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  • 1.
    Andersen, Bengt
    et al.
    Oslo Metropolitan University.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Sandkjær Hanssen, Gro
    Oslo Metropolitan University.
    NOU 2020:16: Levekår i byer. Gode lokalsamfunn for alle.2021In: Nordic Journal of Urban Studies, ISSN 2703-8866, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 78-90, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban issues such as poverty or marginality and disadvantage, unrest, crime, housing, segregation and social cohesion are on the political and academic agenda in Europe and in the US (Andersen, 2002; Atkinson, 2019; Galster, 1990; Gerell & Kronkvist, 2017; Mayer, Thörn, & Thörn, 2016; Uslaner, 2012; Wacquant, 2008). As indicated, policymakers devise strategies to address such problems (Andersson, Wimark, & Malmberg, 2020; Damm, Nielsen, Mattana, & Rouland, 2020; Davis, 2019; George & Patrick, 2017; van Gent et al., 2018; van Gent & Musterd, 2013). This also holds true for Norway (e.g. Andersen & Brattbakk, 2020).

    In Norway, the Government or a specific ministry may appoint a committee to report on an issue of relevance. The results are published as an Official Norwegian Report – Norges offentlige utredninger (NOU) in Norwegian. While it can be argued that urban issues are not a political priority in Norway, the current conservative Government – led by prime minister Erna Solberg – did appoint a committee to examine living conditions in Norwegian cities. The Norwegian Commission for City and Living Conditions presented its NOU on 16 December 2020 (NOU 2020:16). The report is important as it summarizes the latest knowledge on the topic and provides recommendations for future Norwegian urban policies. Hence, it is worth a thorough and critical review.

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  • 2.
    Bohman, Helena
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Lundsten, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Tykesson, Mona
    Stadens bränder. D. 2, Fördjupning2013Book (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Camacho Doyle, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro, Sweden..
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro Univ, Örebro, Sweden..
    Perceived unsafety and fear of crime: The role of violent and property crime, neighborhood characteristics, and prior perceived unsafety and fear of crime2022In: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1347-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived unsafety, fear of crime, and avoidance were studied in relation to different types of crime, crime in different time perspectives, concentrated disadvantage, collective efficacy, urbanity, age structure, and neighborhood disorder. Four data sources were used on a large Swedish city; a community survey from 2012 and 2015 among residents, census data on socio-demographics, police data on reported violent (assault and robbery in the public environment), and property crimes (arson, property damage, theft, vehicle theft, and residential burglary) and geographical information on local bus stops and annual passengers visiting these bus stops. Collective efficacy primarily, but also concentrated disadvantage, was strongly related to perceived unsafety, across 102 neighborhoods. Collective efficacy was strongly related to fear of crime. It was not viable to relate the neighborhood variables with avoidance, however. Fear of specific violent crimes was different from fear of specific property crimes and should for future reference be examined separately. Crime, visible disorder, urbanity, and age structure do not seem as important.

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  • 4.
    Chrysoulakis, Alberto P.
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Kartläggning av öppna drogscener: Kortrapport från nollmätningen2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kortrapport innehåller beskrivande analyser av nollmätningen som har genomförts inom ramen för projektet ”Öppna drogscener”, vilket är en del av samverkansöverenskommelsen ”Skåne tillsammans mot narkotika” . Representanter från kommun och polis i sex skånska kommuner har tillsammans identifierat en geografiskt avgränsad plats som de bedömer som en öppen drogscen. Det vill säga en plats där narkotika säljs och brukas offentligt och som myndigheter och allmänheten uppfattar som problematisk . Tillsammans ska kommun och polis kartlägga och analysera problembilden, implementera en passande insats vilket sedan ska följas upp. Följande kortrapport är en del av denna process. Analyserna i rapporten baseras på anmälda brott mellan åren 2018-2021 och på intervjuer med nyckelinformanter som genomfördes under perioden november-december 2022. Nollmätningen ligger till grund för en jämförelse som kommer att genomföras efter att insatserna har implementerat för att undersöka om det har skett någon förändring. Utöver att jämföra platserna med sig själva över tid kommer också jämförelser mot andra platser i kommuner som inte varit en del av projektet att genomföras. Detta för att undersöka om kontrollplatserna har haft en liknande förändring som insatsplatserna. 

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    Öppna drogscener: nollmätning
  • 5.
    Doyle, Maria Camacho
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro, Sweden.;Örebro Univ, Sch Behav Social & Legal Sci, Fakultetsgatan 1, S-70182 Örebro, Sweden..
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Assessing Crime History as a Predictor: Exploring Hotspots of Violent and Property Crime in Malmö, Sweden2024In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Assessing the predictive accuracy of using prior crime, place attributes, ambient population, community structural, and social characteristics, in isolation and combined when forecasting different violent and property crimes. Method: Using multilevel negative binomial regression, crime is forecasted into the subsequent year, in 50-m grid-cells. Incidence rate ratio (IRR), Prediction Accuracy Index (PAI), and Prediction Efficacy Index (PEI*) are interpreted for all combined crime generators and community characteristics. This study is partially a test of a crude version of the Risk Terrain Modeling technique. Results: Where crime has been in the past, the risk for future crime is higher. Where characteristics conducive to crime congregate, the risk for crime is higher. Community structural characteristics and ambient population are important for some crime types. Combining variables increases the accuracy for most crime types, looking at the IRR. Taking the geographical area into account, crime history in combination with both place- and neighborhood characteristics reaches similar accuracy as crime history alone for most crime types and most hotspot cutoffs. Conclusions: Crime history, place-, and neighborhood-level attributes are all important when trying to accurately forecast crime, long-term at the micro-place. Only counting past crimes, however, still does a really good job.

