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  • 1.
    Allansson, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Pettersson-Löfstedt, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Collaborative challenges and barriers when planning and implementing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Lessons from Swedish BRT projects2023In: Urban, Planning and Transport Research, ISSN 2165-0020, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 2246530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to improve the knowledge of collaborative challenges when planning and implementing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). Collaborative challenges are here understood as the barriers that may arise in BRT planning and implementation as a consequence of several formally independent actors, occasionally with different interests, participating in the planning. The results are based on an analysis of actor interactions in Swedish BRT projects. These projects are analysed in relation to the state of the art in the research field of collaborative approaches. The results show two main and interrelated collaborative challenges. The first category of challenges concerns difficulties for actors in creating a common understanding of what a BRT system is, the second category concerns details of bus priority measures, e.g. busways, priority at intersections, and how to handle and deal with conflicting interests when removing speed bumps or pedestrian and cycle crossings. In terms of policy is in the early stages of the planning processes. This can be generated by working practices and tools that facilitate agreements on how to handle different interests and trade-offs. BRT guidelines adapted to national transport policy, legal and organisational conditions could function as tools in assisting actor dialogue.

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  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    People and parking requirements: Residential attitudes and day-to-day consequences of a land use policy shift towards sustainable mobility2017In: Land Use Policy, Vol. 62, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A land use policy shift is taking place in a growing number of cities regarding parking, whereby a conventional supplymanagement approach is being replaced with a parking management approach. As part of this policy shift, manycities are lowering their parking requirements. This study analysed changes in car use, car ownership, spatial parkingpatterns and the consequences for the everyday life of residents in a housing area with a relatively restrictive parkingrequirement in Gothenburg, the second largest city in Sweden. The housing area, a concrete example of howlowering parking requirements can be used to achieve targets on reduced car use and sustainable urbandevelopment, is used to discuss how parking policy should be applied to achieve the desired effect. The results showthat the consequences of the restrictive requirement was paradoxically small in the study area. In practice, therequirement did not result in a decrease in the number of parking spaces, because e.g. of access to parking inneighbouring residential areas. This shows how important it is to adopt a holistic approach in parking policy, by e.g.introducing more restrictive parking requirements in parallel with other measures, such as raising parking charges anddecreasing the number of public parking spaces. It also shows that planning of parking must be coordinated with otherurban planning functions. Otherwise, the actual contribution of a shift in parking policy to the development of a moreenvironmentally friendly transport system and city risks being small, despite lower parking requirements.

  • 3.
    Bjørnskau, Torkel
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Assum, Terje
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Personvern og ITS-baserte trafikksikkerhetstiltak: en studie av streknings-ATK, automatisk fartstilpasning (ISA) og atferdsregistrator (EDR)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Nye ITS-baserte trafikksikkerhetstiltak som kan brukes til å registrere og regulere uønsket atferd i trafikken, har et stort potensial for å øke trafikksikkerheten. Men de kan komme i konflikt med personvernet. Streknings-ATK og EDR har klare implikasjoner for personvernet og at ISA kan ha det om data fra ISA-systemet lagres. Konsekvensene for personvernet er tolket ulikt i Norge og Sverige. Prøvedrift med streknings-ATK på flere strekninger er startet opp i Norge, men i Sverige er dette ikke aktuelt pga. hensynet til personvern. I begge land installeres ISA i offentlige tjenestebiler. EDR har fått liten oppmerksomhet i begge land. Bileierne er overveiende positive til både streknings-ATK og ISA. Jo større forståelsen for at fart er en risikofaktor, desto større er aksepten for slike fartsregulerende tiltak. Bileierne er mest skeptiske til atferdsregistratorer som i dag er lite kjent. Atferdsregistratorer, som ?event data recorder? eller ?black box?, er imidlertid i ferd med å bli svært vanlige i moderne biler ? og stadig mer data fra kjøretøyene lagres. Bileiere bør derfor i større grad få informasjon om dette og tilgang til de data som registreres.

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  • 4. Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Wiklund, Mats
    Cooperation between police and social treatment services offering treatment to drink and drug drivers-experience in Sweden2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe and analyze a measure that has been introduced in Sweden with the objective of quickly offering treatment for the alcohol or drug problems suspected drink or drug drivers may have. The goal of the measure is that every suspected drink or drug driver shall, as soon as apprehended by the police, be offered contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service, which can offer a consultation and, if needed, suitable treatment.

    Method: Interviews and questionnaire surveys, as well as forms that describe the treatment received by each individual case.

