, and at the same time circulation is dropping causing continuing economical problems (Ohlson 2015). Local media plays an important role on different levels, both for local identity and for local public sphere and local democracy (Kleis-Nielsen 2015). In US reduced local media has created local “news deserts”, and also in Sweden social life in large areas around big cities has been heavily underreported in media for a long time (Nygren 2005). The last ten years also sparsely populated areas in the country has lost a quite good local journalism, and became news deserts. But at the same time new types of local media are growing in areas where traditional newspapers are weak or have been withdrawing, a development similar to for example UK (Williams et al 2015). In the first complete mapping of all kind of local media in Sweden, there are many kind of these new local media often created on a hyperlocal level – free sheets in parts of metropolitan areas, local online newssites and also local subscribed weeklies. A new local media landscape is emerging. This paper will give an overview on new hyperlocal media in Sweden. It is based on a survey by telephone to community authorities and on a survey to a sample of hyperlocal media producers. The paper discuss questions regarding sustainability of new kind of local media – what kind of content do they offer citizens, economical models they are based on and the relation to local community. The basic question is to what extent these new types of local media can replace traditional news media, what are the advantages and problems connected with this development in relation to local democracy. One key question is the degree of professionalism in these new kind of hyperlocal media – how content produced by semi-professionals and citizens relate to traditional normative standards of journalism.

  • 35.
    Severson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Media audiences imagining themselves in relation to future living2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Audience studies have a history of studying people reading, listening and watching mass media at home. Domestication, as Silverstone and Haddon (1996) describe it, is an understanding of the design/domestication interface, implying a process of mutually shaping. This study contributes to an understanding of the future of audiences as still taking place in a home where connected media becomes integrated. By using a survey of students (n=1287) on what media selection is considered to be important to have access to in future student accommodation, a study is made of the implications of a youthful audience and connected audience. The results show that students use and highly value access to both old and new media content and services and want to gain access to general as well as particular content and services (like sports or TV series). Hence, youthful audiences self-perceived attitudes towards being and becoming connected audiences imply a domestic access resembling the value of public access. Understandings of connected media in relation the interplay of youthful audiences and accommodation illustrate the socio-political challenge of the domestic sphere as configuring and offering a universal service. The socio-political challenge of structuring future connected audiences is what connections are actually made possible by access. By studying attitudes to access as well as actual inventories of access in the domestic sphere, media usage patterns and perceptions can be understood as taking place within set frames. These frames are set by various actors, like owners of apartment building, as more or less in a dialogue with and agency of potential audiences.

  • 36.
    Dorthé, Lotti (Curator)
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Olsson, Annsofie (Curator)
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Spikol, Daniel (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Spalazzese, Romina (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Linde, Per (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Leckner, Sara (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Russo, Nancy (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Eriksson, Jeanette (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmberg, Johan (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus (Creator, Researcher)
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Brandström, Maria (Designer)
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Tosting, Åsa (Designer)
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Egevad, Per (Lightning designer)
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Svensson, Anneli (Contributor)
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Topgaard, Richard (Contributor)
    Malmö University, Joint University Administration and Services. Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Forskarnas galleri #5: People have the power: IOTAP on exhibit2018Artistic output (Unrefereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All around us sensors collect data, which is analyzed to figure out how to save energy, how much insulin to inject, where the closest rental bike is located, how many people are still inside a building that is on fire… This fast-spreading technology is called the Internet of Things, or IoT for short. People have the power, or do we really? How much do we value our privacy? What internet connected gadgets will help us lead a healthy, sustainable life – and what gadgets will only increase our stress level? When does use become abuse? This exhibition explores how IoT affects people, society and industry. You are welcome to try out IoT through demos and hands-on experiences based on research projects at Malmö University. Research projects in the exhibition: Emergent Configuration for IoT Systems (ECOS+), Smart energy management and security (SEMS), Fair Data, Walk the ward, Dynamic Intelligent Sensor-Intensive Systems (DISS), PELARS project and Busrunner are presented in the "IOTAP-lab"

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