  • 6.
    Doyle, Maria Camacho
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University.
    Exploring violent and property crime geographically: A comparison of the accuracy and precision of kernel density estimation and simple count2021In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, E-ISSN 2703-7045, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple geographical crime prediction techniques to use and comparing different prediction techniques therefore becomes important. In the current study we compared the accuracy (Predictive Accuracy Index) and precision (Recapture Rate Index) of simply counting crimes: Simple Count with Kernel Density Estimation in the prediction of where people are reported to commit violent crimes (assault and robbery) and property crimes (residential burglary, property damage, theft, vehicle theft and arson), geographically. These predictions were done using a different number of years into the future and based on a different number of years combined to do the crime prediction, in a large Swedish municipality. The Simple Count technique performed quite well in comparison to simple Kernel Density Estimation no matter what crime was being predicted, making us conclude that it may not be necessary to use the more complex method of Kernel Density Estimation to predict where people are reported to commit crime geographically

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  • 7. Ek, Richard
    et al.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Guldåker, Nicklas
    Hallin, Per-Olof
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Herbert, Mikaela
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Nieminen Kristofersson, Tuija
    Nilsson, Annika
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Tykesson, Mona
    Att laga revor i samhällsväven: om social utsatthet och sociala risker i den postindustriella staden2014Book (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Arson2019In: Crime, Victimization and Vulnerability in Malmö / [ed] Marie Väfors-Fritz, Ardavan Khoshnood, Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 33-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arson, particularly when it concerns car fires, attracts a lot of attention when it occurs. A burning car is a strong visual symbol and pictures of these are often used in media, which further increases the visual impact. Fires lead to huge material costs, and can also contribute to increased insecurity in the community through the signal of disorder sent by an uncontrolled fire or charred vehicle wreckage. This chapter discusses intentional outdoor fires in Malmö, with a particular focus on car fires. More specifically, the chapter will explore levels and developments, possible explanations and motives, and affected locations.

  • 9.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Brott och plats: praktisk kriminologi i polisarbetet2018In: Kriminologi och poliskunskap: Mötet mellan forskning och praktik. / [ed] Peter Lindström, Ulf Sempert, Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 95-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste årtiondena har evidensbaserat polisarbete växt vuxit fram som en viktig fråga internationellt, och det har på senare år också börjat märkas mer i den svenska diskussionen. Då det finns relativt lite forskning om polisiära arbetsmetoder i Sverige blir det i en diskussion om evidensbaserad praktik nödvändigt att blicka ut över internationell forskning. Forskningensfältet om platser och brott har växt vuxit starkt inom kriminologin under de senaste årtiondena, och har också starka kopplingar till polisforskningen. Många fynd rön om hur vi kan förstå varför brott sker i större utsträckning på vissa platser har mer brott har följts upp med studier om hur brottsligheten kan minskas på dessa platser;, ofta, men inte alltid, med utgångspunkt i polisiär verksamhet. För en praktiskt tillämpbar kriminologisk kunskap kan därför just detta mer geografiska perspektiv på brottslighet tjäna som en god utgångspunkt. I detta kapitel kommer en kort redogörelse av ett par viktiga teorier när det gäller brott och plats att tjäna som utgångspunkt för ett exempel från Malmö, på hur dessa teorier i praktiken kan användas för att analysera platsens betydelse för brottetrs brottslighet. Utgångspunkten är problemorienterat polisarbete (Problem Oriented Policing, POP), och exemplen kommer att beröra de fyra komponenterna, kKartläggning, aAnalys, åÅtgärd och uUtvärdering.

  • 10.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Bränder, skadegörelse, grannskap och socialt kapital2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arson, or fire setting, and vandalism are problems that are expensive, but relatively little Swedish research has been done on where the problems exist and why. In this report the four neighborhoods of Holma, Kroksbäck, Bellevuegården and Södertorp in southern Malmö are studied to increase our understanding of differences between and within these neighborhoods. The main research questions covered are why there are differences between proximate neighborhoods regarding social and physical disorder in the form of vandalism and arson, and whether social capital can explain such differences. A multi-method approach has been employed with a resident survey, Systematic Social Observation (SSO) of disorder and interviews with representatives of local organizations and property managers. The study mainly departs from (micro-) neighborhoods as geographical units of analysis in the form of twelve homogenous multi-family housing areas with approximately 500-1500 residents, access road, parking lots and a name. The results point to social capital, and especially collective efficacy, to have some significance regarding the frequency of arson and vandalism; micro-neighborhoods with a high social capital have low levels of arson and vandalism. The effect of social capital is however not primarily on the micro-neighborhood level, but rather on the yard- or stairwell where the actual interaction between individuals takes place. The very local nature of the effects of social capital that has been identified is of importance to understand how social capital can be employed as an instrument to reduce vandalism and arson. An interesting example is the yards in southern Holma where residents have self-management groups, meaning that the residents themselves run much of the property management, development and maintenance. The data suggests that the self-management may be the reason for these yards to have a higher level of social capital/collective efficacy and a lower frequency of arson and vandalism. Possible venues to improve the social capital include the creation of meeting places, or even better local organizations. Of great importance is to identify and support the work of the most engaged local residents in their own efforts to improve the neighborhood. Four other potential venues of improvement that are suggested include increased permanent presence of property management, the allocation of housing made by the social services, for the police to recognize and actively work with the neighborhood watch potential in existing housing organizations and the reduction of segregation and segmentation between different groups of people.

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  • 11.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Bus Stops and Violence, Are Risky Places Really Risky?2018In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 351-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic forecasting of crime can be done by considering prior crime or by considering spatial risk factors, e.g., using risk terrain modeling (RTM). The present paper tests both methods, but primarily focuses on RTM and on increasing our understanding of forecasting by attempting to compare the spatial risk factors for where the number of crimes is high with the spatial risk factors for where the risk of victimization is high. This is performed by fitting negative binomial models on crime around bus stops and comparing them to the same models with the number of bus passengers as exposure variable. The models also take the surrounding environment into account by fitting multi-level models with neighborhood level predictors of concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy. The results show that some types of facilities are risk factors for crime, but not for victimization. This results in new insights into how flows of people impact on forecasting, as for instance a school is a spatial risk factor for crime, while not being associated with an elevated risk per person. The results also show that the neighborhood level of collective efficacy is a stable and significant risk factor both for crime and for risk of victimization, highlighting a potential for better crime forecasting by combining different spatial and theoretical perspectives.

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  • 12.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    CCTV in deprived neighbourhoods: a short-time follow-up of effects on crime and crime clearance2021In: Nordic journal of criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 221-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CCTV is associated with reductions in property crime and narcotics crime, but mainly in parking lots and residential areas. Recent findings from Sweden have suggested that the association of CCTV with crime may be different in deprived neighbourhoods where criminal networks exert alarge influence. In addition, much less research has been done on the impact of CCTV on crime clearance. The present study follows up on this by considering changes in crime, and crime clearance, associated with CCTV in three deprived neighbourhoods in Gothenburg. Changes in recorded crime for seven crime types and their clearance rate is followed. The changes are compared with changes at similar locations in six other deprived neighbourhoods. The results show that relative to controls, violence was significantly reduced at treatment areas. No significant change was noted for property crime. Crime clearance rates increased at treatment areas relative to controls for both property crimes and violent crimes, but no change was significant. This suggests aneed for further study on contextual differences of different locations for CCTV, to ascertain whether the effect on violence in deprived neighbourhoods can be replicated. It also raises questions on whether the CCTV is cost-effective.