    Results: About 20 percent of all those who receive the offer from the police accept contact with the social services or the care and treatment service, and approximately 40 percent of these also attend the consultation. There is a favorable fundamental attitude to the method among the participating authorities. However, some shortcomings in application are revealed. One example concerns drug drivers who are offered contact with the social services or the care and treatment service to a considerably lesser extent than drink drivers. Another neglected group are the people who are at first suspected of drink driving but are later found to have an alcohol concentration below the legal limit. Compared with those who have an alcohol concentration above the legal limit, this group is offered contact to a lesser extent and also have a lower propensity to accept the offer.

    Conclusions: The results indicate a strong support for the method from involved authorities, but participation could be improved by giving more attention to neglected groups.

  • 5. Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The Swedish joint action method against drink driving: a study of suspected drink drivers’ own experiences2016In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 558-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, a joint action method called SMADIT is in use, where the police quickly offer help from the social services or the dependency care and treatment service to suspected drink drivers. The objective of this article is to analyze the experiences of suspected drink drivers who accepted the offer of help and what it meant for them. The knowledge can be used to improve procedures and consultations. Furthermore, it can allow the basic premises of the method to be examined; for example, the importance of offering help quickly.

    Methods: To enable comparisons over time, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 suspected drink drivers on 2 occasions with 1 year between.

    Results: To varying degrees the informants knew about their alcohol problems but were unsure whether they would have sought help by themselves. Therefore, the original ideas of the method with an initial contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service within 24 h was found to be important. However, the results also showed that some of the informants needed some time before the first meeting because they were in shock from the drink driving incident or in need of sleep. Therefore, the drink driver's situation and individual wishes always have to be considered. The article also shows that an encouraging attitude among the police, the social services, and the dependency care and treatment service is important for the success of the SMADIT method.

    The informants are satisfied with the method and in retrospect the incident and the SMADIT offer of help are described as a turning point in their lives. One year after being offered help the informants were no longer focused solely on the personal consequences of drink driving, as they were shortly after the incident. Instead, they had gained insights into the harm they could have done to other road users when they drove while drunk.

    Conclusions: One conclusion from this article is that SMADIT, as an innovative method that can be deployed more rapidly than other alcohol-impaired driving countermeasures, should be considered as a good complement to conventional methods to deal with drink driving. Based on the results, we recommend a trial of the joint action method against drink driving in other jurisdictions.

  • 6. Hansson, Philip
    et al.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Khan, Jamil
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Kommunerna och kollektivtrafiken: en enkätundersökning om Sveriges kommuners arbete för att stödja kollektivtrafiken2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en bild av hur Sveriges kommuner arbetar med att främja kollektivtrafiken. Trots att kommunerna i de flesta fall inte har direkt rådighet över kollektivtrafiken påverkar kommunal styrning områden såsom bebyggelseplanering och lokalisering, trafikplanering (ex omfördelning av befintlig vägkapacitet), reglering av biltrafik (ex. parkering, bilfria zoner, m.m.) mobility management och gröna resplaner. Rapporten baseras på en enkätstudie som har riktats till landets samtliga kommuner.

    Resultaten visar både på likheter och skillnader mellan kommunerna avseende målsättningar, definitioner av begrepp och vilken typ av åtgärder och arbetssätt som förekommer. Ett generellt och förväntat mönster är att befolkningsmässigt större och täta kommuner jobbar mer med frågor kring kollektivtrafik, medan frågorna har mindre fokus i mindre och glesare kommuner. Samma, förväntade mönster gäller avseende målbilder och åtgärder för minskad biltrafik; det är vanligare att frågorna är i fokus i mer urbana områden.

    Hur man definierar mål om att öka kollektivtrafiken varierar. Kommunerna jobbar med en bred palett av åtgärder för att främja kollektivtrafiken såsom uppgradering av bytespunkter, ny eller förbättrad infrastruktur för buss-och spårtrafik, reservation av mark för framtida behov och byte av bränsle. Analysen tyder på att det finns ett samband mellan att ha ett mål om ökad kollektivtrafik och att genomföra åtgärder, d.v.s. det är vanligare att kommuner som har ett mål om ökad kollektivtrafik genomför åtgärder för att främja kollektivtrafiken än de kommuner som inte har något mål.

    Det finns inget tydligt samband mellan att ha ett mål om minskning av biltrafiken och att genomföra åtgärder för att minska biltrafiken. Det är vanligare att kommuner genomför åtgärder för att sänka hastigheten än åtgärder såsom att minska antalet parkeringsplatser, eller höjda parkeringsavgifter.

    Förekomsten av tydliga definitioner av begrepp såsom kollektivtrafiknära läge och täthet i landets kommuner varierar. Många kommuner har en definition av kollektivtrafiknära läge (vars innebörd dock kan variera betydligt), medan definitioner av begreppet täthet är betydligt ovanligare. Resultaten från enkätstudien indikerar att här finns potential för vidareutveckling av metoder och arbetssätt kopplade till definitionerna av begreppen. Vissa kommuners arbetssätt borde också kunna ligga till grund för kunskapsöverföring mellan kommuner.

