Malmö University Publications
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  • 1. Alm, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Esbjörnsson, Mattias
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Ramsten, Anna-Carin
    Rehme, Jakob
    Reinhold, Mats
    Sjögren, Karin
    Sörensson, Victoria
    Topgaard, Richard
    Ahlgren Moritz, Charlotte
    Christersson, Cecilia
    Marell, Agneta
    Värbrand, Peter
    Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapsutbyte och samverkan mellan lärosäten och andra aktörer i samhället är viktigt för att vi ska kunna möta morgondagens utmaningar. Man måste arbeta över sektorsgränser, inte bara inom forskning utan också inom utbildning. “Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning: metoder och strategier” handlar om hur samverkan kan integreras i högre utbildning. Slutsatserna baseras på de erfarenheter som gjorts i projektet Samverkanssäkrade utbildningsprogram som letts av lärosätena i Linköping, Malmö och Umeå. Publikationens andra del, “Möjligheter och utmaningar”, berättar ett antal historier ur samverkansvardagen. // Att med andra samhällsaktörer samverka kring utformningen av utbildningsprogram och i undervisningen bidrar till kvalitetsutveckling och säkerställer att utbildningen är till nytta för samhället. Samverkan förbereder också studenterna för ett livslångt lärande och underlättar övergången mellan utbildning och arbetsliv. För att man långsiktigt ska kunna integrera samverkan i utbildningsprogram krävs insatser på flera nivåer. Till exempel måste lärosätesledningar ta tydlig ställning i samverkansfrågan i sina styrdokument, och samverkansaspekten måste vara en självklar del av lärosätets kvalitetssäkringssystem. Det krävs också att ledningen för fakulteter och institutioner utformar system för dokumentation, styrning och uppföljning av samverkan. Vidare bör samverkan ingå i de pedagogiska modeller som lärare använder för att leda studenternas kunskapsutveckling, och lärosätena bör också uppmärksamma och belöna framgångsrikt samverkansarbete. Slutligen bör politiker och departement utforma ett fördelningssystem där framgångsrika samverkansinsatser inom utbildningen leder till en förstärkning av resursbasen på lärosätena.

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  • 2. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Novel Security-Enhanced Agile Software Development Process Applied in an Industrial Setting2015In: ARES Conference International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security 2015, IEEE, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A security-enhanced agile software development process, SEAP, is introduced in the development of a mobile money transfer system at Ericsson Corp. A specific characteristic of SEAP is that it includes a security group consisting of four different competences, i.e., Security manager, security architect, security master and penetration tester. Another significant feature of SEAP is an integrated risk analysis process. In analyzing risks in the development of the mobile money transfer system, a general finding was that SEAP either solves risks that were previously postponed or solves a larger proportion of the risks in a timely manner. The previous software development process, i.e., The baseline process of the comparison outlined in this paper, required 2.7 employee hours spent for every risk identified in the analysis process compared to, on the average, 1.5 hours for the SEAP. The baseline development process left 50% of the risks unattended in the software version being developed, while SEAP reduced that figure to 22%. Furthermore, SEAP increased the proportion of risks that were corrected from 12.5% to 67.1%, i.e., More than a five times increment. This is important, since an early correction may avoid severe attacks in the future. The security competence in SEAP accounts for 5% of the personnel cost in the mobile money transfer system project. As a comparison, the corresponding figure, i.e., For security, was 1% in the previous development process.

