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  • 1.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Hajinasab, Banafsheh
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    The Fourth Wave of Digitalization and Public Transport: Opportunities and Challenges2016In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 1248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the opportunities and challenges of the forth wave of digitalization, also referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT), with respect to public transport and how it can support sustainable development of society. Environmental, economical, and social perspectives are considered through analysis of the existing literature and explorative studies. We conclude that there are great opportunities for both transport operators and planners, as well as for the travelers. We describe and analyze a number of concrete opportunities for each of these actors. However, in order to realize these opportunities, there are also a number of challenges that needs to be addressed. There are both technical challenges, such as data collection issues, interoperability, scalability and information security, and non-technical challenges such as business models, usability, privacy issues, and deployment.

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  • 2.
    Engström, Jimmy
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Sony Europe BV, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Some Design Considerations in Passive Indoor Positioning Systems2023In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 12, article id 5684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User location is becoming an increasingly common and important feature for a wide range of services. Smartphone owners increasingly use location-based services, as service providers add context-enhanced functionality such as car-driving routes, COVID-19 tracking, crowdedness indicators, and suggestions for nearby points of interest. However, positioning a user indoors is still problematic due to the fading of the radio signal caused by multipath and shadowing, where both have complex dependencies on the indoor environment. Location fingerprinting is a common positioning method where Radio Signal Strength (RSS) measurements are compared to a reference database of previously stored RSS values. Due to the size of the reference databases, these are often stored in the cloud. However, server-side positioning computations make preserving the user's privacy problematic. Given the assumption that a user does not want to communicate his/her location, we pose the question of whether a passive system with client-side computations can substitute fingerprinting-based systems, which commonly use active communication with a server. We compared two passive indoor location systems based on multilateration and sensor fusion using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) with fingerprinting and show how these may provide accurate indoor positioning without compromising the user's privacy in a busy office environment.

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  • 3. Göransson, Malin
    et al.
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Nilsson, Johan
    Shelf-life variations in pallet unit loads during perishable food supply chain distribution2018In: Food Control, ISSN 0956-7135, E-ISSN 1873-7129, Vol. 84, p. 552-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study of the thermal inertia of a pallet loaded with returnable plastic crates containing primary packages of smoked ham. Based on this, food quality variations within the pallet were also investigated. Thermal time constants from 83 sensor locations were identified by studying the temperature changes when the pallet was exposed to instant temperature drops (16 C - 2 C) and temperature elevations (2 C - 16 C). The thermal time constants were used in microbiological prediction models to calculate the maximum difference in shelf life between packages at the two most extreme spots in the pallet unit load, when temperature elevated from 4 C to a higher temperature (ranging from 4.5 C to 12 C), during different periods of time (ranging from 0.5 h to 200 h). The results showed a maximum difference in shelf life of approximately 1.8 days. The identified thermal time constants were also used to calculate the maximum difference in shelf life between packages at the two most extreme spots of a pallet unit load, in a real chilled food supply chain lasting for about 2.5 days. This resulted in a maximum difference of 0.1 days. The results imply that the location of a product in a pallet has a relatively low influence on the product shelf life. This means that a temperature sensor used for calculating the predicted shelf life of a product, can be placed relatively far from the product itself (e.g. on the secondary package or even on the pallet) without jeopardizing the reliability of the resulting shelflife prediction. However, the results also emphasize the importance of continuous temperature monitoring along the entire chilled food supply chains.

  • 4. Göransson, Malin
    et al.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Temperature performance and food shelf-life accuracy in cold food supply chains: Insights from multiple field studies2018In: Food Control, ISSN 0956-7135, E-ISSN 1873-7129, Vol. 86, p. 332-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge in perishable food industry today is variable and unknown food quality caused by different temperature conditions. This sometimes leads to unreliable printed shelf lives (best before dates) and food waste. Hence, temperature monitoring and control along cold food supply chains (FSCs) are essential for maintaining food quality and safety of perishable food products. This paper evaluates the temperature performance of cold food supply chains in relation to dynamically predicted shelf life and printed shelf life. Based on an in-depth study of actual temperature conditions of food products collected from field tests made in Swedish FSCs (from production to retail cold storage and retail displays), complete FSC scenarios were created. The results showed a significant difference in product shelf life between the most and least efficient FSCs, and between dynamically predicted and printed shelf life. Overall, the distribution from production to retail represents an efficient part of the FSC, in contrast to retail display storage. This study emphasizes the importance of a full-time temperature monitoring system to confirm food quality. A temperature monitoring system can be used to enable dynamic shelf life prediction, increase FSC transparency, and support food producers to proactively improve printed shelf lives.