    När det gäller attityd-och beteendepåverkan är det relativt vanligt med vissa typer av åtgärder, såsom kommuninterna resepolicies som prioriterar kollektivtrafik före bil, informationskampanjer och ”prova på” kampanjer. Det är mer ovanligt att man jobbar för att andra aktörer ska införa resepolicies. Även här finns det en potential för utveckling och kunskapsöverföring mellan kommuner.

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  • 7.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cars. Problematisations, measures and blind spots in local transport and land use policy2019In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goals concerning reduced car traffic are found in most European cities, indicating a potential change in local transport policy and land use planning, which have traditionally been very car-centric. This paper analyses goals and measures to reduce car traffic in Swedish municipalities’ long-term transport and land use plans. Theoretically, the paper is based on an understanding of policies as parts of ‘problem representations’ that create particular ways of understanding car traffic as a policy problem, which in turn influence the measures seen as appropriate or inappropriate. The results indicate that changes are underway. At the heart of these changes are narratives about city development in which municipalities understand the ‘attractive city’ as one where cars are defined as a problem to be addressed. However, the dominant policy problematisation produce several ‘blind spots’. Regional car trips, including travel to out-of-town shopping areas, are left unproblematised in this representation of the problem, meaning that measures addressing such trips are ignored in policy making. The paper builds our understanding of how policy practices influence the potential for change towards sustainability by discussing whether municipalities are doing enough to address the big problems with cars.

  • 8.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR).
    Hur kan man lära ut akademiskt skrivande? En litteraturöversikt och reflektion över undervisningspraktiker2021In: Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL), E-ISSN 2004-4097, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna text är att diskutera former och förutsättningar för studenter att lära sig akademiskt skrivande. Resultaten bygger på en litteraturöversikt. Litteraturen analyseras utifrån följande frågor: vilka lärandeteorier kring akademiskt skrivande utgår litteraturen från? Vilka förslag om hur man ska lära ut akademiskt skrivande ges? Resultaten visar att litteraturen ofta utgår från premissen att skrivande är en process, och litteraturen ger framförallt råd om hur man kan lära ut ”processuell kunskap”. Det innebär att litteraturen rekommenderar lärare att skapa lärsituationer där studenter lär sig skrivprocessens olika steg genom att skriva text och reflektera över textens i dialog med läraren eller studentkollegor.

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  • 9.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Linköpings universitet.
    I hettan från ångpannan: Vetenskap och politik i konflikter om tekniska anläggningar2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Integrating transport and land-use planning?: How steering cultures in local authorities affect implementation of integrated public transport and land-use planning2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 74, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown integrated planning to be important for achieving aims concerning more environmentally friendly transport operations, but less good at explaining prerequisites of implementation. This paper analyses how management and working practises in local authorities, here understood as steering cultures, affect implementation of integrated land-use and public transport planning approaches. The analysis builds on case studies of planning in two Swedish municipalities. These have developed two antithetical steering cultures, namely one that can be described as deliberative and one that can be described as sectorised. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of these steering cultures. The findings show the deliberative model to facilitate integration through advanced mechanisms of consensus and co-ordination between policy-makers and officials. The sectorised model has no such mechanisms, but this need not result in poor prospects of integrated planning. It is important for integrated planning approaches, whatever the steering culture, to be in line with the institutionalised norms and objectives by which planning practices are governed. Integration therefore needs a normative component, so as to ensure implementation. The important normative component in this context can be construed as discourses and rationales concerning transport and the urban development of which public transport forms part.

  • 11.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Miljövänligare transporter?: Mål- och intressekonflikter i kommunala och regionala besluts- och planeringsprocesser2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to analyse how conflicting objectives and interests affect the possibilities for creating more environmentally friendly transport systems at the local and regional level in Sweden. The issues are addressed through an analysis of the decision-making and planning processes at two local authorities – Örebro and Borlänge – and one region, Skåne. These three examples together show how a local authority’s economic motives need to be managed and regulated in order to facilitate an increased rate of conversion to more environmentally friendly transport systems. There are at least two ways to achieve this. The first is to change the legislation and regulations governing local authority decision-making and planning. It would, for example, be possible to regulate retail development through new legislation; apart from ensuring cooperation between local authorities, it would influence the power relationships between companies and local authorities, which at present allow businesses to play authorities off against one another. Revised legislation could restrict the ‘planning monopoly’ held by local authorities. Such restrictions are a highly controversial issue, and attract very little political support. Another way to tackle the problem would therefore be to work within the framework of existing legislation and to use the local authorities’ economic motives to put in place more environmentally friendly social planning. The example of public transport regulation, regional cooperation, and social planning in Skåne shows that this can be one possible way forward in order to enhance decision-making and planning as seen from an environmental perspective.