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  • 3.
    Bjärstorp, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Hofvander Trulsson, Ylva
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Jämlikhetsarbete i disciplinerna humaniora, konst och teknik2015In: Ledarutvecklingsprogram för kvinnor och män vid Lunds universitet 2013-2014: erfarenheter från ett genusintegrerat ledarskapsprogram; / [ed] Kajsa Widén, Inger Lövkrona, Lunds universitet , 2015, p. 113-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Björgvinsson, Erling
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Birt, Arlene
    Cuartielles, David
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Ehn, Pelle
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Ginslov, Jeannette
    Gustafsson Friberger, Marie
    Hillgren, Per-Anders
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Hobye, Mads
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Jacobson, Bob
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Kozel, Susan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Linde, Per
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Nilsson, Elisabet M.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Peterson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3). Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea.
    Rosenqvist, Karolina
    Topgaard, Richard
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Medea. Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Prototyping Futures2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototyping Futures gives you a glimpse of what collaborating with academia might look like. Medea and its co-partners share their stories about activities happening at the research centre – projects, methods, tools, and approaches – what challenges lie ahead, and how these can be tackled. Examples of highlighted topics include: What is a living lab and how does it work? What are the visions behind the Connectivity Lab at Medea? And, how can prototyping-methods be used when sketching scenarios for sustainable futures? Other topics are: What is the role of the body when designing technology? What is collaborative media and how can this concept help us understand contemporary media practices? Prototyping Futures also discusses the open-hardware platform Arduino, and the concepts of open data and the Internet of Things, raising questions on how digital media and connected devices can contribute to more sustainable lifestyles, and a better world.

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  • 5. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Baca, Dejan
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Introducing a Novel Security-Enhanced Agile Software Development Process2017In: International Journal of Secure Software Engineering, ISSN 1947-3036, E-ISSN 1947-3044, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel security-enhanced agile software development process, SEAP, is introduced. It has been designed, tested, and implemented at Ericsson AB, specifically in the development of a mobile money transfer system. Two important features of SEAP are 1) that it includes additional security competences, and 2) that it includes the continuous conduction of an integrated risk analysis for identifying potential threats. As a general finding of implementing SEAP in software development, the developers solve a large proportion of the risks in a timely, yet cost-efficient manner. The default agile software development process at Ericsson AB, i.e. where SEAP was not included, required significantly more employee hours spent for every risk identified compared to when integrating SEAP. The default development process left 50.0% of the risks unattended in the software version that was released, while the application of SEAP reduced that figure to 22.5%. Furthermore, SEAP increased the proportion of risks that were corrected from 12.5% to 67.9%, a more than five times increment.

  • 6.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Functional Classification and Quantitative Analysis of Smart Connected Home Devices2018In: 2018 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 144-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The home environment is rapidly becoming more complex with the introduction of numerous and heterogeneous Internet of Things devices. This development into smart connected homes brings with it challenges when it comes to gaining a deeper understanding of the home environment as a socio-technical system. A better understanding of the home is essential to build robust, resilient, and secure smart home systems. In this regard, we developed a novel method for classifying smart home devices in a logical and coherent manner according to their functionality. Unlike other approaches, we build the categorization empirically by mining the technical specifications of 1,193 commercial devices. Moreover, we identify twelve capabilities that can be used to characterize home devices. Alongside the classification, we also quantitatively analyze the entire spectrum of commercial smart home devices in accordance to their functionality and capabilities. Overall, the categorization and analysis provide a foundation for identifying opportunities of generalizations and common solutions for the smart home.

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  • 7.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    On the Design of a Privacy-Centered Data Lifecycle for Smart Living Spaces2020In: Privacy and Identity Management. Data for Better Living: AI and Privacy: 14th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School, Windisch, Switzerland, August 19--23, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Michael Friedewald, Melek Önen, Eva Lievens, Stephan Krenn, and Samuel Fricker, Springer, 2020, 576, p. 126-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many living spaces, such as homes, are becoming smarter and connected by using Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Such systems should ideally be privacy-centered by design given the sensitive and personal data they commonly deal with. Nonetheless, few systematic methodologies exist that deal with privacy threats affecting IoT-based systems. In this paper, we capture the generic function of an IoT system to model privacy so that threats affecting such contexts can be identified and categorized at system design stage. In effect, we integrate an extension to so called Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) in the model, which provides the means to handle the privacy-specific threats in IoT systems. To demonstrate the usefulness of the model, we apply it to the design of a realistic use-case involving Facebook Portal. We use that as a means to elicit the privacy threats and mitigations that can be adopted therein. Overall, we believe that the proposed extension and categorization of privacy threats provide a useful addition to IoT practitioners and researchers in support for the adoption of sound privacy-centered principles in the early stages of the smart living design process.