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  • 13.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Collective efficacy and arson: The case of Malmö2017In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The burning of cars and containers during social unrest has become a topic of both scholarly and public interest in Sweden over the past decade. Studies have suggested that social disorganization theory, or its modern expression collective efficacy, may be important for explaining why some neighbourhoods experience elevated levels of arson and unrest while others do not. To date, no study has explicitly studied the link between arson and collective efficacy at the neighbourhood level. The present study attempts to fill this gap by analysing the association between arson and collective efficacy in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Collective efficacy data from 96 neighbourhoods were collected in 2012 in the Malmö Community Survey (N = 4051). Arson data were collected from the rescue services, which employ GPS-receivers to accurately record the location of incidents. Regression models were fitted for arson, controlling for concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity and residential stability. Results show no significant link between collective efficacy and arson following appropriate controls. This suggests that arson may depend on mechanisms other than collective efficacy, at least at the neighbourhood level. Future research may need to focus on alternative theoretical explanations such as strain, or on other levels of analysis than neighbourhoods.

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  • 14.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Collective efficacy, neighborhood and geographical units of analysis: findings from a case study of Swedish residential neighborhoods2015In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 385-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of collective efficacy, defined as the combination of mutual trust and willingness to act for the common good, has received widespread attention in the field of criminology. Collective efficacy is linked to, among other outcomes, violent crime, disorder, and fear of crime. The concept has been applied to geographical units ranging from below one hundred up to several thousand residents on average. In this paper key informant- and focus group interview transcripts from four Swedish neighborhoods are examined to explore whether different sizes of geographical units of analysis are equally important for collective efficacy. The four studied neighborhoods are divided into micro-neighborhoods (N=12) and micro-places (N=59) for analysis. The results show that neighborhoods appear to be too large to capture the social mechanism of collective efficacy which rather takes place at smaller units of geography. The findings are compared to survey responses on collective efficacy (N=597) which yield an indication in the same direction through comparison of ICC-values and AIC model fit employing unconditional two-level models in HLM 6.

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  • 15.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Covid-19, segregation och brottslighet2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Covid-19 påverkar brottsligheten både direkt och indirekt, samt på kort såväl som lång sikt. Vi har redan hunnit se brottsligheten sjunka för att sedan återhämta sig i samband med covid-19. På längre sikt kan indirekta effekter av covid-19 påverka brottsligheten genom dess inverkan på människors rörelsemönster samt på samhällets ekonomi och segregation.

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  • 16.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Does the Association Between Flows of People and Crime Differ Across Crime Types in Sweden?2021In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 27, p. 433-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Places with persistently high levels of crime, hot spots, are an important object of study. To some extent, the high levels of crime at such hot spots are likely to be related to flows of people. City center locations with large flows of people are quite often also hot spots, e.g., hot spots for pick pocketing at a central train station, or hot spots for assault in the nightlife district. This can be related to crime pattern theory, or to the routine activity perspective, which both suggest that flows of people can affect crime. The present study attempts to explore and quantify whether there are differences in the association between flows of people and crime for different crime types. The analysis considers locations with high crime counts for six crime types in the city of Malmö, Sweden. For each crime type, hot spots are identified and mapped, and in order to explore whether, or how, these are related to flows of people, the crime levels are then analyzed in relation to the number of people who boarded a local bus (N = 33,134,198) nearby. The paper shows that all six crime types are associated with flows of people, although less so for arson and vandalism. This is hypothesized to be due to the relatively constant target availability for these crimes as opposed to the other crime types studied.

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  • 17.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Flows of people and hot spots of crime2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that some places have persistently higher levels of crime has received widespread attention. To some extent the persistently high levels of crime at such hot spots is likely to be related to flows of people. City center locations with large flows of people are quite often also hot spots, e.g. hot spots of pick pocketing at the central train station, or hot spots of assault in the night life district. This can be related to crime pattern theory which states that nodes where many people converge will be expected to have more crime, and to routine activity theory stating that the convergence of potential offenders and suitable victims under conditions of lacking guardianship may produce crimes. The associations between flows of people and crimes are likely to differ between crime types however, and in the present study an attempt to explore and quantify such differences will be performed. The analysis will consider locations that have high counts of crime in the city of Malmö, Sweden for the six crime types. For each crime type hot spots will be identified and mapped, and to explore if, or how, this is related to flows of people the crime levels will then be analyzed in relation to the number of people who boarded a local bus (N=33 134 198) nearby. The paper is expected to result in an understanding of the extent to which hotspots for the six crime types are related to nearby flows of people as measured through bus trips. Systematic differences between crime types for such associations within a single city can improve our understanding of how flows of people differen-tially impact on crime hot spots.

  • 18.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Forskning kring anlagda bränder2013In: Stadens bränder: del 2, fördjupning, Malmö högskola, Institutionen för urbana studier , 2013, p. 8-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel sammanfattas ett urval av forskning kring anlagda bränder. Tanken är att täcka så mycket som möjligt av svensk forskning inom området och göra vissa nedslag i den internationella. Den forskning som studerats kan grovt sett indelas i två typer; dels sådan som specifikt behandlar just anlagda bränder, ofta med en psykologisk, neurologisk eller teknisk infallsvinkel, dels forskning som betraktar anlagda bränder som en delmängd av större problem som social oordning eller brottslighet och inte är specifikt inriktad mot bara bränder. Avsikten är att forskningsöversikten ska ha någon form av relevans för en studie av anlagda bränder som även omfattar sociala processer. För att göra det hela lättöverskådligt är översikten indelad i fem avsnitt som vardera bidrar till att besvara en fråga1, innan det i det sjätte och sista avsnittet dras några slutsatser och görs en reflektion kring relevansen för forskning kring sociala processers inverkan på anlagda bränder. De fem avsnitten behandlar frågorna om vad en anlagd brand är, vilka det är som anlägger bränder, varför de gör det, var/när bränder anläggs och vad som kan göras åt det.

