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  • 1.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Höglund, P.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Öjehagen, A.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Berglund, Mats
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Psychosocial dysfunction is associated with recidivism in crime in paroled offenders2013In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 37, no s2, p. 260A-260A, article id 028Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this research was to study whether automated telephony could be used in paroled offenders to perform daily assessment of variables associated with recidivismin crime, and whether there are grounds for studying the effects of a brief intervention based on these assessments during 30 days following probation. The design included a randomized controlled trial using automated daily assessments and feedback interventions based on Interactive Voice Response (IVR). Participants included paroled offenders (N = 108) during their first 30 days after leaving prison. All subjects were called daily and answered assessment questions. Based on the content of their daily assessments, the subjects in the intervention group received immediate feedback and a recommendation by IVR, and their probation officers also received a daily report by email. Main outcomemeasures (assessed daily) included Stress (Arnetz and Hasson Stress Questionnaire and a revised version of Daily Assessment of Daily Experience), Mood (SCL-8D measuring depression and anxiety), and Use and Urge to Use Alcohol and Drugs (revised version of the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire). Participants were also asked to rate the severity of their most stressful event that day. The outcome variables were analyzed using linear mixed models, presented as group differences between means, 95%CI. Results indicated that the intervention group showed greater improvement than the control group in stress (9.6, 0.5; 18.7, p = 0.038), depression/anxiety (4.6, 0.2; 9.0, p = 0.042), alcohol use (0.8, 0.1; 1.4, p = 0.031), drug use (1.0, 0.5; 1.6, p = 0.000), and in the severity of themost stressful daily event (1.9, 1.1; 2.7, p = 0.000). There were no differences between the groups in the Stress scale and in craving for alcohol and drugs. Overall, the research suggests that in paroled offenders, automated telephony is an effective technology thatmay be used to follow up and to give interventions, resulting in reduced stress and drug use.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Höglund, Peter
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Berglund, Mats
    Daily Automated Telephone Assessment and Intervention Improved 1-Month Outcome in Paroled Offenders2020In: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, ISSN 0306-624X, E-ISSN 1552-6933, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 735-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This randomized trial evaluates whether automated telephony could be used to perform daily assessments in paroled offenders (N = 108) during their first 30 days after leaving prison. All subjects were called daily and answered assessment questions. Based on the content of their daily assessments, subjects in the intervention group received immediate feedback and a recommendation by automated telephony, and their probation officers also received a daily report by email. The outcome variables were analyzed using linear mixed models. The intervention group showed greater improvement than the control group in the summary scores (M = 9.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.5, 18.7], p = .038), in mental symptoms (M = 4.6, CI = [0.2, 9.0], p = .042), in alcohol drinking (M = 0.8, CI = [0.1, 1.4], p = .031), in drug use (M = 1.0, CI = [0.5, 1.6], p = .000), and in most stressful daily event (M = 1.9, CI = [1.1, 2.7], p = .000). In conclusion, automated telephony may be used to follow up and to give interventions, resulting in reduced stress and drug use, in paroled offenders.

  • 3.
    Di Rocco, Jennie
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    "Neighborhood fear of crime and disadvantaged areas: a comparative longitudinal study"2023In: Crime Prevention & Community Safety, ISSN 1460-3780, E-ISSN 1743-4629, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores how neighborhood fear of crime ("worry about specific crimes") changes over time in neighborhoods with different levels of disadvantage. With a comparative design, 81 and 123- neighborhoods in two cities in Sweden are followed over a six-year period. Fear of crime trajectories are assessed through growth curve modeling. We consider how differences in neighborhood processes, such as social and physical disorder, might influence fear of crime levels. The results show that fear of crime increased over time in both cities and the increase was related to higher levels of physical disorder in several areas. Furthermore, the change differed depending on the neighborhood type - in highly disadvantaged neighborhoods, the fear was stable at a high level. In contrast, the largest increases in fear could be seen in the areas with the lowest disadvantage in both cities. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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  • 4.
    Fransson, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Lindhagen, Aron
    Malmö University, Malmö University Library.
    Greiff, Mats
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Slutrapport från projektet Tillgängliggörande av forskningsdata - lokal funktion för arbetet gentemot Svensk Nationell Datatjänst2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte var att etablera en funktion och att införa ett arbetssätt kring tillgängliggörande av forskningsdata, samt att förankra tillgängliggörandet av forskningsdata i ledning och forskning. Det betyder även att projektet syftade till att upprätta en lokal DAU senast 2020 som en del av den nationella infrastrukturen som erbjuds genom SND. Projektet var en fortsättning på Malmö högskolas deltagande i SND:s pilotprojekt.

