Malmö University Publications
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  • 1.
    Popoola, Margareta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Carlsson, Benny
    Broomé, Per
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Salameh, Eva Kristina
    Staaf, Patricia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Language and Linguistics (SPS).
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Halvvägs på väg vart? Storstadssatsningen i Rosengård 2000-20012002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Härmed överlämnar IMER/Malmö högskola den fjärde rapporten i utvärderingen av Nationellt exempel/storstadssatsningen i Rosengård avseende perioden september 2000 till och med september 2001. Utvärderingen inriktar sig på insatserna inom de fyra programområden som urskiljs i det reviderade programförslaget för storstadssatsningen (september 2000): Arbetsmarknadsåtgärder, Förskola, Skola och Lokalt utvecklingsarbete. Enligt uppdraget ska utvärderingen omfatta såväl effekter som processer inom de olika programområdena.

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  • 2.
    Popoola, Margareta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Billing, Peter
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Bruzaeus, Lena
    Salameh, Eva Kristina
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Storstadssatsningen i Rosengård: ett nationellt exempel2002Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Wallengren, Simon
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Unit for Police Work.
    Trust Toward the Criminal Justice System Among Swedish Roma: A Mixed-Methodology Approach2023In: Race and Justice, E-ISSN 2153-3687, ISSN 2153-3687, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 207-230, article id 2153368720930405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minority populations' trust toward the criminal justice system is understudied in many parts of Europe, including Sweden. This article will contribute to this field by examining the trust in the criminal justice system among the Roma community in Sweden. The aim of the study was to (1) estimate the Roma community's trust toward the criminal justice system, (2) examine what factors influence the community's trust toward the criminal justice system, and (3) analyze whether trust toward the authorities influences the Roma community's willingness to report victimization. The study used a mixed-methodology design in combining survey data (n = 610) with in-depth interviews (N = 30). The findings show that the respondents have a low level of trust in the criminal justice system authorities. According to the regression analysis, the strongest predictor of trust was shown to be explained by the respondent's perception of procedural unfairness. Qualitative findings supported these results while also highlighting cultural effects and historical processes that explain the community's lack of trust. Finally, trust in the authorities seems to be an important factor that influences crime reporting.

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  • 4.
    Wallengren, Simon
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Unit for Police Work.
    Visibility and vulnerability: A mixed methodology approach to studying Roma individuals’ victimization experiences2020In: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 276-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the prevalence and impact of victimization among a sample of Roma individuals in Malmö and Gothenburg (Sweden). The aim of the study was to examine the link between visibility and victimization, and whether the Roma community employs behavioural strategies to reduce visibility, and, finally, to analyse how such strategies affect the group. The study design combines survey data (n1⁄4610) with interviews (n1⁄430). The findings suggest that visibility is an important risk factor for victimization and that the study participants’ attempt to conceal their ethnicity affects them negatively both at an individual and a community level. The discussion concludes by presenting a number of policy implications.

  • 5.
    Wigerfelt, Anders S
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Dahlstrand, Karl
    Sociology of Law Department, Lund University.
    Online Hate Crime: Social Norms and the Legal System2015In: Quaestio Iuris, ISSN 1516-0351, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1859-1878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central point of departure for this socio-legal study about online hate crimes concerns the significance of analysing and understanding social norms in relation to these crimes on the Internet. This is of importance not least when one approaches the issue of how law and the legal system may contribute towards positive developments in this field and prevent hate crimes. It is apparent that law and social norms function concurrently in influencing behaviours. On the one hand, social norms have a strong impact on how law is formulated due to law typically being shaped to reflect the morals and values in society. On the other hand, the reverse effect can also play an important role: When law leads and paves the way for changed behaviours, it may in time produce changes in social norms. People tend to revaluate their views of right and wrong and adapt their values towards legally advocated behaviour. People also tend to make demands of their social environment in a manner that coincides with legally grounded values. Through clear legal signals, processes are initiated that have the potential, in time, to lead to changed social norms. People must, then, not only consider the legally constructed risk involved in being caught, sentenced and punished, we must also relate to the risk of being condemned by our fellow citizens. The empirical study is made in Sweden and the article present the Swedish legal and social context related to different hate crimes and how these phenomena are perceived among Swedish Internet users.