  • 8.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Privacy-Centered System Model for Smart Connected Homes2020In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops: PerCom Workshops, IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected homes are integrated with heterogeneous Internet-connected devices interacting with the physical environment and human users. While they have become an established research area, there is no common understanding of what composes such a pervasive environment making it challenging to perform a scientific analysis of the domain. This is especially evident when it comes to discourse about privacy threats. Recognizing this, we aim to describe a generic smart connected home, including the data it deals with in a novel privacy-centered system model. Such is done using concepts borrowed from the theory of Contextual Integrity. Furthermore, we represent privacy threats formally using the proposed model. To illustrate the usage of the model, we apply it to the design of an ambient-assisted living use-case and demonstrate how it can be used for identifying and analyzing the privacy threats directed to smart connected homes.

  • 9.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    An Analysis of Malicious Threat Agents for the Smart Connected Home2017In: Proceeding of 2017 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected home systems aim to enhance the comfort, convenience, security, entertainment, and health of the householders and their guests. Despite their advantages, their interconnected characteristics make smart home devices and services prone to various cybersecurity and privacy threats. In this paper, we analyze six classes of malicious threat agents for smart connected homes. We also identify four different motives and three distinct capability levels that can be used to group the different intruders. Based on this, we propose a new threat model that can be used for threat profiling. Both hypothetical and real-life examples of attacks are used throughout the paper. In reflecting on this work, we also observe motivations and agents that are not covered in standard agent taxonomies.

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  • 10.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    An Empirical Analysis of Smart Connected Home Data2018In: Internet of Things – ICIOT 2018, Springer, 2018, p. 134-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing presence of heterogeneous Internet of Things devices inside the home brings with it added convenience and value to the householders. At the same time, these devices tend to be Internet-connected and continuously monitor and collect data about the residents and their daily lifestyle activities. Such data can be of a sensitive nature, given that the house is the place where privacy is naturally expected. To gain insight into this state of affairs, we empirically investigate the privacy policies of 87 different categories of commercial smart home devices in terms of data being collected. This is done using a combination of manual and data mining techniques. The overall contribution of this work is a model that identifies and categorizes smart connected home data in terms of its collection mode, collection method, and collection phase. Our findings bring up several implications for smart connected home privacy, which include the need for better security controls to safeguard the privacy of the householders.

  • 11.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Is Your Home Becoming a Spy?: A Data-Centered Analysis and Classification of Smart Connected Home Systems2020In: IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, article id 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart connected home systems bring different privacy challenges to residents. The contribution of this paper is a novel privacy grounded classification of smart connected home systems that is focused on personal data exposure. This classification is built empirically through k-means cluster analysis from the technical specification of 81 commercial Internet of Things (IoT) systems as featured in PrivacyNotIncluded – an online database of consumer IoT systems. The attained classification helps us better understand the privacy implications and what is at stake with different smart connected home systems. Furthermore, we survey the entire spectrum of analyzed systems for their data collection capabilities. Systems were classified into four tiers: app-based accessors, watchers, location harvesters, and listeners, based on the sensing data the systems collect. Our findings indicate that being surveilled inside your home is a realistic threat, particularly, as the majority of the surveyed in-home IoT systems are installed with cameras, microphones, and location trackers. Finally, we identify research directions and suggest some best practices to mitigate the threat of in-house surveillance.

  • 12.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    On Privacy and Security Challenges in Smart Connected Homes2016In: Proceedings: 2016 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart homes have become increasingly popular for IoT products and services with a lot of promises for improving the quality of life of individuals. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous, dynamic, and Internet-connected nature of this environment adds new concerns as private data becomes accessible, often without the householders’ awareness. This accessibility alongside with the rising risks of data security and privacy breaches, makes smart home security a critical topic that deserves scrutiny. In this paper, we present an overview of the privacy and security challenges directed towards the smart home domain. We also identify constraints, evaluate solutions, and discuss a number of challenges and research issues where further investigation is required.