  • 5.
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    En komparativ studie av traditionell salstentamen och online-tentamen med fokus på medium och innehåll2021In: Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL), E-ISSN 2004-4097, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of replacing a traditional on-campus exam with an open book online exam containing questions of a more in-depth discussion and problem-solving nature. The new form of examination thereby includes both a new medium for questions and answers, and a changed structure of the questions in the exam. The study focuses partly on what is tested in relation to the learning objectives (based on exam questions, answers and results) and partly on the students' attitudes to the different examination forms (based on questionnaire answers). The results show, as expected, that the traditional on-campus exam to a greater extent reveals the students' factual knowledge, while a deeper understanding is more central in the new form of examination. However, factual knowledge can to a certain extent also be tested in the new examination form. The students' exam results show that the students have managed the transition between the two examination forms in a good way, while the results from the surveys show that the students are predominantly positive about the new examination form but that the questions were perceived as difficult and that time was too short. This type of question thus introduces a new type of difficulty for the students. The study also points to some problems with legal certainty in the new form of examination. 

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  • 6.
    Jevinger, Åse
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Toward intelligent goods: characteristics, architectures and applications2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of globalization, the requirements on transport logistics continuously rise. Often goods travel through many different countries, using several transport modes and involving a number of different actors. Implementing some level of intelligence on the goods, which provide them with the capabilities to assist in the logistical activities, is one of the instruments that can be used to improve control and efficiency in transports and goods-handling. The concept of intelligent goods both opens up for new types of services and may be used to improve currently available services. The research is mainly focused on the characteristics, possible architectures, and applications of intelligent goods systems. In this context, an intelligent goods system refers to a number of interacting components, e.g. on-board units, servers, and RFID tags, which together provide intelligent goods services. Intelligent goods refer to goods with a higher degree of intelligence than just providing the ID of the goods, and generally the concept involve information processing and/or storage on or close to the goods, acting on behalf of the goods throughout the whole transport. The purpose of the studies is to investigate how intelligent goods can be used to improve goods transports in terms of more efficient goods-handling as well as better control of the goods and the transportation process, but also in terms of more efficient information sharing, e.g. between different actors. This may in turn provide reduced costs, environmental impact and usage of infrastructure. The research is concentrated on the communication and processing of information before, during and after transport. Most of the research results are applicable to ii goods transport by any mode, whereas some of the research has an emphasis on road transport. A framework is presented which can be used to describe intelligent goods systems, including the capabilities of the goods, necessary information entities related to the goods, as well as a number of primitive services that can be used as building blocks when creating more advanced intelligent goods services. Furthermore, a new approach to service description is proposed, which can be used to, amongst others, define an intelligent goods service and to perform architecture analyses. By identifying architectures corresponding to different service solutions, intelligent goods can be compared with other types of solutions, for instance more centralized approaches. In particular, different situations and services put different requirements on a system and the benefits of using intelligent goods vary. In order to investigate how intelligent goods may be applied in practice, two services have been examined in more detail: a dynamic shelf- life prediction service, and a consignment-level emission allocation service. These studies involve field tests, interviews and simulations. Finally, an investigation of how intelligent goods systems can be modelled as multi-agent systems is also included.