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  • 12.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Mål och åtgärder för minskad biltrafik i svenska kommuner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport studeras mål och åtgärder för minskad biltrafik i svenska kommuner. Resultaten visar att kommunernas arbete för minskad biltrafik mycket tydligt fokuserar på de centrala delarna av kommunernas centralorter. Det är tydligt att det är bilens negativa effekter på stadsutvecklingen som är det viktigaste skälet till att minska andelen biltrafik. Stadens ”attraktivitet” är ett återkommande nyckelbegrepp i beskrivningar av framtidens stad och biltrafikens roll. Kommunerna vill skapa en stad som är estetiskt tilltalande, attraktiv för boende, besökare och handel. I den attraktiva staden ska gång-, cykel- och kollektivtrafik spela en viktigare roll än förut, och i linje med det anser man att biltrafiken bör prioriteras lägre. Kommunerna vill ändra förhållningssätt i trafik- och stadsplanering och sluta planera för rörlighet, som man anser sig ha gjort tidigare, och istället planera för tillgänglighet.

    De åtgärder som man vill genomföra kan sorteras i tre kategorier. I den första kategorin ingår åtgärder som går ut på att öka gång-, cykel- och kollektivtrafikens attraktivitet jämfört med bilen. En andra kategori av åtgärder är sådana som ger gång-, cykel- och kollektivtrafiken prioritet där de konkurrerar med biltrafiken om utrymme i stadsmiljön eller trafiksystemet. En tredje vanligt förekommande kategori av åtgärder, och den som kommer närmast direkta restriktioner, är parkeringsåtgärder. 

    Kommunernas arbete med att minska biltrafiken kännetecknas av några mer eller mindre s.k. ”blinda fläckar”. Några av dessa är: a) Bilresor till och från externhandel, b) Biltrafiken i övriga tätorter och på landsbygden, c) Regionala resor med bil, d) Mål om minskat resande med bil, och samordningen med investeringar i väginfrastruktur och vägkapacitet, som ökar biltrafikens framkomlighet.

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  • 13.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The Tyranny of Small Decisions: Unsustainable Cities and Local Day-to-Day Transport Planning2011In: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 511-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though new goals for sustainable cities and transport systems have been developed, decisions and planning at a local level often fail to achieve these ambitions. The purpose of this article is to analyse the factors in local decision-making and planning practice that conduce to urban sprawl and increased car traffic. The article analyses how the conscious application of so-called “day-to-day decision-making and planning”, results in a diminution of planning's role as a strategic tool, in concealment of the environmental impact of increased traffic, in the deprioritization of environmental goals in favour of growth, and in the “tyranny of small decisions”, where the need to make many individual decisions distracts from the achievement of sustainable city and transport systems. Day-to-day decision-making and planning are analysed and described in a case study centring on retail trade on the outskirts of the Swedish town of Örebro.

  • 14.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, H.
    Handling user needs: Methods for knowledge creation in Swedish transport planning2012In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    Transport planning faces new demands for a dialogue with users. Transport planners no longer just build roads; nowadays they also must listen to users, whose wishes are meant to have an impact on the design and maintenance of the road transport system. Yet how can we know what users really want? This article sets out to analyze the methods with which transport planners gather information about users and their needs; to do so, it uses a case-study of how transport planners at the National Swedish Road Authority handle these questions on a day-to-day basis.

    Result and discussion

    The results show that the planners’ practices can be analytically understood as something that produces knowledge, representativity, and the identities and needs of the users. The planners base their analyses of user need largely on personal experience. The descriptive, interpretative, and evaluating elements in their knowledge production tend to be hidden in central policy documents and the workings of operational planning systems. If the goals with respect to user influence are to be attained, transport planning must be pursued with a greater understanding of how it conceives of its users as specific categories with particular needs and identities.

  • 15.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Kundorientering av myndigheter: hur kunskap om medborgarna och näringslivet skapas i Vägverket2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New demands for dialogue with users are being made in transport planning. Transport planners no longer just build roads. Nowadays they also must listen to the users, and the wishes of the users have an impact on the design and maintenance of the road transport system. But how can we know what the users really want? The aim of this report is to analyze the methods which transport planners use to create knowledge about the users and their needs. This is done by means of a case study of how transport planners at the Swedish Road Administration concretely handle these questions. The results of interviews show that planners experience problems when using the institutionalized so-called "customer capture methods" that the head office has created. Some examples of these institutionalized methods are for instance market surveys, national measurements of the satisfaction of the users with the work of the Swedish Transport Administration - so-called Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). The planners for example feel that they cannot use these methods for solving problems of representativeness. The interviews with the planners at the Swedish Transport Administration show how they wrestle with the question of who are representative of the users and what they want. The results show that the planners' practices analytically can be understood as something that produces knowledge, representativity and the identities and needs of the users. The planners to a great extent base their analyses on personal experiences. The planners do realize the interpretive aspects of the planning, but at the same time the descriptive, interpretative and valuating aspects of the knowledge production tend to be hidden in central policy documents and systems of operational planning.