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  • 13.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    PRASH: A Framework for Privacy Risk Analysis of Smart Homes.2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 19, article id 6399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart homes promise to improve the quality of life of residents. However, they collect vasts amounts of personal and sensitive data, making privacy protection critically important. We propose a framework, called PRASH, for modeling and analyzing the privacy risks of smart homes. It is composed of three modules: a system model, a threat model, and a set of privacy metrics, which together are used for calculating the privacy risk exposure of a smart home system. By representing a smart home through a formal specification, PRASH allows for early identification of threats, better planning for risk management scenarios, and mitigation of potential impacts caused by attacks before they compromise the lives of residents. To demonstrate the capabilities of PRASH, an executable version of the smart home system configuration was generated using the proposed formal specification, which was then analyzed to find potential attack paths while also mitigating the impacts of those attacks. Thereby, we add important contributions to the body of knowledge on the mitigations of threat agents violating the privacy of users in their homes. Overall, the use of PRASH will help residents to preserve their right to privacy in the face of the emerging challenges affecting smart homes.

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  • 14.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Smart Connected Homes2018In: Internet of Things A to Z: Technologies and Applications / [ed] Qusay F. Hassan, John Wiley & Sons, 2018, p. 359-384Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    The Ethical Smart Home: Perspectives and Guidelines2022In: IEEE Security and Privacy, ISSN 1540-7993, E-ISSN 1558-4046, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Spalazzese, Romina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    On the Analysis of Semantic Denial-of-Service Attacks Affecting Smart Living Devices2020In: Intelligent Computing: Proceedings of the 2020 Computing Conference / [ed] Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor, Rahul Bhatia, Springer, 2020, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the interconnectedness of heterogeneous IoT devices being deployed in smart living spaces, it is imperative to assure that connected devices are resilient against Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. DoS attacks may cause economic damage but may also jeopardize the life of individuals, e.g., in a smart home healthcare environment since there might be situations (e.g., heart attacks), when urgent and timely actions are crucial. To achieve a better understanding of the DoS attack scenario in the ever so private home environment, we conduct a vulnerability assessment of five commercial-off-the-shelf IoT devices: a gaming console, media player, lighting system, connected TV, and IP camera, that are typically found in a smart living space. This study was conducted using an automated vulnerability scanner – Open Vulnerability Assessment System (OpenVAS) – and focuses on semantic DoS attacks. The results of the conducted experiment indicate that the majority of the tested devices are prone to DoS attacks, in particular those caused by a failure to manage exceptional conditions, leading to a total compromise of their availability. To understand the root causes for successful attacks, we analyze the payload code, identify the weaknesses exploited, and propose some mitigations that can be adopted by smart living developers and consumers.

  • 17.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jönsson, Désirée
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    An Investigation of Vulnerabilities in Smart Connected Cameras2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), IEEE, 2018, p. 656-661Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things is enabling innovative ser-vices promising added convenience and value in various domains such as the smart home. Increasingly, households, office envi-ronments and cities, are being fitted with smart camera systems aimed to enhance the security of citizens. At the same time, sev-eral systems being deployed suffer from weak security implemen-tations. Recognizing this, and to understand the extent of this situation, in this study we perform a global vulnerability assess-ment using the Shodan search engine and the Common Vulnera-bilities and Exposures database. This is done to detect smart con-nected cameras exposed on the Internet alongside their sensitive, potentially private, data being broadcasted. Furthermore, we discuss whether the discovered data can be used to compromise the safety and privacy of individuals, and identify some mitiga-tions that can be adopted. The results indicate that a significant number of smart cameras are indeed prone to diverse security and privacy vulnerabilities.

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  • 18.
    Bugeja, Joseph
    et al.
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Varshney, Rimpu
    Department of Security & Enterprise, Sony Mobile Communications, Lund, Sweden.
    IoTSM: An End-to-end Security Model for IoT Ecosystems2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) market is growing rapidly, allowing continuous evolution of new technologies. Alongside this development, most IoT devices are easy to compromise, as security is often not a prioritized characteristic. This paper proposes a novel IoT Security Model (IoTSM) that can be used by organizations to formulate and implement a strategy for developing end-to-end IoT security. IoTSM is grounded by the Software Assurance Maturity Model (SAMM) framework, however it expands it with new security practices and empirical data gathered from IoT practitioners. Moreover, we generalize the model into a conceptual framework. This approach allows the formal analysis for security in general and evaluates an organization’s security practices. Overall, our proposed approach can help researchers, practitioners, and IoT organizations, to discourse about IoT security from an end-to-end perspective.