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  • 19.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Grannskap och socialt kapital2014In: Att laga revor i samhällsreven: om social utsatthet och sociala risker i den postindustriella staden / [ed] Richard Ek, Manne Gerell, Nicklas Guldåker, Per-Olof Hallin, Mikaela Herbert, Tuija Nieminen Kristoffersson, Annika Nilsson, Mona Tykesson, Malmö University Publications in Urban Studies (MAPIUS) , 2014, p. 101-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Hot Spot Policing With Actively Monitored CCTV Cameras: Does it Reduce Assaults in Public Places?2016In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 187-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of actively monitored closed circuit television (CCTV) to assist police patrols with crime prevention in hot spot areas for assault. In other words, the study is an assessment of whether the implementation of police operator–controlled CCTV cameras led to fewer assaults in a nightlife area of the Swedish town of Malmo¨ . In order to evaluate the effect, the treatment area has been mapped using geographical information systems based on the space covered by operational CCTV. The research design is based on standard before–after comparison with controls used in environmental criminology. One comparison is temporal, based on days of the week, and the other is geographical, based on a density comparison of bars. Results show nonsignificant changes in the rate of assaults before and after the CCTVs, suggesting that its implementation has not had the effect initially expected on assaults.

  • 21.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Intra-neighborhood distribution of collective efficacy and disorder: The importance of geographical units of analysis2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial analysis of the distribution of crime and disorder often depart from the concept of neighborhood as geographical unit of analysis. Collective efficacy, the combination of working trust and expectations of a willingness to act for the common good, has been shown to tap into important social mechanisms that can explain the differences between neighborhoods. How such social mechanisms function in a neighborhood and how it impacts on spatial distribution of disorder within rather than between neighborhoods is rarely studied. In a case study of four Swedish neighborhoods differences within and between neighborhoods have been studied. Social networks, collective efficacy and indirectly the social construction of neighborhoods have been discussed in focus groups with residents of the neighborhoods and in key informant interviews with property managers and active members of local associations. Social boundaries within the neighborhoods emerge clearly from respondents’ stories with corresponding intra-neighborhood differences in respondents’ perceptions of collective efficacy, safety and disorder. Few respondents express any neighborhood-wide feelings of social cohesion which points toward the possibility that neighborhoods can be considered aggregates of smaller socio-spatial units. To study whether the socio-spatial units identified through the interviews differ in levels of physical disorder a systematic social observation (SSO) has been performed during 2011. The data have been analyzed both through aggregation based on social boundaries expressed in the interviews and through the use of density- and hotspot based methods where no pre-defined geographical units are needed. Results from the analysis of spatial distributionof physical disorder show that the social boundaries identified within neighborhoods matter in determining how disorder is distributed within the neighborhood. A preliminary conclusion is that the social mechanism of collective efficacy is best understood on much smaller units of analysis than typical neighborhoods.

  • 22.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Neighborhood Boundaries and Arson: Examining the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of neighborhood remains important in criminology but there is an increasing academic interest in the potential impact of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) on neighborhood based studies. In the present study data over arson from the Swedish rescue services 2007-2012 have been employed to analyze MAUP in the city of Malmö, Sweden. The city has been divided into 50*50 meter pixels as micro-places (n=64540) which have been assigned a value for arson from frequency of arson within the pixel. The analysis is based on a comparison of two types of administrative geographical units alongside 40 randomly generated sets of thiessen polygon geographical units. Empty two-level hierarchical regression models with the micro-places as level 1 unit have been used to calculate Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) separately with each of the 42 different geographical units of analysis as level 2 units. The analysis is repeated with two alternative methods, kernel density and euclidian distance, to calculate a value for each micro-place. Results show that administrative geographical units of analysis in some cases just are marginally better than geographical units with random boundaries if the basic urban structure is taken into account.

  • 23.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Neighborhood boundaries and arson: Examining the modifiable areal unit problem in the city of Malmö2014In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2014: Program and Abstracts, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ) , 2014, p. 167-168Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of neighborhood remains important in criminology, in particular in relation to the social disorganization school of thought and its subsequent development into collective efficacy theory. Most neighborhood based studies make use of administrative geographical units such as census tracts although it is widely recognized as problematic due to the potential mismatch between the boundaries of administrative geographical units and boundaries of real importance to people or mechanisms of interest. This is called the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP), which consist both of problems of scale (size of neighborhoods) and of zonation (boundary placement). In the present study data over arson from the Swedish rescue services 2007-2012 have been employed to analyze MAUP in the city of Malmö. It is argued that arson is a form of physical disorder that is strongly related to social disorganization. The analysis is based on a comparison of administrative geographical units of analysis compared to randomly generated geographical units of similar size. In the analysis both SAMS-areas (n=391) and part-areas (n=136) are considered alongside a total of 40 sets of randomly generated geographical units of similar size. The city has been divided into 50*50 meter micro-places (n=64544) which have been assigned a value for arson based on incidence, kernel density and distance to nearest arson. Empty two-level hierarchical linear regression models with the micro-places as level 1 unit have been employed to calculate Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) separately for each of the 42 different geographical units of analysis as level 2 units. Results show that administrative geographical units of analysis in many cases just are marginally better than geographical units with random borders if the basic urban structure is taken into account. Implications for further research is discussed.

  • 24.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Neighborhoods, Collective Efficacy, and the Case for Micro-Neighborhoods2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The neighborhood is the main geographical unit of analysis for the study of social mechanisms impacting on crime and disorder. An important neighborhood social mechanism is collective efficacy, the combination of trust and shared expectations of social control, but whether trust and shared expectations actually take place at the neighborhood level is rarely studied. In a case study of four Swedish neighborhoods intra-neighborhood differences in collective efficacy is discussed in relation to spatial distribution of disorder. Social capital, including trust and shared expectations of social control (collective efficacy), have been examined through semi-structured focus group- and key informant interviews and a survey where the geographical units of analysis average below 200 residents. Physical disorder have been mapped through a systematic social observation (SSO) employing gps-coordinates to all observations and analyzed through geographic information systems employing density- and hotspot based methods. Findings show large intra-neighborhood differences in both collective efficacy and disorder suggesting that collective efficacy on the neighborhood level is best understood as an aggregate of smaller geographical units of analysis, micro-neighborhoods.