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  • 16.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Utvärdering av projektet Nationell samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken enligt Skelleftemodellen: intervjuundersökning2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Skellefte Model is a project that is intended to reduce the number of repeat drunk driving offences by improving cooperation between agencies such as the police, social services and addiction treatment systems. This report is intended to assess the deficiencies and merits that exist according to people who are working with the Skellefte Model. The study is based on material from twenty interviews that were conducted between October 2007 and January 2008. Overall, the interviewees paint a relatively positive picture of the Skellefte Model, and they are often highly motivated.

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  • 17.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Henriksson, Per
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Utvärdering av projektet Nationell samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken enligt Skelleftemodellen: syntesrapport2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Skellefte Model is a project whose purpose is to reduce the number of repeated drunk driving offences by improving cooperation between the police, social services, addiction treatment systems, county administrative boards, public prosecutors, judges and the criminal justice system. The project's key concept is that suspected drunk drivers must come into contact with municipal social services or be taken care of by the county council addiction treatment system as quickly as possible, and preferably within 24 hours after being apprehended and questioned by the police. The evaluation indicates that the Skellefte Model is socio-economically beneficial. A majority of those who are working in the project also believe that the model works well, but that there are numerous problems, such as administrative problems and routines, a need to better embed the model among administrators, etc. The evaluation also shows that there is room for improvement in the handling of drugged drivers. The results differ greatly from county to county. The inter-county differences are likely due to factors such as when the project began and discrepancies in terms of the application of routines, motivation and embedment among employees. They may also be attributable to some extent to the fact that some aspects of the Skellefte Model are being applied in different ways and adapted to disparate local and regional conditions.

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  • 18.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Richardson, Tim
    Svensson, Tomas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Lissandrello, Enza
    Aalborg University .
    Naess, Petter
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Tennøy, Aud
    TØI, The Institute of Transport Economics .
    Longva, Frode
    TØI, The Institute of Transport Economics .
    Innovations for sustainable public transport: Experiences and challenges in the Scandinavian countries2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers qualitative case studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii) the successful pursuit of public-transport innovations relies upon complex, interwoven stories and arguments that persuade diverse actors and organizations to collaborate and act on their shared meanings; and (iiii) there is a need to challenge the planning myths used to mobilize support for land-use and traffic system developments that undermine the long-term competitiveness of public transport.

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  • 19.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Henriksson, Per
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Parkeringsnormer för bostäder: Porslinsfabriken – ett exempel på samspelet mellan läge, kollektivtrafik- och parkeringsutbud2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the effects of lowered parking requirements for residents in the centrally located, relatively newly built housing area, Porslinsfabriken in Gothenburg. Porslinsfabriken has a relatively low parking requirement of 0.57 places per apartment and is a good example of a parking policy being introduced in many Swedish municipalities. The results show that 19 percent of households have decreased their car ownership and also drive fewer miles because of parking opportunities. However, the majority have not altered their car ownership or car use. There are few differences between groups with different occupations, education, age, gender and/or family situation as regards car ownership, car use or the consequences of parking for everyday life.

    Most are happy with the parking situation. A parking requirement of 0.57 for a centrally located housing area with good public transport, close proximity to services and good opportunities for cycling, walking and using public transport has decreased overall car use. However, the range of parking available in the immediate area gives residents a choice of parking spaces. The majority of residents commute by private car as before, and many others have kept their cars. The parking requirement could therefore have been lower. A practical implication of the results is that a lower parking requirement for construction of new apartment blocks must be accompanied by a well-coordinated battery of other measures, such as good access to public transport, higher parking charges, a reduction in public parking spaces etc.