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  • 5.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ambulatory risk assessment and intervention in the prison services: Using Interactive Voice Response to assess and intervene on acute dynamic risk among prisoners on parole2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from prison to society is a challenging period for offenders released from prison. Recidivism rates are high, and the offender’s situation can change rapidly. Advances in technology in recent decades have provided new ways for correctional agencies to provide the level of supervision and immediacy needed to help prisoners to successfully re-enter society. One such area of advance is the widespread use of mobile phones and related developments in communication technologies, such as Interactive Voice Response (IVR), an automated telephony system. The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of using IVR to assess and intervene on everyday stress-related acute risk factors for crime among prisoners on parole. Paroled offenders (N=108) performed daily assessment during their first 30 days after leaving prison. Before release, they also completed a baseline assessment of stable risk factors, including personality, substance use problems, and mental health problems. Data on criminal recidivism one year following parole was collected from the Swedish Prison and Parole Service. After release, all subjects were called daily and answered assessment questions. Based on the content of their daily assessments, subjects in the intervention group received immediate feedback and a recommendation by automated telephony, and their probation officers also received a daily report by email. Although the intervention had no effect on criminal recidivism, the intervention group showed greater improvement than the control group on several of the acute dynamic risk factors studied. Several of these factors could predict criminal recidivism with marginal accuracy, and could provide incremental predictive validity beyond the baseline risk level of stable risk factors, i.e. problematic drug use and impulsiveness trait. In conclusion, IVR may be a feasible way to assess and intervene on daily stress-related acute dynamic risk factors among prisoners on parole.

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  • 6.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Berglund, Mats
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Using Interactive Voice Response to Measure Stressful Daily Events Among Prisoners on Parole2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The re-entry process is considered to be a stressful event and stress has been identified as an acute dynamic risk factor for crime and criminal recidivism. This study uses Interactive Voice Response to measure stressful daily events, and severity of those events, in paroled offenders during their first 30 days after leaving prison. As far as we know, this is the first study using automated telephony to monitor daily development of stressful events among paroled offenders. Aim: What kind of stressful daily events have been reported by prisoners on parole during the first 30 days after leaving prison and how severe are they in terms of a) self-reported rating, and b) variables associated with psychosocial dysfunction. Methods: 108 paroled offenders were recruited from the Swedish Prison and Probation Service while still in prison. A computer was programmed to perform one daily telephone assessment for each participant, starting the day after probation and continuing for 30 consecutive days. Measures: All subjects were called daily and asked to make a voice recording, maximum 30 s, about their most stressful daily event, and then rate the severity of this event on a scale ranging from 0 (very severe) to 9 (not at all) (Stone & Neal, 1982). They were also asked to daily report their current use and craving for alcohol and drugs, common indices of stress, and symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8). All questions were rated on a 10-digit scale, ranging from 0 (negative) to 9 (positive). The daily assessment involved totally 21 questions and with the exception of the rating of most stressful event, the remaining 19 questions were summarized to a total scale ranging from 0 (maximum negative) to 171 points (maximum positive). Analysis: Descriptive content analysis was used to examine the data on daily stressful events. Mean values were calculated on the self-reported severity ratings, use and craving for alcohol and drugs, common indices of stress, and symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8). Results: Of a possible 3,240 follow-up contacts during the first 30 days after release on parole, 2,298 (70.9%) recordings were completed. The number of completed recordings for the open-ended question, the most stressful daily event, were 1020 (32.5%), of which 481 (14.8%) contained an stressful event. Of the total of 108 individuals who participated in the follow-ups 76/108 (70.6%) completed at least one recording. The recordings about stressful daily events were categorized and are presented in the table below. Conclusion: This study shows that it is possible to use automated telephony to monitor daily events as well as severity of those events among prisoners on parole. This kind of technology may have implication for parole officers whose work situation is associated with a significant workload and have little time to follow up and intervene on paroled offenders. It may, for example, be used to identify acute challenges related to criminal recidivism that former inmates are facing in the critical period following releas

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  • 7.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Berglund, Mats
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Höglund, Peter
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Daily Assessment of Acute Dynamic Risk in Paroled Offenders: Prediction, Predictive Accuracy and Intervention Effect2017In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 715-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have assessed acute dynamic risk repeatedly among paroled offenders to investigate the relationship between changes in acute dynamic risk and recidivism in crime. The present study investigates whether one-month changes in ten stress-related acute dynamic risk factors, collected through automated telephony while the participants were still in prison and over 30 consecutive days following parole, predict one-year criminal recidivism, including its predictive accuracy. The study also investigates whether a brief feedback intervention in conjunction with the daily assessments reduces recidivism compared to an assessment-only control group. Changes in five risk factors were found to be associated with increased risk of criminal recidivism after controlling for the results in prison, the initial value after parole, and the intervention. The predictive accuracy is marginally accurate: Summary score (AUC) = .666; Level of stress (AHSS) = .644; Psychiatric symptoms (SCL-8D) = .641; Anxiety symptoms = .673; Severity of most stressful daily event = .690. No differences in one-year recidivism rates were established between the intervention group and the control group. The study shows that daily assessments can usefully be made of dynamic risk factors in paroled offenders.