  • 19. Carlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Om säkerhet i digitala ekosystem2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are heading towards a society controlled by software and where digital market forces take over more and more of our traditional business areas. “On security in digital ecosystems” is about the people, technology and economics that shape the dynamic and complex, but also sometimes hostile, ecosystems that today’s Internet constitutes.

  • 20.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Gustafsson Friberger, Marie
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Agreement technologies for supporting the planning and execution of transports2013In: Agreement Technologies / [ed] Sascha Ossowski, Springer, 2013, p. 533-547Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of agreement technologies in the planning and execution of goods transports is analyzed. We have previously suggested an approach called Plug and Play Transport Chain Management (PnP TCM) that provides agent-based support for key tasks, such as, finding the best sequence of transport services for a particular goods transport, monitoring the execution of the transport, and managing the interaction between the involved actors. In this paper we analyze five agreement technologies in the context of PnP TCM, i.e., semantics, norms, organizations, argumentation and negotiation, and trust. We conclude that all five technologies play a critical role in the realization of PnP TCM.

  • 21.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Plug and Play Transport Chain Management: Agent-Based Support to the Planning and Execution of Transports2011In: e-Business and Telecommunications, Springer, 2011, p. 139-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to efficiently plan and execute effective transport solutions is presented. It provides agent-based support for key tasks, such as, finding the best sequence of transport services for a particular goods transport, monitoring the execution of the transport, as well as the interaction between the involved actors. The approach is based on the FREIGHTWISE framework in which a minimal set of information packages is defined. The purpose is to capture all the information that needs to be communicated between the actors involved in a transport, such as, transport users, transport providers, and infrastructure managers, during the complete process from planning to termination. The approach is inspired by the concepts of virtual enterprises and breeding environments. We analyse the requirements of such an approach and describe a multi-agent system architecture meeting these requirements.

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  • 22.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    An agent-based approach to transport chain management2009In: ICE-B 2009: Proceedings of the international conference on e-business; Milan, Italy July 7-10,2009, INSTICC Press, 2009, p. 175-182Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel application of agent-mediated electronic commerce is presented. It concerns developing and maintaining efficient and effective transport solutions. The suggested approach is inspired by the concepts of virtual enterprises and breeding environments, as well as peer-to-peer technology. We discuss the requirements of such an approach and outline a software architecture meeting these requirements.

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  • 23.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Boldt, Martin
    Carlsson, Bengt
    A risk analysis of a smart home automation system2016In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 56, p. 719-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enforcing security in Internet of Things environments has been identified as one of the top barriers for realizing the vision of smart, energy-efficient homes and buildings. In this context, understanding the risks related to the use and potential misuse of information about homes, partners, and end-users, as well as, forming methods for integrating security-enhancing measures in the design is not straightforward and thus requires substantial investigation. A risk analysis applied on a smart home automation system developed in a research project involving leading industrial actors has been conducted. Out of 32 examined risks, 9 were classified as low and 4 as high, i.e., most of the identified risks were deemed as moderate. The risks classified as high were either related to the human factor or to the software components of the system. The results indicate that with the implementation of standard security features, new, as well as, current risks can be minimized to acceptable levels albeit that the most serious risks, i.e., those derived from the human factor, need more careful consideration, as they are inherently complex to handle. A discussion of the implications of the risk analysis results points to the need for a more general model of security and privacy included in the design phase of smart homes. With such a model of security and privacy in design in place, it will contribute to enforcing system security and enhancing user privacy in smart homes, and thus helping to further realize the potential in such IoT environments.