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  • 20.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjerpe, M.
    Storbjörk, S.
    Creating Transformative Force?: The Role of Spatial Planning in Climate Change Transitions Towards Sustainable Transportation2015In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 617-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informed by the concept of strategy making, this paper analyses the ability of spatial planning to support local climate change transitions towards sustainable transportation in two case studies of planning in Swedish municipalities with comparatively high climate ambitions. The analysis shows that the expectations on planning to effect change need to be moderated. Not even in these climate-ambitious municipalities did transportation planning result in strategic reorientation. While climate change was clearly filtered into local strategy making, no new climate frame was established. Rather in goals, it was linked to an overall attractive city storyline. Transportation planners have sought to mobilize force through developing new tools and routines to strengthen the role of climate change. In detailed planning, however, when plans become legally binding, agency in relation to climate change was limited by allowing private actors a pivotal position. Also, tools were used selectively and when settling priorities, climate change was subordinate to economic growth interests. While the planning observed can be regarded as weak, its ability to support climate transition would have been even weaker had it not been linked to the attractive city storyline. Consequently, to facilitate climate transition mobilizing force needs to be generated within the current local implementation structure.

  • 21.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Isaksson, K.
    Richardson, T.
    Choosing conflict on the road to sustainable mobility: A risky strategy for breaking path dependency in urban policy making2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 49, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Isaksson, K.
    Richardson, T.
    IKEA and Small City Development in Sweden: Planning Myths, Realities, and Unsustainable Mobilities2012In: International Planning Studies, ISSN 1356-3475, E-ISSN 1469-9265, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 125-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Khan, J.
    Pettersson, F.
    How to create efficient public transport systems?: A systematic review of critical problems and approaches for addressing the problems2020In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 98, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating efficient public transport systems that attract users is a challenging task in contexts where the control of public transport is divided between various actors. Recent research on public transport has therefore seen increasing focus on issues like coordination, collaboration and steering in complex governance settings. However, more is known about what needs to be done than how to implement the necessary changes. This paper presents a systematic literature review with a focus on developing the understanding on how to improve the conditions for public transport. The reviewed articles are analysed for increasing the understanding of the critical challenges in the planning and implementation of measures to increase public transport travel; the working practices for dealing with problems described in the literature; and the advantages and disadvantages of different working practices. Based on the analysis an analytical framework is developed that can be used to study and evaluate working practices for managing critical challenges. The framework consists of three interconnected factors (i) actors, (ii) institutions (laws and rules that govern the interaction of the actors), and (iii) work processes (phases in the interaction between the actors). Drawing on the results of the systematic review a number of key issues for establishing working practices for dealing with the challenges are emphasized for each of the factors.

  • 24. Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Monios, Jason
    Rye, Tom
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Scholten, Christina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    The interplay of formal and informal institutions between local and regional authorities when creating well-functioning public transport systems2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 611-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how public transport planning is managed in institutional contexts where governance is spread across local and regional scales. The paper sheds light on two facets of the relationship between local and regional government: first, the decision-making process regarding where to provide public transport services and at what level, and second, integration of public transport with land use planning. An analytical matrix is used to cross-reference the roles of formal institutions (governance established in law) and informal institutions (governance not established in law) against local and regional responsibilities for public transport and land use. Analysis of the interplay between these three axes (formal/informal, local/regional, public transport/land use) reveals how informal institutions help regional and local authorities to negotiate the constraints of formal, statutory institutions and help to oil the wheels of delivering measures and policies that make public transport work as a well-functioning system. However, informal institutions clearly have their limits, in the paper exemplified by the remaining challenges to integrate regional public transport and local land use planning. An identified challenge is that, by their very nature, informal institutions are difficult to influence or modify, therefore relying on them to fill gaps in formal institutional responsibilities may be a risky strategy when unpopular decisions are made.

  • 25.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Samordning av trafik- och bebyggelseplanering: förutsättningar för hållbar mobilitet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The way buildings are positioned relative to the design of traffic systems influences the public?s travel patterns and their choice of transport mode. It is therefore important that building layout and traffic are coordinated in order to create sustainable mobility. Sustainable mobility is an umbrella term for measures that reduce the number and length of car journeys and the need to travel at all. The aim of this study is to shed light on the conditions under which local authorities coordinate building development and traffic issues with respect to sustainable mobility. This investigation is based upon a pair of case studies, and examines the handling of building and traffic issues during the planning of two residential areas, one in Lund and one in Trelleborg. The results show that where coordination has worked, three factors have combined to create what may be termed a strategic decision-making and planning process. The three factors can be summarized as (i) long-term visions for the town?s development, (ii) long- and short-term actions, and (iii) public support for the long-term vision. It is important that coordination is made a tool for the implementation of the long-term vision. Politicians and officials must be in agreement if real influence is to be brought to bear on long- and short-term actions. Swedish local authorities should therefore develop mechanisms to enhance mutual understanding between politicians and officials on the basic principles of sustainable mobility. Public support of long-term visions and goals is also important. Without public support it becomes hard to make the occasionally difficult political decisions that affect the public?s travel behaviour.