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  • 6.
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    A challange to multiculturalism: everyday racism and hate crime in a small Swedish town2014In: Omnes: the journal of multicultural society, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 48-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At times of economic decline, such as the deep economic crisis experienced in many European countries today, vulnerable groups can clash with other vulnerable groups. These clashes can be exploited by different political movements and individuals, who point to the Other and the multicultural society as the cause of society’s problems. This can result in intensified everyday racial violations, and an increase in violent hate crimes. A case study, from a small Swedish town in which an asylum seeker from The Ivory Coast was stabbed to death by extreme right-wing youths, illustrates how racist hate crime relates to discrimination and everyday harassment. The murder became a test case for what in Sweden later became known as hate crime.

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  • 7.
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Media Images and Experiences of being a Jew in the Swedish City of Malmö2016In: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of high-profile incidents in and after 2008 placed Malmö in southern Sweden on the national and international map as a place that was unsafe for people identified as Jews. The primary aim of this article is to explore and exemplify what it is like to live with Jewish identity in Malmö within a framework of how the media reports anti-Semitism and how this group copes with being the potential target of anti-Semitic harassment and hate crime. Based on interviews with people with Jewish identity in Malmö, we analyze and discuss their experiences using different themes, such as violent and everyday anti-Semitism, the local impact of the Israel–Palestine conflict, how media images affect their lives, and how exposure and vulnerability are dealt with. The findings are important in terms of both possible long-term measures against anti-Semitism and as immediate support for those targeted.

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  • 8.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    En likvärdig skola?2009In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 2-3, p. 41-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the countries which has signed and endorsed The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child from 1989. According to this convention, all children have the same rights irrespective of sex, race or religion. The convention is in line with Swedish education policy, which for a long time has asserted that schooling must be open to all. The Swedish curriculum stresses that all human beings are of equal value and states, amongst other things, that “education must be suited to the needs and requirements of each pupil”. However, there is reason to strongly question whether Sweden in practice lives up to these ideals and aims. During 2005, the National Agency of Education made inspections of the schools in Malmoe and, in a report from 2006, drew the conclusion that schooling in the city was characterized by large local inequalities with regard to both opportunities and results. One aim of this study is to use the representation of Malmoe´s schools given in the National Agency report to ascertain whether Malmoe is achieving the goal of giving all pupils an equal education; ultimately, I pose the question whether Malmo can live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Another aim is to develop understanding of the school as a place of normative and regulating practices in relation to a changed and multicontextual childhood. The empirical data for this study is the said report from the National Agency of Education.

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  • 9.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Hur ser studenterna på den nya lärarutbildningen?2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Baksidestext: Vilka är studenternas uppfattningar och upplevelser av den nya lärarutbildningen i Malmö? Det är utgångspunkten när Berit Wigerfelt, universitetslektor i etnologi vid IMER, Internationell migration och etniska relationer, på Malmö högskola undersöker nya lärarutbildningen i Malmö. Wigerfelt intervjuar tio studenter och det lilla urvalet belyser problemområden men materialet ger inte någon generell giltighet. Hur uppfattar studenterna första terminen? Vilken uppföljning och kontroll finns? Råder en klyfta mellan partnerskolan och lärarutbildningen och vad beror det på? Får studenterna hjälp att sortera intrycken från partnerskolorna? Hur ska man betrakta studierna inom huvudämnet? Är det rätt att blanda studenter som sedan ska undervisa på olika nivåer i skolan? Det är några frågor Wigerfelt lyfter fram och som du kan läsa mer om i denna rapport.

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  • 10.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Klippan - bilden av en ort som rasisthåla2000In: Att möta främlingar / [ed] Göran Rystad, Svante Lundberg, Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2000, p. 193-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    En septemberdag 1995 hittades en ung svart man knivhuggen till döds i ett buskage i Klippans centrum. Mannen visade sig vara från Elfenbenskusten och hette Gerard Gbeyo. Efter några månader lyckades polisen få två ungdomar som var öppet uttalade nazister att bekänna mordet. Polisens förundersökning visade att öppen rasism och nazism var vanligt förekommande bland ett drygt 4o-tal ungdomar i Klippan och från några närliggande kommuner. De båda förövarna, en 16-åring och en 18-åring, dömdes till fängelse.