  • 25.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Neighborhoods without community: collective efficacy and crime in Malmö, Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the connection between neighborhoods and crime from a perspective of both opportunity theories and social disorganization theory. It consists of four papers primarily connected to two research questions with corresponding methods- and results sections. First, it considers how a neighborhood should be defined, which is studied in relation to arson and collective efficacy in two papers. The findings for collective efficacy are based on semi-structured interviews with residents and people working in four neighborhoods (N=39) and a small community survey in the same neighborhoods (N=691). The findings for arson are based on data over outdoors arson from the rescue services. These are studied in relation to artificial neighborhoods of different sizes and degrees of randomness. Results suggest that neighborhoods should be small to capture crime-relevant social processes. The second question examines the association of collective efficacy with crime, which is modeled net of controls in relation to violence and arson. Collective efficacy data was retrieved from a community survey in Malmö in 2012 (N=4051) and controls include concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability and urbanity. Here, results show a strong association with public environment violence but no association with outdoors arson on the neighborhood level. The thesis concludes with a suggestion to study crime by examining micro-place opportunity structures nested in (micro-) neighborhood social disorganization.

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  • 26.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Quantifying the geographic (un)reliability of police data2018In: Nordisk politiforskning, ISSN 1894-8693, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 157-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Place-based policing has attracted a substantial amount of attention, not least in relation to hot spot policing. Such policing efforts depend on geographical analysis of where crime takes place. However, while it is well known that police crime data suffer from many limitations, less is known about the extent to which the geographical reliability of these data constitutes a problem. The present study attempts to quantify the extent of this problem by exploiting the fact that in Sweden there is an alternative, and more reliable, source of geographical data for incidents of arson. The study compares the locations for car arson incidents as recorded by the police and the rescue services, respectively. The resulting quantification of differences shows that the median error for the police data is 83 meters. This presents a potential pitfall for geographical analysis, both for researchers using police data and for the police themselves in their operational and strategic analysis of crime.

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  • 27.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Smallest is Better?: The Spatial Distribution of Arson and the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem2017In: Journal of quantitative criminology, ISSN 0748-4518, E-ISSN 1573-7799, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 293-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study is to explore how the zonation and scale problems of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) impact on the proportion of variance associated with surrounding areas in relation to micro-place levels of arson. MAUP is related to how geographical areas are constructed, with zonation related to how boundaries are drawn, and scale related to the size of areas. Methods Arson point data from 2007 to 2011 are analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling in order to compute intra-class correlations (ICCs), the share of variance associated with the higher order geographical units, for geographical units of three different sizes and with three degrees of randomness. Real, administrative, geographical units of two sizes, with mean size of 1.2 and 0.4 square kilometers respectively, are compared both to semi-random and fully-random artificial geographical units of the same size, and to smaller types of units of 0.17 square kilometer size. Results The analysis shows that there is little difference between large and mediumsized geographical units, but there is a significant increase in the ICC at the smallest geographical scale. To understand the geography of arson this suggests that the smallest types of units are of the greatest importance. As regards the problem of zonation, the results show that more randomness of boundary placement is associated with lower ICCs. Conclusion A key implication of these findings is that community preventive efforts may best be targeted at very small communities such as street blocks rather than larger neighborhoods.

  • 28.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Telefonen som redskap - Analys av klotter och skadegörelse på 2010-talet2012In: Konferensprogram till kartdagarna 2012, Kartografiska sällskapet , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av en vanlig telefon har systematiska observationer av fyra bostadsområden i Malmö genomförts där klotter, skadegörelse och andra tecken på fysisk oordning dokumenterats med foton och geodata. Teorin om ”broken windows”, att tecken på oordning exempelvis i form av ett trasigt fönster kan leda till mer oordning och kriminalitet, har fått stort genomslag i såväl vetenskap som politik. Oordning har också blivit ett viktigt forskningsfält, och forskare vid institutionen för Urbana studier på Malmö högskola har nu utvecklat en metod för att observera, dokumentera och analysera oordning med hjälp av GIS. Metoden är en vidareutveckling av Systematic Social Observation (SSO) med ursprung i Chicago-skolan av sociologi. Observationerna genomförs med en vanlig telefon som används för att ta geokodade foton av fysisk oordning i form av klotter, skadegörelse, skräpansamlingar och tecken på brand. Fyra bostadsområden i Malmö har studerats med hjälp av GIS för att öka vår förståelse för hur förekomsten av oordning skiljer sig mellan olika platser och varför.

  • 29.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    The benefits and challenges of embedding criminologists in crime analysis units: An example from Sweden2021In: The Globalization of Evidence-Based Policing: Innovations in Bridging the Research-Practice Divide / [ed] Eric Piza; Brandon Welsh, Routledge, 2021, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After several years of collaboration with the police as a university researcher the author accepted a part time employment at the intelligence unit of the National Police of Sweden in 2019. His work was linked with a group of analysts dedicated to understanding what can be described as “gang-neighborhoods.” Working from within the organization led to substantial advantages in terms of accesibility to data and to police decision-making, but also led to increased levels of administration and bureacracy. In the present chapter the challenges and benefits of being embedded with the police will be discussed. A concrete intervention will be used as an example of an evidence-based policing practice that was facilitated by being embedded with the police—the pilot test of police helicopters to perform hot spot policing against burning cars in deprived neighborhoods.

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  • 30.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    The Small Does Matter: Neighborhoods and spatial distribution of physical disorder2012In: Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology Research Seminar Reports;54, Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology, 2012, p. 71-81Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Oslo Universitet.
    Var och när skjuts det?2022In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 66-73Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skjutvapenvåldet har ökat kraftigt sedan 1990-talet, och särskilt under 2010-talet, men fram till de senaste åren har det funnits väldigt lite kunskap om hurökningen sett ut samt var och när det skjuts. I denna artikel redovisas fyndenfrån fyra deskriptiva studier om skjutvapenvåldet i Sverige, med ett särskiltfokus på möjligheten att identifiera platser och tider med förhöjd risk för skjutningar vilket kan användas i det förebyggande och brottsbekämpande arbetet.Utifrån en princip om att brott följs av nya brott inom korta avstånd i tid ochrum kan prediktion av så ovanliga händelser som skjutningar bli möjligt.