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  • 26.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2.
    Olsson, Lina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Rye, Tom
    Högskolan Molde.
    Transit Oriented Development (TOD): A Literature Review2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents an international literature review on Transit Oriented Development (TOD) research carried out in order to frame the research problem and gaps for a research project that is to be carried out largely in the Swedish context. The literature searches of peer-reviewed articles, literature reviews, and conference papers were carried out in the bibliographic databases Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science based on keywords selected by the project team. The report presents definitions of TOD, the application of the TOD concept in semiperipheral,peripheral and rural areas, the role of the private sector in delivering TOD, aswell as best practice examples, including enabling processual planning factors, barriers and outcomes. It then identifies research gaps that are related to the above topics. Based on the findings of the literature review, the report suggests an outline for future research.

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  • 27.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Olsson, Lina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund..
    Pettersson‑Löfstedt, Fredrik
    K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund;Lund University.
    Rye, Tom
    Molde University College,Molde, Norway; Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia. .
    Challenges of delivering TOD in low-density contexts: the Swedish experience of barriers and enablers2022In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 14, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is key to the success of public transport and for sustainable urbanand regional development. Previous research has often focused on delivering TOD in urban areas with high population and building densities. This highlights the need to broaden the scope of TOD approaches to also include less densely populated areas located outside the immediate urban cores as a key concern for policy. The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge of how to deliver TOD in such low-density contexts. Three case studies of attempts at delivering TOD in sparsely populated areas in three Swedish city-regions are made. The data for the case studies consist of planning documents and 13 interviews with key stakeholders involved in the planning processes of the three cases. The results show that many of the barriers and enablers are rather similar to those identifed in research onTOD in much more urban contexts in other parts of the world, but the relationships between them are diferently nuanced in low-density contexts. The lack of clear quantifed defnitions of what TOD is (or is not) allows a more fexible, site-specifc understanding of TOD to emerge in this context. It is important that a shared vision of TOD in each location is developed by the organizations involved—and such a shared vision appears to be crucial for the development to have a good chance of being delivered. Informal defnitions, and individual perceptions (including those of the public) are important; and in locations that are quite “marginal” for TOD, all enablers must interact together positively for the development to have the maximum likelihoodof going ahead as planned

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  • 28.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Olsson, Lina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Pettersson-Löfstedt, Fredrik
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Rye, Tom
    Högskolan Molde, Norge.
    Kollektivtrafikorienterad bebyggelseplanering (KOB) i mindre tätorter och på landsbygden: Rekommendationer för policy och planering2022Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få fler människor att välja kollektivtrafiken behöver ny bebyggelse lokaliseras till platser med god kollektivtrafik, till exempel, till stationsnära lägen och genom att förtäta och blanda bostäder, service och grönområden för att ge invånarna närhet till olika aktiviteter. En kollektivtrafikorienterad bebyggelseplanering (KOB) – innebär att man skapar en tätare och mer stadsmässig bebyggelse kring kollektivtrafikens noder och stråk. I mindre tätorter och på landsbygden är förutsättningarna för det annorlunda än i större städer, och KOB måste därför anpassas till dessa förutsättningar. Planeringen av KOBpåverkas därtill av flera offentliga och privata organisationer, och deras samverkan är av central betydelse för att KOB ska kunna förverkligas i mindre tätorter och på landsbygden. I denna rapport beskrivs hur man kan främja KOB i mindre tätorter och på landsbygden i Sverige. Följande fem övergripande rekommendationer syftar till att stimulera KOB på platser med lägre täthet men möjligheter till god kollektivtrafikförsörjning:

    a) Utveckla en regional KOB-strategi och en regionalt anpassad KOB-typologi

    b) Ta fram strategier för kollektivtrafikorienterad fastighetsutveckling i samarbetemellan myndigheter och marknadsaktörer

    c) Utveckla kommunala förtätningsstrategier för kollektivtrafikorienteradbebyggelsed) Utveckla kommunala kollektivtrafikstrategier

    e) Utveckla en väl fungerande samverkan kring KOB

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  • 29.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut).
    Petersson, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Westerdahl, Stig
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Dömd till samverkan!: En kunskapsöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skapandet av en effektiv kollektivtrafik kräver i ökande grad samverkan mellan formellt självständiga organisationer. I denna kunskapsöversikt diskuteras samverkan mellan offentliga och privata organisationer samt resenärer. Syftet är att öka den begreppsmässiga förståelsen av samverkan på kollektivtrafikområdet. Den gör det genom att definiera samverkan, och diskutera vilka kvaliteter som möjliggör väl fungerande samverkan. Kunskapsöversikten börjar med att beskriva tidigare kollektivtrafikforskning om samverkan. Därefter beskrivs vilka slutsatser som finns om samverkan i andra för kollektivtrafiken analytiskt intressanta forskningsfält. En slutsats är att samverkan kan definieras som försök att överkomma problem med kollektivt handlade, och försök att förändra en situation där ömsesidigt beroende aktörer agerar självständigt, till en situation där de agerar samfällt för att uppnå gemensamma mål. Samverkan ska enligt denna definition förstås som en mer sofistikerad form av kollektivt handlande än vad som menas med begrepp som samordning eller koordination. Väl fungerande samverkan kan beskrivas som en form av ”samhandling”. Motsatsen kan beskrivas vara ”förhandling”. I samhandling utforskar formellt självständiga organisationer gemensamma nyttor, och uppnår mer än om de hade agerat självständigt. Samhandling kan ses som ett stegvist tillitsbygge som förutsätter kvaliteter som ett ömsesidigt förtroende, förståelse av andra organisationers drivkrafter, gemensam problemformulering. Den måste även vara tydligt handlingsinriktad.