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  • 11.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Kroksbäck möter Linné: en utvärdering av integration mellan två skolor i Malmö2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en utvärdering av integrationen mellan två skolor i Malmö, Kroksbäcksskolan och Linnéskolan. Under våren 2007 beslutades att Kroksbäcksskolan pga renovering och ombyggnad successivt skulle tömmas på elever. Stadsdelen Hyllie skickade ut en förfrågan till andra stadsdelar om att ta emot elever; närliggande Limhamn-Bunkeflo gav ett positivt besked. Sammanlagt blev det 50 elever från Kroksbäck, som började på Linnéskolan hösten 2007. Sedan dess har elever i blivande sexor från Kroksbäck börjat på Linné varje läsår, vilket innebär att vårterminen 2010 hade Linnéskolan totalt 354 elever varav cirka 130 kom från Kroksbäck. Denna rapport är en utvärdering av utbytet. Utvärderingen är genomförd av Berit Wigerfelt, universitetslektor i IMER vid Malmö högskola. Hon forskar om migrationsrelaterade frågor kring bland annat skola och ungdom. Elisabeth Jansson, FoU Malmö/utbildning, har medverkat som projaktassistent.

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  • 12.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Skola på olika villkor2008In: I&M : Invandrare & minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 6, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande kunskaper i svenska anses vara den huvudsakliga orsaken till att elever inte klarar studiemålen. Ändå får flerspråkiga elever sällan det stöd de behöver. Ofta ses de som en grupp och undervisas på minsta gemensamma nivå.

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  • 13.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Skolintegration med förhinder2014In: Segregation, utbildning och ovanliga lärprocesser / [ed] Ove Sernhede, Ingegerd Tallberg Broman, Liber, 2014, p. 39-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en stor oro bland många skolaktörer över en tilltagande skolsegregation i Sverige. Artikeln fokuserar på hur olika aktörer förhöll sig till och upplevde den integrationsprocess som ägde rum mellan två skolor i Malmö mellan 2007 och 2010.

  • 14.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Skolledares syn på tvåspråkig undervisning2012In: Flerspråkighet i skolan: språklig utveckling och undervisning / [ed] Eva-Kristina Salameh, Natur & Kultur , 2012, p. 131-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Stigmatiserande mediabilder2011In: Skola och barndom: normering, demokratisering, individualisering / [ed] Ingegerd Tallberg Broman, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2011, p. 81-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Undervisning på svenska och arabiska tar form i ett mångetniskt område2011In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 3, p. 19-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine the development of bilingual education in Swedish and Arabic, in a multicultural neighbourhood in Malmo, as seen from the perspective of some of the school leaders who were involved in the process. What have the school leaders experienced as positive or problematic in the years of bilingual education? How were the various discourses on bilingual education expressed in school practice? In addition to interviews with responsible school leaders, the article analyses various policy documents and language syllabi that provide guidelines for school activities. Another aim is to examine different discourses on language expressed in a media debate about bilingual education in Swedish and Arabic that took place at the time of the project. This media debate had a noticeable impact on school practice. Even though the school leaders overall expressed positive attitudes towards bilingual education, they were influenced by other discourses as well. For example, they mainly justified bilingual education by the argument that it would improve the pupils’ command of Swedish and that they would hopefully achieve better marks and goal attainment. That the pupils would become bilingual was not put forward as a major aim. Initially, the school leaders were highly positive to the results of bilingual education, but slowly discovered that there were some obstacles. They were consequently obliged to gradually modify the bilingual model which was applied in their schools.

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  • 17.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Morgan, Eva
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Balansgång mellan två språk. Lärares berättelser om tvåspråkig undervisning på svenska och arabiska2011In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 3, p. 53-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article aims to examine how teachers involved in bilingual education in Swedish and Arabic perceived and handled this activity. In many ways, the educational situation in the bilingual classes was demanding. Initially, there were no written, clear goals or guidelines and the teachers had to find their own ways to manage the classroom. One complication was that the two teachers would be teaching the same subject matter to the class, and that they would be teaching alongside each other which required a high degree of joint planning. The Swedish teachers were also assigned new roles as teachers. Instead of being in the focus of teaching in class, they now had to stand back. They had to deal with the fact that they did not understand what the bilingual teachers told pupils in Arabic. According to the teachers, many of the pupils increased their self-confidence and self-esteem and it was positive to see that the pupils now had access to two languages which they could switch between. The article additionally highlights how various discourses on language influenced bilingual teaching in the district.