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  • 32.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Oslo Universitet.
    Allvin, Annica
    Research department, The Norwegian Police University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Frith, Michael
    Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    Skardhamar, Torbjørn
    Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    COVID-19 restrictions, pub closures, and crime in Oslo, Norway2022In: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 136-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol consumption and crime are closely linked and there is often more crime near pubs and bars. Few studies have considered the impact of restricting access to pubs or bars on crime, and the present study aims to provide more insight into this by using the restrictions to combat the COVID-19 pandemic as a natural experiment. In Oslo, Norway, alcohol serving was banned twice during 2020, and at other times during the year, restrictions were placed on how late it could be served. In the present paper, these restrictions are analysed, alongside more general COVID-19 restrictions, to assess their association with crime. To identify these, we employ negative binomial regression models of daily crime counts for nine types of crime adjusted for the day of the week, the week of the year, and the year itself. This is in addition to the presence, or absence, of alcohol-related restrictions and more general COVID-19 restrictions. The findings suggest that both, general restrictions and bans on serving alcohol, reduced crime, although not universally across all crime types and times of the day. When pubs are ordered not to sell alcohol after midnight there appears to be an unexpected increase in crime.

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  • 33.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Ellberg, Carolina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Riktade insatser mot brott och kriminella nätverk i Malmös bostadsområden2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta delprojekt ingår i det femåriga projekt som Länsförsäkringar Skåne finansierat för att genom forsknings- och utvecklingsarbete bidra till att polisen på ett bättre sätt kan minska brottsligheten och otryggheten i Malmö och Skåne. Det finns ett stort behov av att utveckla metoder för att minska brottsligheten och otryggheten, inte minst i utsatta områden. Denna rapport har inriktat sig mot att förstå hur brottsligheten och polisens arbete påverkas av riktade polisinsatser mot gäng och brottslighet i utsatta områden (utifrån en något vidare bemärkelse än NOAs definition). Ett visst fokus har också riktats mot att studera hur brottslighet och otrygghet förändrades i samband med att operation rimfrost genomfördes i Malmö.

    Rapporten är utformad för att vara lättläst, med väldigt lite tekniska resonemang och metoddiskussion eftersom den primärt riktar sig till polisen.

    Ett stort tack till Johannes Dontios vid polisen i Malmö som koordinerat projektet från polisens sida samt Mats Trulsson vid regionkansliet på polisen Region Syd som bistått med trygghetsmätningsdata.

    Och slutligen ett mycket stort tack till Carolina Ellberg som arbetat med analys av otrygghet samt intervjuer av polis, men som gick vidare till annan anställning i slutet av projektet.

    Manne Gerell, projektledare, 7e oktober 2021

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  • 34.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Ellberg, Carolina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Utvärdering av UAS-understött polisarbete i utsatt område: polisens uppfattning om metoden samt insatsens påverkan på otrygghet och brottslighet2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Ellberg, Carolina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Lewenhagen, Kenneth
    BTH.
    Borg, Anton
    BTH.
    Boldt, Martin
    BTH.
    Kamerabevakning i polisens brottsutredande arbete2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få en bättre förståelse för hur kamerabevakningen fungerar, framför allt med fokus på det brottsutredande arbetet, har ett utvecklingsprojekt fokuserat på detta. Inom ramen för projektet har flera olika sektioner av polisen varit involverade för att från hösten 2020 till våren 2021 flagga brott som begåtts på utpekade kamerabevakade platser och säkerställa att dessa följs upp i utredningsarbetet. Inflödet av brott som gått att följa var betydligt mindre än väntat, och ett inledningsvis snävt definierat upptagningsområde utökades allt eftersom. Trots det inkom bara 40 mängdbrott på kamerabevakade platser inom ramen för projektet. Av dessa kunde brottet identifieras på kamerabilderna i 15 fall. I fem av de 15 fallen kunde gärningspersonen ses relativt tydligt, och två av dessa gärningspersoner identifierades också. Inom ramen för intervjuer med de som på olika sätt arbetar med brottsutredningar och kameramaterial framkom också att det för den typ av relativt milda mängdbrott som här studerats är avgörande att få bra möjlighet till identifiering av gärningsperson för att kunna nå framgång i arbetet. Det innebär att ett sätt att effektivisera arbetet med kamerorna är att justera placering och/eller inzoomning för att oftare få möjlighet att identifiera gärningspersoner. För grövre brott, t ex skjutningar eller våldtäkter, kan dock även mindre detaljerade kamerabilder föra en utredning framåt, vilket innefattar betydligt fler brott.

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  • 36.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Hallin, Per-Olof
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Att arbeta med grannskapsutveckling och sociala risker2014In: Att laga revor i samhällsreven: om social utsatthet och sociala risker i den postindustriella staden / [ed] Richard Ek, Manne Gerell, Nicklas Guldåker, Per-Olof Hallin, Mikaela Herbert, Tuija Nieminen Kristoffersson, Annika Nilsson, Mona Tykesson, Malmö University Publications in Urban Studies (MAPIUS) , 2014, p. 127-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Hallin, Per-OlofMalmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).Nilvall, KimWesterdahl, StigMalmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Att vända utvecklingen: från utsatta områden till trygghet och delaktighet2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan början av 1990-talet har det i Sverige växt fram ett antal bostadsområden där stora delar av befolkningen lever under ekonomiskt utsatta livsvillkor. Många har sin bakgrund i andra länder. Under de senaste femton åren har befolkningens utsatthet i dessa områden inte bara varit av ekonomisk natur. Successivt har olika typer av kriminalitet, ibland mycket våldsam, blivit mer förekommande.

    Ensidiga, ofta alarmistiska beskrivningar av enskilda händelser, men också av människors liv och livsvillkor, pekar på betydande kunskapsluckor såväl som på bristen av nyanserade och fördjupade samhällsanalyser. Syftet med denna bok är att bidra till förståelsen av vad utsatta områden är, hur de växt fram, vad som präglar dem idag samt hur den kriminalitet som drabbar de boende gemensamt kan motverkas. Målgruppen är bred och boken vänder sig till alla som vill förstå hur förhållandena har växt fram. Boken kan både ses som ett inlägg för att förklara samhällsutvecklingen och som en studiebok för dem som vill förstå, fördjupa och diskutera ämnet.

    Boken har sitt ursprung i en nationell forskningscirkel som startade efter initiativ från Polismyndighetens Nationella operativa avdelning (Noa) 2015. Syftet var att sammanföra kunskap och erfarenheter från olika kunskapsperspektiv för att bättre förstå problem med brottslighet och otrygghet i socio-ekonomiskt utsatta områden.