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  • 7. Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Davidsson, P
    Persson, J. A.
    A metamodel for intelligent transport system services2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    System Architectures for Sensor-Based Dynamic Remaining Shelf-life Prediction2019In: International Journal of Operations Research and Information Systems (IJORIS), ISSN 1947-9328, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 21-38, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different storage and handling conditions in cold supply chains often cause variations in the remaining shelf life of perishable foods. In particular, the actual shelf life may differ from the expiration date printed on the primary package. Based on temperature sensors placed on or close to the food products, a remaining shelf-life prediction (RSLP) service can be developed, which estimates the remaining shelf life of individual products, in real-time. This type of service may lead to decreased food waste and is used for discovering supply chain inefficiencies and ensuring food quality. Depending on the system architecture, different service qualities can be obtained in terms of usability, accuracy, security, etc. This article presents a novel approach for how to identify and select the most suitable system architectures for RSLP services. The approach is illustrated by ranking different architectures for a RSLP service directed towards the supply chain managers. As a proof of concept, some of the most highly ranked architectures have been implemented and tested in food cold supply chains.

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  • 9.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Toward Dynamic Expiration Dates: An Architectural Study2016In: Dynamics in Logistics: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference LDIC, 2014 Bremen, Germany;Part V, Springer, 2016, p. 587-597Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The durability of perishable food varies due to different storage and handling conditions during the supply chain as well as final consumer activities. If the durability of the individual products can be estimated, dynamic expiry dates may be developed and used to prevent food waste, ensure quality, and improve supply chain activities etc. Depending on the system architecture used for such a service, different qualities can be obtained in terms of usability, accuracy, security etc. This paper presents a novel approach for how to identify and select the most suitable system architectures of a dynamic expiry date service. The approach is illustrated by focusing on one of the potential user groups, the supply chain managers. The approach consists of three steps: (i) identify the potential architectures, (ii) filter out the least relevant candidates by applying a specified set of principles, and (iii) perform an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based on a set of quality attributes.

  • 10.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    A Framework for Agent-Based Modeling of Intelligent Goods2011In: Agents in Principle, Agents in Practice 14th International Conference, PRIMA 2011, Wollongong, Australia, November 16-18, 2011. Proceedings, SpringerLink , 2011, p. 97-112Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for intelligent goods and illustrate how it can be applied when modeling intelligent goods as agents. It includes a specification of different levels of capability connected to the goods, which is based on a number of capability dimensions. Additionally, three specific intelligent goods services related to transport are presented. We show how these services can be modeled as agents and how they relate to the intelligent goods framework. A discussion of different physical locations of service information and processing is also included.

  • 11.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    A Method for Identifying and Evaluating Architectures of Intelligent Goods Services2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2011, SpringerLink , 2012, p. 237-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for identifying possible architectural solutions for potential intelligent goods services. The solutions range from putting all intelligence at the goods level, to requiring no intelligence on the goods at all. The method is based on a general framework for describing intelligent goods systems, which involves several levels of intelligence related to both the goods and the local environments surrounding the goods. Furthermore, a number of quality attributes are identified, which may be used for evaluating and comparing the solutions. Based on these attributes, a quality evaluation of the architectural solutions related to a potential intelligent goods service is also provided, as an example.

  • 12.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    A method for identifying architectural solutions for potential intelligent goods services2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: This paper presents a method for identifying possible architectural solutions for potential intelligent goods services. The solutions range from implementing all service intelligence at the goods level to requiring no goods intelligence at all. The paper also shows how different solutions, identified by the method, can be compared and evaluated through quality analysis in order to determine when intelligent goods are beneficial. Design/methodology/approach: Literature and case studies, and theoretical analyses form the foundations of the paper. The method is based on a general framework for describing intelligent goods systems, which involves several levels of intelligence related to both the goods and the local entities surrounding the goods. Three specific services are used to illustrate the method. The quality analysis is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and a number of proposed quality attributes. Findings: The paper illustrates how the framework can be used to identify relevant architectural solutions for a particular service, with different levels of intelligence on the goods. It also shows how to qualitatively analyze individual solutions and suggests an extension to the general framework for describing intelligent goods systems. Research limitations/implications: The paper does not contain measured data to base the quality analysis on. Testing the method and quality analysis on implemented cases is recommended for future work. What is original/value of paper: The novel method and approach for identifying and evaluating architectural solutions for potential intelligent goods services, are useful in general management when investigating the value of implementing intelligent goods. The paper also contributes to the description of intelligent goods systems.