  • 8.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ojehagen, Agneta
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Incremental validity of ambulatory assessment of acute dynamic risk in predicting time to recidivism among prisoners on parole2020In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 614-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the incremental validity of changes in ten stress-related acute dynamic risk factors, collected through automated telephony over 30 consecutive days following parole, for predicting time to recidivism during the following year. Before release, the participants completed self-report assessment of some stable risk factors - impulsiveness and history of problematic substance use - as well as an assessment of symptoms of anxiety experienced during the weeks prior to release. Analysis of the baseline assessments showed that impulsiveness and a history of problematic substance use, but not pre-release symptoms of anxiety, were associated with recidivism during the parole year. Growth modelling using a linear mixed model was used to assess whether inmates on parole showed changes in acute dynamic risk factors during the first month following release. Individual growth model slopes and intercept were then extracted and used as covariates in a series of Cox regression analyses to test whether changes in acute dynamic risk factors could provide incremental predictive validity beyond baseline stable risk factors. Changes in five dynamic risk factors were associated with an increased risk of recidivism, of which daily drug use and daily summary score showed incremental predictive improvement beyond impulsiveness and history of problematic drug use.

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  • 9.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Pauwels, Lieven
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium..
    Nilsson, Eva-Lotta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Shannon, David
    Swedish Natl Council Crime Prevent, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Do Moral Values Moderate the Relationship Between Immigrant-School Concentration and Violent Offending?: A Cross-Level Interaction Analysis of Self-Reported Violence in Sweden2023In: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines whether school-level immigrant concentration is related to students' involvement in violence, and whether students' moral values moderate the relationship between immigrant concentration and violence. The study is based on six nationally representative school surveys conducted by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention between 1999 and 2011, with a combined sample of 38,711 adolescents. We have combined different surveys to create one large pooled data set to evaluate segregation effects at the school level. Multilevel linear probability models are used to examine cross-level interaction effects. This study shows that contextual effects impact students differently, and that the relationship between immigrant concentration and violence is considerably stronger for adolescents with weak personal moral values. The paper provides empirical support for the differential vulnerability hypothesis. Policy and practice would benefit from a focus on the further development of programs and interventions that target personal moral values, not least in schools.

  • 10.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Shannon, David
    Immigration and crime: a time-trend analysis of self-reported crime in Sweden, 1999–20172020In: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the direction and rate of change in self-reported crime over time, based on immigrant status and region of origin. The study is based on eight nationally representive school surveys conducted by the National Council for Crime Prevention between 1999 and 2017, with a sample of 50,657 adolescents. Results in this study showed a decreasing trend in self-reported offending among both first and second generation immigrant youth, and also among immigrant youths from different regions of origin. The results also show that offending has declined at a faster rate among first generation immigrants by comparison with native Swedes.

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  • 11.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Svensson, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Shannon, David
    Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trends in alcohol intoxication among native and immigrant youth in Sweden, 1999-2017: A comparison across family structure and parental employment status.2021In: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 98, article id 103397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Developing a better understanding of drinking patterns across immigrant generations and how these change over time is important for the development of effective alcohol polices. This study investigates the direction and rate of change in youth alcohol intoxication over time, based on immigrant status, and by family structure and parental employment status.

    METHOD: The study is based on eight nationally representative school surveys conducted by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention between 1999 and 2017, with a combined sample of 50,657 adolescents. Group by time interactions were examined to compare rates of change of alcohol intoxication over time across immigrant generations.

    RESULTS: The results show a decreasing trend in alcohol intoxication among both first and second generation immigrant youth, and also among immigrant youth across different family structures and parental employment statuses. The results also show that the decrease in alcohol intoxication over time is greater for youths born abroad and for youths with two immigrant parents than for native Swedes, and that the decrease over time is greater for youths from intact families than for native Swedish youths from non-intact families and youths with one immigrant parent.

    CONCLUSION: Native and first- and second-generation immigrant youth may differ substantially from one another in many ways, and may therefore manifest different patterns of drinking behaviours. From a policy and prevention perspective, the data in this study imply that native youths and youths with one immigrant parent should be a central target group for alcohol prevention policy in Sweden.

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  • 12.
    Vasiljevic, Zoran
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Using self-report inventories to assess recidivism risk among prisoners about to be released on parole supervision in Sweden2017In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prison release planning is rarely based on adequate assessment using evidence-based instruments. This study uses well-established self-reports for screening of problem severity and for predicting recidivism, measured as reconvictions during one-year following release, in prisoners about to be conditionally released on probation in Sweden between 2009 and 2010. One Hundred and six prisoners completed the following measures: Karolinska Scales of Personality, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test. Results show frequent mental health and substance use problems and high scores on the KSP psychopathy factor. Anxiety and problematic drug use were the two most important factors associated with one-year recidivism. Prior to release, self-reports could be useful for screening of problem severity, and for predicting recidivism.

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