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  • 38.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Mellgren, Caroline
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Kollektiv förmåga, brott och otrygghet i Stockholms stad2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostadsområdet är en central del av människors vardag och omfattande internationell forskning visar att bland annat bostadsområdets utformning och befolkningssammansättning har betydelse för hur de boende mår och vad de gör. Forskning visar att olika typer av problem ofta sammanfaller inom samma områden, och det finns tydliga skillnader mellan olika områden avseende bland annat hälsa, skolresultat och brottslighet. Ett exempel på detta är att i bostadsområden med höga nivåer av våld och annan brottslighet tenderar den psykiska och fysiska hälsan att vara sämre, tilliten till samhällsinstitutioner vara lägre och nivån av otrygghet bland de boende högre. I den här rapporten ligger fokus på otrygghet och utsatthet för brott och varför dessa fenomen varierar mellan olika områden.

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  • 39.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Kardell, Johan
    Polisen.
    Kindgren, Johanna
    Polisen.
    Minor covid-19 association with crime in Sweden2020In: Crime Science, E-ISSN 2193-7680, Vol. 9, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The covid-19 disease has a large impact on life across the globe, and this could potentially include impacts on crime. The present study describes how crime has changed in Sweden during ten weeks after the government started to implement interventions to reduce spread of the disease. Sweden has undertaken smaller interventions than many other countries and is therefore a particularly interesting case to study. The first major interventions in Sweden were implemented in the end of week 11 (March 12th) in the year 2020, and we analyze police reported crimes through week 21 (ending May 24th). Descriptive statistics are provided relative to expected levels with 95% confidence intervals for eight crime types. We find that total crime, assaults, pickpocketing and burglary have decreased significantly, personal robberies and narcotics crime are unchanged. Vandalism possibly increased somewhat but is hard to draw any firm conclusions on. The reductions are fairly small for most crime types, in the 5–20% range, with pickpocketing being the biggest exception noting a 59% drop relative to expected levels.

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  • 40.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Kardell, Johan
    Polisen.
    Nivall, Kim
    Polisen.
    The Helicopter Pilot: Swedish Hot-Area Policing From Above2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 601667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot spot policing is an established concept that is proven to reduce crime. It is mostly done through foot patrol or car patrols. In the present study it is tested whether helicopters can produce a deterrent policing effect to reduce the amount of vehicle arsons in Sweden on larger hot areas. Sweden tends to have elevated levels of vehicle arsons in August, with about 20% of police districts responsible for 50% of the cases. The risk narrative revolves around youth congregating in public places in deprived neighborhoods to generate disturbances, and the disruption of the risk narrative tested here is based on providing deterrence through helicopter police presence. During 6 weeks in August and September of 2019 police helicopters patrolled four police districts in Sweden to attempt to prevent vehicle arsons. Our data comprise police reports of vehicle arson, and time stamped satellite data over the location for police helicopters. The evaluation considers whether there is an intention to treat effect from this project, in addition to whether there is an effect of actual helicopter presence. The study finds no significant effect of intention to treat, nor of actual dosage.

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  • 41.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Kronkvist, Karl
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Violent Crime, Collective Efficacy and City-Centre Effects in Malmö2017In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 57, no 57, p. 1185-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collective efficacy, the combination of mutual trust and shared expectations for action, has been linked to crime in several studies worldwide. In the present study, it is argued that collective efficacy should be particularly relevant in relation to public environment crimes. Using data from a community survey (N = 4,051) conducted in 2012, the association between collective efficacy and police recorded public environment violent crime is studied across 96 neighbourhoods in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Besides including controls for concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity and residential stability, the present study adds additional controls for city-centre effects in the form of alcohol outlet permits and nodes of public transportation. Results show that collective efficacy is strongly associated with violent crime in public environments.

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  • 42.
    Gerell, Manne
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Department for National Operations, Swedish Police Authority.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Stockholm Police Authority; Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm.
    Magnusson, Mia-Maria
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Stockholm Police Authority.
    Nilvall, Kim
    Department for National Operations, Swedish Police Authority.
    Khoshnood, Ardavan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm Police Authority; Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm; Department of Social Work and Criminology, University of Gävle.
    Open drug markets, vulnerable neighbourhoods and gun violence in two Swedish cities2021In: Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, ISSN 1833-5330, E-ISSN 2159-5364, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 223-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gun violence is a serious issue in many countries across the globe. It has been shown that there is an elevated risk for a further shooting nearby within a short time span of a shooting incident, so-called near-repeat patterning. The present study presents new evidence on near-repeat patterning in Sweden, with a focus on neighbourhoods which the police have labelled as ‘vulnerable’ – deprived neighbourhoods where criminal networks have a large impact on local communities. Such neighbourhoods tend to have open drug markets, and to have high levels of gun violence. The present paper analyses the association of open drug markets and vulnerable neighbourhoods with gun violence and near-repeat patterning of gun violence in two Swedish cities. Our findings suggest that gun violence is strongly concentrated on open drug markets in vulnerable neighbourhoods, and that those locations in addition exhibit high risks for repeat shootings after an initial shooting event. We propose that the police can use this knowledge to improve practices to prevent or disrupt gun violence.

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  • 43.
    Guldåker, N.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hallin, Per-Olof
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Nilvall, K.
    Swedish National Bureau of Investigation-Intelligence Section, Organised Crime, The Swedish Police Authority.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Crime prevention based on the strategic mapping of living conditions2021In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a theoretically and methodologically grounded GIS-based model for the measurement and mapping of an index of living conditions in urban residential areas across Sweden. Further, the model is compared and evaluated using the Swedish Police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas. The results indicate that the geographically measured vulnerable living conditions overlap to a large extent with the areas assessed to be crime-exposed by the Swedish Police. Over 61% of the police-defined crime-exposed areas are characterized by vulnerable living conditions. The results also show that this overlap is not perfect and that there are vulnerable areas that are not included in the police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas, but which are nonetheless characterized by vulnerable living conditions that could negatively affect the development of crime. It is also proposed that the model and the mapped index of living conditions can provide a more well-grounded scientific basis for the police’s assessment work. As a first step, the Swedish police have implemented the model and the mapped index in the work process employed in their annual identification of crime-exposed or at-risk areas. In addition to assisting the police, the model and the mapped index could also be used to support other societal actors working with vulnerable areas. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 44.
    Hallin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Metodstödets teoretiska ramverk2016In: Polismyndighetens metodstöd mot organiserad brottslighet i lokalsamhället och i utsatta områden: utvecklingscentrum Väst; / [ed] Kim Nilvall, Peder Englund, Jesper Rieck, Anders Essman, Lars Grimbeck, Polismyndigheten , 2016, p. 43-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhällsdebatten verkar ibland en viss förvirring råda kring vilken typ av utsatthet som diskuteras - ekonomisk utsatthet, utsatthet för brott, otrygghet, eller något helt annat? Ur ett polisiärt perspektiv är givetvis brottslighet, trygghet samt indirekt polisens för-måga att utföra sina uppgifter de viktigaste aspekterna på utsatthet. Samtidigt går det inte att bortse från att detta på områdesnivå är starkt kopplat också till en social och ekonomisk utsatthet, där de bostadsområden som präglas av en stark otrygghet normalt också är präglade av en socioekonomisk otrygghet med till exempel dåligt fungerande välfärdssystem, hög arbetslöshet, låga inkomster, samt trångboddhet. Forskning har också visat att socioekonomiska förhållanden, brottslighet och otrygghet dessutom hänger samman med tillit inom bostadsområdet, ibland benämnd lokalsamhällestillit, samt gemensamma förväntningar om att agera för allas bästa, vilket benämns kollektiv förmåga.