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  • 13.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Mbiydzenyuy, Gideon
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    A service description framework for intelligent transport systems: applied to intelligent goods2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The primary objective of this paper is to propose a framework for specifying and analyzing Intelligent Transport System (ITS) services. Design/methodology/approach Essential service information are identified and stated in a uniform way. A separation into an abstract description, focused on what the service does, and a concrete description, focused on how to perform the service tasks, is made. Findings The proposed a framework has been used for specifying and distinguishing ITS services and for different types on analyses, e.g. service composition/decomposition analyses and architecture analyses. Original/value The usefulness is illustrated by an architecture choice analysis applied on a specific intelligent goods service. Apart from ITS services, the framework has the potential to also apply to other types of information services.

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  • 14.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Göransson, Malin
    Båth, Klara
    A Field Test Study on a Dynamic Shelf Life Service for Perishables2014In: 26th Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network: NOFOMA 2014, Proceedings, 2014, p. 78-92Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the possibilities, risks and requirements of a dynamic shelf life service – a technological innovation focusing on minimizing food waste in supply chains (SC). Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured, open-ended interviews with SC actors have been used to identify the requirements, possibilities and risks with a dynamic shelf life service. Field tests have been conducted to investigate practical implications and effects of small temperature variations on shelf life. The field tests involved sensors based on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Findings: The results show that a DSLP service holds great potentials. The field tests revealed that shelf life predictions are sensitive to small temperature differences along the cold chain. Results from the interviews confirm the importance of accuracy. The interviews also emphasize the importance of sharing costs among the involved actors. Research limitations/implications: Key aspects from 11 SC actors concerning dynamic shelf life prediction in cold chains are provided. The field tests involve a SC from production to household. Practical implications: Implementation of a dynamic shelf life service can increase visibility and information flow within SCs. The system can also be integrated with companies’ business systems creating new business opportunities and reducing manual work by automatically alerting quality fluctuations of food products. Original/value: Quantitative and qualitative data from 11 SC actors are provided. This information, together with the experiences reported from the field tests, have the potential to help replacing dysfunctional date labelling systems and reduce food waste.

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  • 15.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Johansson, Emil
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Holmberg, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Context-Aware Travel Support During Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances2023In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems / [ed] Alexey Vinel, Jeroen Ploeg, Karsten Berns, Oleg Gisikhin, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2023, Vol. 1, p. 160-170, article id 19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibilities and challenges of realizing a context-aware travel planner with bidirectional information exchange between the actor and the traveller during unplanned traffic disturbances. A prototype app is implemented and tested to identify potential benefits. The app uses data from open APIs, and beacons to detect the traveller context (which train or train platform the traveller is currently on). Alternative travel paths are presented to the user, and each alternative is associated with a certainty factor reflecting the reliability of the travel time prognoses. The paper also presents an interview study that investigates PT actors’ views on the potential use for actors and travellers of new information about certainty factors and travellers’ contexts, during unplanned traffic disturbances. The results show that this type of travel planner can be realized and that it enables travellers to find ways to reach their destination, in situations where the public t ravel planner only suggests infeasible travel paths. The value for the traveller of the certainty factors are also illustrated. Additionally, the results show that providing actors with information about traveller context and certainty factors opens up for the possibility of more advanced support for both the PT actor and the traveller.

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  • 16.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Johansson, Emil
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Holmberg, Johan
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Kontextmedvetet resestöd vid störningar i kollektivtrafiken (juli 2021-oktober 2022): Slutrapport forskningsprojekt TRV 2021/406332022Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Introducing an Intelligent Goods Service Framework2021In: Logistics, ISSN 2305-6290, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, the transportation of goods sector is in a position to adopt novel intelligent services that cut across the otherwise highly fragmented and heterogeneous market, which today consists of a myriad of actors. Legacy systems that rely upon direct integration between all actors involved in the transportation ecosystem face considerable challenges for information sharing. Meanwhile, IoT based services, which are designed as devices that follow goods and communicate directly to cloud-based backend systems, may provide services that previously were not available. For the purposes of this paper, we present a theoretical framework for classification of such intelligent goods systems based on a literature study. The framework, labelled as the Intelligent Goods Service (IGS) framework, aims at increasing the understanding of the actors, agents, and services involved in an intelligent goods system, and to facilitate system comparisons and the development of new innovative solutions. As an illustration of how the IGS framework can be used and contribute to research in this area, we provide an example from a direct industry-academia collaboration.