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  • 24.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Boldt, Martin
    Carlsson, Bengt
    On the Risk Exposure of Smart Home Automation Systems2014In: Proceedings 2014 International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud, IEEE Computer Society Conference Publishing Service (CPS) , 2014, p. 183-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving security in Internet of Things environments has been identified as one of the top barriers for realizing the vision of smart, energy-efficient homes and buildings. In this context, understanding the risks related to the use and potential misuse of information about customers, partners, and end-users, as well as, forming methods for integrating security-enhancing measures in the design is not straightforward and thus requires substantial investigation. A risk analysis applied on a smart home automation system developed in a research project involving leading industrial actors has been conducted. The results indicate that with the implementation of standard security features, new as well as, current risks can be minimized to acceptable levels albeit that the most serious risks, i.e., those derived from the human factor, need more careful consideration, as they are inherently complex in nature.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 25.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Carlsson, Bengt
    An Evolutionary View of Collective Intelligence2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the question “How can people and computers be connected so that – collectively – they act more intelligently than any individuals, groups, or computers have ever done before?” we propose an evolutionary approach. From this point of view, there are of course fundamental differences between man and machine. Where one is artificial, the other is natural, and where the computer needs to process, the brain must adapt. We propose the use of culturally inherited units, i.e., memes, for describing collective knowledge storage. Like the genes, memes have the ability to be inherited to the next generation. Genes appear independently of our society while memes are a result of our cultural development. The concept of collective intelligence may involve a new kind of meme, entirely emerging within the intersection between man and machine, i.e., outside the scope of human control. The challenge is to model this behavior without overriding constraints within basic evolutionary vs. machine settings.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Towards a Model of Privacy and Security for Smart Homes2015In: Proceedings: 2015 IEEE 2nd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-loT), IEEE, 2015, p. 727-732Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of smart home environments is viewed as a key element of the future Internet, and many homes are becoming “smarter” by using Internet of Things (IoT) technology to improve home security, energy efficiency and comfort. At the same time, enforcing privacy in IoT environments has been identified as one of the main barriers for realizing the vision of the smart home. Based on the results of a risk analysis of a smart home automation system developed in collaboration with leading industrial actors, we outline the first steps towards a general model of privacy and security for smart homes. As such, it is envisioned as support for enforcing system security and enhancing user privacy, and it can thus help to further realize the potential in smart home environments.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 27. Lavesson, Niklas
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Learning to Detect Spyware using End User License Agreements2011In: Knowledge and Information Systems, ISSN 0219-1377, E-ISSN 0219-3116, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 285-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of software that hosts spyware has increased dramatically. To avoid legal repercussions, the vendors need to inform users about inclusion of spyware via end user license agreements (EULAs) during the installation of an application. However, this information is intentionally written in a way that is hard for users to comprehend. We investigate how to automatically discriminate between legitimate software and spyware associated software by mining EULAs. For this purpose, we compile a data set consisting of 996 EULAs out of which 9.6% are associated to spyware. We compare the performance of 17 learning algorithms with that of a baseline algorithm on two data sets based on a bag-of-words and a meta data model. The majority of learning algorithms significantly outperform the baseline regardless of which data representation is used. However, a non-parametric test indicates that bag-of-words is more suitable than the meta model. Our conclusion is that automatic EULA classification can be applied to assist users in making informed decisions about whether to install an application without having read the EULA. We therefore outline the design of a spyware prevention tool and suggest how to select suitable learning algorithms for the tool by using a multi-criteria evaluation approach.

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  • 28.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Approaches in Digital Education: A Systematic Revision2022In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 203Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques across all disciplines has exploded in the past few years, with the ever-growing size of data and the changing needs of higher education, such as digital education. Similarly, online educational information systems have a huge amount of data related to students in digital education. This educational data can be used with artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to improve digital education. This study makes two main contributions. First, the study follows a repeatable and objective process of exploring the literature. Second, the study outlines and explains the literature's themes related to the use of AI-based algorithms in digital education. The study findings present six themes related to the use of machines in digital education. The synthesized evidence in this study suggests that machine learning and deep learning algorithms are used in several themes of digital learning. These themes include using intelligent tutors, dropout predictions, performance predictions, adaptive and predictive learning and learning styles, analytics and group-based learning, and automation. artificial neural network and support vector machine algorithms appear to be utilized among all the identified themes, followed by random forest, decision tree, naive Bayes, and logistic regression algorithms.

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