  • 45.
    Hallin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Sociala risker och kollektiv förmåga2015In: Utsatta områden: sociala risker, kollektiv förmåga och oönskade händelser; / [ed] Polismyndigheten Nationella Operativa Avdelningen, Polismyndigheten , 2015, p. 9-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhällsdebatten verkar ibland en viss förvirring råda kring vilken typ av utsatthet som diskuteras - ekonomisk utsatthet, utsatthet för brott, otrygghet, eller något helt annat? Ur ett polisiärt perspektiv är givetvis brottslighet, trygghet samt indirekt polisens förmåga att utföra sina uppgifter de viktigaste aspekterna på utsatthet. Samtidigt går det inte att bortse från att detta på områdesnivå är starkt kopplat också till en social och ekonomisk utsatthet, där de bostadsområden som präglas av en stark otrygghet normalt också är präglade av en socioekonomisk otrygghet med till exempel dåligt fungerande välfärdssystem, hög arbetslöshet, låga inkomster, samt trångboddhet. Forskning har också visat att socioekonomiska förhållanden, brottslighet och otrygghet dessutom hänger samman med tillit inom bostadsområdet, ibland benämnd lokalsamhällestillit, samt gemensamma förväntningar om att ager a för allas bästa, vilket benämns kollektiv förmåga

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  • 46.
    Hennen, In
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). NOA UND, Polisen.
    Hot spot 'Knarkrondellen': An evaluation of police interventions in Malmö2019In: Nordisk politiforskning, ISSN 1894-8693, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 111-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Knarkrondellen’, which translates to ‘the drug roundabout’, is a known hot spot for drug trading in Malmö and the police have implemented several measures to fight the open drug market. This paper sets out to investigate the impact that the police interventions, namely enhanced police foot patrols, improved street lighting and the installation of a surveillance camera, exert on the crime rates and the fear of crime at the roundabout. Quantitative data from the police register of reported crimes and police surveys are analyzed. The findings show that the police interventions did not reach the desired preventative effect on crime in the given study period and possibly indicate the occurrence of displacement. Nor did the citizens’ feeling of safety and perception of the problems change significantly as a result of the interventions.

  • 47.
    Hoppe, Laura
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Near-repeat burglary patterns in Malmö: Stability and change over time2018In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that previous crime events are valuable indicators for the prediction of future crime. Near-repeat burglaries are incidents that occur in close proximity in space and time to an initial burglary. The current study analyses near-repeat victimization patterns in Malmö, Sweden’s third-largest city. The data, provided by the local police, cover a six-year time frame from 2009 to 2014. The complete dataset, as well as each year’s individual dataset, was analysed using Ratcliffe’s Near Repeat Calculator version 1.3. Results reveal significant near-repeat victimization patterns. For the full dataset, an observed/expected ratio of 2.83 was identified for the first week after an initial incident and an area of 100 metres surrounding the original burglary. Separate analyses of each individual year reveal both similarities and differences between years. Some years manifest near-repeat patterns at longer spatial and temporal distances, indicating a need for further studies on the variability of near repeats. Preventive strategies that include both private and public actors need to be intensified and focused on the first two weeks after a burglary.

  • 48.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Evaluating the impact of an informational postcard campaign on telephone scams targeting the elderly2023In: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To combat the increasing incidence of telephone scams targeting the elderly, the Swedish Police initiated an informational campaign in 2023. This campaign involved distributing educational postcards to households with at least one resident aged 70 or older. We assess the effectiveness of the postcard intervention by comparing the change in the outcome variable (number of plaintiffs) among individuals aged 70 and above to those below 70. Despite the campaign’s aim to increase awareness and offer practical advice for avoiding scams, our analysis reveals no impact on the number of plaintiffs exposed to fraud. Our study did not identify any significant effects, adding to the existing body of literature on the effectiveness of information in influencing crime-related behaviors, where findings have been inconclusive.

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  • 49.
    Khoshnood, Ardavan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Gun and explosive violence2019In: Crime, Victimization and Vulnerability in Malmö / [ed] Marie Väfors-Fritz, Ardavan Khoshnood, Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 19-32, article id 14Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gun-related violence in Sweden has increased dramatically since the 1990s, and while the entire country has been affected, the Skåne region and Malmö in particular, stand out. Although a large part of the shootings are directed at buildings and vehicles, more than ten people are killed and injured in the city every year. Violence caused by explosive weapons has also increased both in Malmö and in the country as a whole, and this can be a sign of a breaking trend in serious crime.

  • 50.
    Lewenhagen, Kenneth
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola,Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola,Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola,Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Dahlen, Johan
    Swedish Police, Invest Div, Camera & Anal Sect, Stockholm.
    An Interdisciplinary Web-based Framework for Data-driven Placement Analysis of CCTV Cameras2021In: Proceedings of the 2021 Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS), IEEE, 2021, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes work in progress of an interdisciplinary research project that focuses on the placement and analysis of public close-circuit television (CCTV) cameras using data-driven analysis of crime data. A novel web-based prototype that acts as a framework for the camera placement analysis with regards to historical crime occurrence is presented. The web-based prototype enables various analyses involving public CCTV cameras e.g., to determine suitable locations for both stationary CCTV cameras as well as temporary cameras that are moved around after a few months to address crime seasonality. The framework also opens up for other analyses, e.g. automatically highlighting crimes that are carried out closed by at least one camera. The research also investigates to what extent it is possible to generate estimates on the amount of detail captured by a camera given the distance to the crime light conditions. The research project includes interdisciplinary competences from various areas such as criminology, computer and data science as well as the Swedish Police.

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