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  • 18.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson A., Jan
    Disturbance Management and Information Availability in Public Transport, with Focus on Scania County, Sweden2019In: Urban and Transit Planning, Springer, 2019, p. 305-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for people to choose public transport over private car usage, public transport systems must be both reliable and accessible, which is not always the case today. Based on interviews with public transport actors, this paper investigates the missing information and communication flows during unplanned disturbances in the public transport system of southern Sweden. Two potential solution approaches to supply the missing information are also identified: an information system common for all public transport actors in the region, and a traveler check-in system, providing traveler specific information to the actors. The information requirements of both systems, and their potential benefits, are presented. The primary objective of the study is to improve the possibilities for both actors and travelers to act during unplanned disturbances by more efficient information sharing and better traveler information.

  • 19. Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Persson, J. A.
    Davidsson, P.
    Analysis of transport services based on intelligent goods2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Consignment-level allocations of carbon emissions in road freight transport2016In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 48, p. 298-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and evaluates a new method for how emissions from freight transport routes with single or several points of loading and unloading, can be allocated to individual consignments. The method, called Dedicated Distance Proportional Allocation (DDPA), has been developed based on a literature review, discussions with logistics providers, and analysis. DDPA is designed to have low data processing requirements and be easy to explain to actors involved. Furthermore, it supports several levels of information availability, and accounts for any set of vehicle-limiting factors, as well as prepositioning/repositioning. DDPA has been evaluated in simulations with different levels of information availability, together with three existent allocation methods: the Equal profit method (EPM), the CEN EN16258:2011 standard and the Greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol. The simulations show that the GHG protocol under-allocates the total amount of emissions, on average. EPM and DDPA achieve equal relative savings, whereas for CEN EN16258:2011 and the GHG protocol, relative savings vary, on average. When DDPA is used with low level of information availability, an error is introduced which can be reduced by applying compensation factors. Since DDPA accepts low information availability, the Intelligent Products concept can be applied for computing and storing emissions allocations, at the time of unloading. The results from this study can be used for further development and implementation of consignment allocation methods. Furthermore, by combining DDPA with other environmental load approaches for other parts of a product’s life cycle, a complete life cycle assessment of the product’s environmental impact can be obtained.

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  • 21.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Exploring the potential of using real-time traveler data in public transport disturbance management2019In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 413-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New and emerging technologies, such as connected sensors, smartphones and smart cards, offer new possibilities to collect rich real-time information about travelers. Moreover, smartphones also enable travelers to actively share information, for instance, about their intended travel plans. This type of information can be used to improve public transport disturbance management. In this paper, the potential gain of collecting different types of information about travelers is explored to support action decisions made by public transport actors, during unplanned disturbances. Based on interviews and workshops, the paper provides a mapping between different information types and possible action decisions that can be supported. Furthermore, based on a literature review focused on current and potential technical solutions, a guidance to which solutions support which type of action decisions, is also provided. Amongst others, the results show that automated fare collection, which is one of the most commonly implemented systems providing real-time information about the traveler, can support a large number of action decisions relevant in unplanned disturbance scenarios. The technical solution providing the most extensive information, and thereby providing the best support for the action decisions, involves smartphone apps delivering user-generated information. The drawback with this solution is that it might violate privacy, and that it typically relies on the travelers providing relevant information voluntarily.

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  • 22.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Potentials of Context-Aware Travel Support during Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel support for public transport today usually takes no or little account of the traveler’s personal needs and current context. Thereby, travelers are often suggested irrelevant travel plans, which may force them to search for information from other sources. In particular, this is a problem during unplanned disturbances. By incorporating the traveler’s context information into the travel support, travelers could be provided with individually tailored information. This would especially benefit travelers who find it more difficult than others to navigate the public transport system. Furthermore, it might raise the accessibility and general attractiveness of public transport. This paper contributes with an understanding of how information about the traveler’s context can enhance the support provided by travel planners, in the case of disturbances in public transport. In particular, the paper includes a high-level analysis of how and in which situations context information can be useful. The analysis shows how information about the traveler’s context can improve travel planners, as well as highlights some risks in relation to some identified scenarios. Several technologies for retrieving information about the physical context of the traveler are also identified. The study is based on a literature review, a workshop, and interviews with domain experts.