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  • 18.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Morgan, Eva
    Lärarnas syn på tvåspråkig undervisning2012In: Flerspråkighet i skolan: språklig utveckling och undervisning / [ed] Eva-Kristina Salameh, Natur & Kultur , 2012, p. 154-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    "Att prygla en neger"2001In: Törnroslandet / [ed] Irka Cederberg, Integrationsverket , 2001, p. 141-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En septemberdag 1995 hittades i ett buskage i Klippans centrum en ung man knivhuggen till döds. Mannen visade sig vara från Elfenbenskusten och hette Gerard Gbeyo.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Rasism i Sverige - exemplet Klippan2001In: Törnroslandet / [ed] Irka Cederberg, Integrationsverket , 2001, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad var det som gjorde att Klippan blev skådeplatsen för öppen rasism och rasistiskt våld? En tydlig och öppen rasism uppstår inte i ett socialt och politiskt vakuum och samhällsklimatet på regional och nationell nivå måste därför också beaktas då den lokala nivån diskuteras.

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  • 21.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Kiiskinen, Jenny
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    When colour matters: policing and hate crime2014In: Social Inclusion, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

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  • 22.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Kiiskinen, Jenny
    When colour matters: racial hate crime and everyday violations in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to give examples of, explore and discuss how people who belong to the group categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience hate crime and everyday harassment. The links of prejudices, stereotypes, colonial notions, everyday racism and violent hate crime is discussed from a Swedish perspective. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, different kinds of racism, cross-border conflicts, the geography of hate and the consequences of hate crime are used to analyse the material. One key conclusion is that racial categorisations are still important for explaining people’s life possibilities and their vulnerability to hate crime, despite the fact that in present-day Sweden the significance of race is often denied. This denial can lead to hate crime and other forms of racial harassment being neglected by the authorities.

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  • 23.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Anders S
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Anti-gypsyism in Sweden: Roma´s and Travllers´Experiences of Bias-motivated Crime2015In: Internet Journal of Criminology, E-ISSN 2045-6743, no 6743, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hundreds of Roma have been murdered in hate crime attacks in recent years in several European states. Even though anti-gypsyism has many common characteristics, its expression can differ in different countries. Despite the Nordic countries having recently become a “migration hot spot”, when it comes to Roma, very few studies of hate crimes against Roma have been conducted in Scandinavia. This article, which is mostly based on in-depth interviews, is therefore an important contribution to the research field of hate crimes against Roma. The purpose of the article is to examine and exploit Roma experiences of everyday harassment, discrimination and hate crime and to discuss the usefulness of the hate crime concept in the work to combat anti-gypsyism. The interviewed Roma´s narratives clearly show that prejudices against and the discrimination of Roma are part and parcel of the everyday and influence their lives in many respects. Some of the interviews show that as a Traveller/Roma you are exposed to physical violence and death threats. Despite this many of the victims do not report such incidents. This suggests that the number of unrecorded cases could be considerable. The damage that hate crime does is spread beyond the individual to the victim´s entire group. These crimes constitute “message crimes” and tell the victim´s group that they can also be targeted.

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  • 24.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Wigerfelt, Anders S
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Antisemitiska och antiromska hatbrott i Sverige: erfarenheter, konsekvenser och hantering av utsatthet2015In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 265-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-Semitic and anti-Roma hate crimes in Sweden – Experiences, consequences and coping

    Based on interviews, the purpose of the article is to study how Roma and Jews experience every- day violations and hate crime and how the victims deal with this exposure. The victims’ narratives are analysed using, for example, theories and research on anti-Semitism, anti-Ziganism, everyday racism and power relations. During the post-war period Jews have largely been seen by the majo- rity population as belonging to the white ”Swedishness”, while the Roma belong to one of many deeply despised minorities that often are exposed to everyday violations and hate crime. However, there is anti-Semitism in Sweden that in certain situations and circumstances is explicitly expres- sed in the form of abuse, threats or violence. The article describes and analyses how the victims of hate crime deal with this exposure and how the crimes affect them. Some Roma and Jews ”are forced” to live a kind of double life because they are afraid of being ”exposed” as a Roma or a Jew. For example, Jewish and Roma symbols are often spontaneously concealed. The damage that hate crime causes is spread beyond the individual to the victim’s entire group, a form of ”message crimes”. The consequences for the individual concerned can be very serious. Roma and Jewish groups as a whole can also be affected by the restrictions imposed on their lives.