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  • 23.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Helena
    K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden; Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technology and Society, Transport and Roads, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stated opinions and potential travel with DRT – a survey covering three different age groups2024In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous  research  shows  that  well-grounded  knowledge  of  the intended  travellers  is  essential  for  achieving  successful  DRT services.  However,  there  is  a  lack  of  understanding  of  the potential  travels  in  different  age  groups,  and  the  acceptance  of design  alternatives  that  may  affect  these.  Based  on  surveys conducted  in  Sweden,  this  paper  investigates  these  factors  in  a hypothetical DRT service, in the age groups 6–17, 18–69 and over 70  years.  A  total  of  1241  people  answered  the  questionnaires. The  results  show  that  the  age  groups  have  similar  acceptance regarding  delays  and  departure time  intervals.  Older adults  have lower  acceptance  of  digital  solutions,  and  children  and  older adults  have  stronger  requirements  for  value-added  services. About  85–90%  of  the  respondents  claim  they  would  use  the service,  at  least  occasionally.  The  results  also  show  how  a  DRT system should be configured to allow room for system efficiency gains, while still being accepted by most travellers.

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  • 24.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    von Hausswolff, Kristina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Large programming task vs questions-and-answers examination in Java introductory courses2016In: Proceedings: 2016 International Conference on Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering, LaTiCE 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 154-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates two different forms of examination in introductory Java programming courses: computer-based examination where the students are given one relatively large programming task only, and paper-/computer-based examination where the students are given a number of smaller questions to answer. The study focuses on identifying how well the two different examination forms reveal the students’ practical skills and theoretical knowledge in relation to the intended learning outcomes specified in the course syllabus. Course syllabuses from 8 Swedish universities are examined and from these, 4 specified learning outcomes, each shared by at least 5 of the selected universities, are identified. These learning outcomes are then used to analyze the exams from two of the universities, one practicing the large programming task examination form, and the other is using the questions and answer examination form. For both examination forms, two course phases are analyzed with respect to the specified learning outcomes: 1) exam (e.g. what do the questions capture and how are they formulated), and 2) execution (e.g. what do the students answer and how well are the intended purposes of the questions fulfilled). The results illustrate the strengths and weaknesses with the two examination forms. The results can be used as decision support when selecting examination form and, furthermore, to improve both forms to attain more comprehensive examinations, with respect to the specified learning outcomes.

  • 25.
    Jevinger, Åse
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, K2, Lund, Sweden.
    Zhao, Chunli
    Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, K2, Lund, Sweden.
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, K2, Lund, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, K2, Lund, Sweden.
    Artificial intelligence for improving public transport: a mapping study2024In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 99-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to provide a better understanding of the potential of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to improve Public Transport (PT), by reviewing research literature. The selection process resulted in 87 scientific publications constituting a sample of how AI has been applied to improve PT. The review shows that the primary aims of using AI are to improve the service quality or to better understand traveller behaviour. Train and bus are the dominant modes of transport investigated. Furthermore, AI is mainly used for three tasks; the most frequent one is prediction, followed by an estimation of the current state, and resource allocation, including planning and scheduling. Only two studies concern automation; all the others provide different kinds of decision support for travellers, PT operators, PT planners, or municipalities. Most of the reviewed AI solutions require significant amounts of data related to the travellers and the PT system. Machine learning is the most frequently used AI technology, with some studies applying reasoning or heuristic search techniques. We conclude that there still remains a great potential of using AI to improve PT waiting to be explored, but that there are also some challenges that need to be considered. They are often related to data, e.g., that large datasets of high quality are needed, that substantial resources and time are needed to pre-process the data, or that the data compromise personal privacy. Further research is needed about how to handle these issues efficiently.

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