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  • 25.
    Wigerfelt, Berit
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Wigerfelt, Anders S
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Hatbrott med främlingsfientliga och rasistiska motiv: en kunskapsöversikt2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Violations and hate crimes based on group membership can, in addition to the vic- tim itself, also affect the victim’s group, other vulnerable groups and society at large. The purpose of this research overview is to provide an insight into the available re- search literature on hate crimes, both internationally and in Sweden. Our focus is on xenophobic and racist hate crimes, specifically Afrophobic and anti-Roma, as well as anti-Semitic and Islamophobic hate crimes. The overview also discusses definitions of the concept of hate crime, the emergence of the legislation and theories about the causes and behaviors in connection to hate crimes. There is no proper legal definition of hate crimes in Swedish legislation. Hate crime, in other words, is not an offense on its own. In 1994, however, a rule was introduced which states that a sentence enhancement can be applied if the motive is to harm someone because of race, color, national or ethnic origin, religious beliefs, or (since 2002) sexual orientation or other similar circumstance (Penal Code 29 chapter 2 §7p). It is the crimes that fall within the framework of this enhanced sentence rule that are colloquially called hate crimes. Many researchers argue that a hate crime is worse than an equivalent crime without a hate motive because it gives a signal to the group to which the victim is considered to belong that they “should know their place” in the hierarchy, and that the psycholog- ical damage can be long-lasting for the victim or the group that is indirectly affected. Hate crimes may also lead to a general increase of tensions between different groups, which can counteract the integration of minority groups in society. There are different opinions on whether sentence enhancement is equitable for acts where the motive is to harm someone because of their perceived membership of a racial or ethnic group, religious belief or sexual orientation. We want to stress that the purpose of sentence enhancement is to emphasize that it is unacceptable to commit crimes against persons because they belong or are perceived to belong to a special group. Tougher penalties are consequently a way to put the spotlight on hate crimes as a major social and democratic problem.  The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ) states in a report that over 6,200 hate crimes were reported in 2014, an increase of about 700 cases since 2013. Of these allegations, 69 percent had a xenophobic or racist motive (of which, the sub- divisions of Afrophobic hate crimes constituted 25 percent and anti-Roma 7 percent). In 8 percent of the complaints, it was about Islamophobic motives and 4 percent had anti-Semitic motives. Both the Swedish Council for Crime Prevention and the National Crime Survey (NTU, 2014), which repeatedly follows up on available statistics on re- ported hate crimes, estimates that the number of unreported cases is high. This research overview describes some explanations for this, namely that the incident is deemed trivial, the victim is ashamed and does not want to figure in a lawsuit, the victim does not think that a police report will lead to any results, the victim is an un- documented migrant, the victim is afraid of retaliation from the perpetrator or have a lack of trust in the judicial system. To get individuals and groups with a low propen- sity to report hate crimes, it is important to improve trust between these individuals/ groups and the police. Even prosecutors have a very important role in the legal pro- cess and need, along with the police and courts, continuous training on hate crimes. The research overview suggests that the reasons behind hate crimes are many and complex. At a fundamental level, however, it is about historically and culturally root- ed prejudices and hatred toward those who are different. Since prejudices are a part of power relations and public discourses, long-term solutions regarding harassment and hate crimes should be more comprehensive than just effective regulations and legal systems. Even structural and institutional measures are important to consider. Although there are many studies on individual victims of hate crimes, there is a lack of knowledge about the consequences for particularly vulnerable groups. Hence, there is a need for comparative studies on the consequences for separate categories at a group and community level, as well as research on how different groups manage vul- nerability and how and why it differs between individuals of the same group. In an overall perspective, the research overview indicates that more studies are need- ed on the subject of hate crimes. Often victimized groups should be compared regard- ing causes of vulnerability, historical background and possible measures to reduce hate crimes. It is also important that further research is conducted on the concept of hate crimes, the meaning of hate crimes in different contexts and what signals it  gives. Not least, there is a great need of theories that are specifically customized for the research field of hate crimes. There is some research on media and social media’s impact on hate crimes, but these studies are few in number and a deeper understand- ing of the problem is desirable. In this context, the connection between attitudes and behavior is also in need of further investigation. In addition, it is urgent to cope with the knowledge gaps about how hate crimes in general can be prevented.

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