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  • 30. Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Westerdahl, Stig
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    The Qualities Needed for a Successful Collaboration: A Contribution to the Conceptual Understanding of Collaboration for Efficient Public Transport2016In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 542Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The creation of an efficient public transport system requires collaborations between formal independent organizations. This paper examines collaborations between public and private organizations and passengers, with the aim of contributing to the conceptual understanding of collaborations on public transport. The study begins by describing previous research on collaboration in the public transport area and in other research fields analytically relevant for public transport. Accordingly, collaboration is defined as an attempt to overcome problems with collective action and to transform a situation in which the various organizations operate independently into a situation where they act in concert to achieve shared objectives. The collaboration process involves the establishment of joint rules and structures that govern the relationship and behavior of the organizations. According to this definition, collaboration is a more sophisticated form of collective action than is indicated by terms such as “co-operation” or “coordination”. Fully-functioning collaboration can be described as a form of “co-action”, as opposed to “individual action”. In co-action, formal independent organizations together reap the benefits of working together and achieve more than if they had acted alone. Co-action can be regarded as a gradual trust-building process that requires qualities such as mutual confidence, an understanding of other organizations’ motivations, and joint problem formulation.

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  • 31.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rye, T.
    Mullen, C.
    Partnerships between operators and public transport authorities: Working practices in relational contracting and collaborative partnerships2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 116, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2.
    Rye, Tom
    Molde University College, Norway & Urban Planning Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Decreasing the Share of Travel by Car: Strategies for Implementing ’Push’ or ‘Pull’ Measures in a Traditionally Car-Centric Transport and Land Use Planning2023In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 446-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes strategies that can be successfully pursued to implement measures to reduce car traffic in what has traditionally been a very car-centric planning praxis. Analytically, the paper use path dependency theory to provide an understanding of why certain types of measure are not implemented in cities on as widespread a basis as policy objectives may require, and to understand how transport planning path dependence in urban authorities might be changed. Empirically, the analysis builds on a comparative case study of transport and land use planning in Swedish cities. The most effective strategies do not appear to be radical policies leading to fast implementation of goals about sustainable transport, for example by implementing very car restrictive measures, even in the face of resistance from the public and from within the city administration. The results support an approach that from a strategy making perspective can be understood as an institutionalizing process by which internal organizational and external public support for car restrictive and potentially controversial measures are built. Implementation may be achieved by building new institutions within city administrations, where routines and norms gradually change so that car restraint measures gradually become part of the normal way of doing transport planning. This then starts to lock-in certain patterns of travel and make further car restraint measures more feasible and institutionalized as part of a standard menu of measures that cities use, and not something out of the order.

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  • 33.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Rye, Tom
    Molde University College, Molde, Norway ; Urban Planning Institute of Slovenia.
    Delivering Transit Oriented Development (TOD) in low to medium density contexts.: Actor relationships and market conditions in smaller Swedish cities2024In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 236-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses actor relationships in Transit Oriented Development (TOD) planning in order to better understand the preconditions necessary for planning processes to result in TOD in lower density contexts, in suburbs, or small cities. Empirically, the analysis builds on a comparative case study of TOD planning projects. The focus in the analytical work is on understanding how market conditions in lower density contexts influence the conditions for TOD planning projects, and how this feeds through to planning processes. The overall conclusion is that we should not expect that planning processes in small cities with low to medium densities of populations and activities differ much from those in more ‘classic’ highly urban TOD locations. Market conditions had an impact on planning processes, but once in the planning stage conditions for implementation depended more on the ability to handle competing interests and less on market conditions. In terms of policy recommendations, it is important for actors to develop a joint vision of the built environment of the site in question that channels organizations’ individual actions in a joint direction. The ability to achieve such a joint vision for the design of the site in question may be more important in small towns than in more ‘typical’ TOD contexts in denser urban areas. This is because all enablers need to work together in a positive way in such location – which may be marginal from a market point of view – for the development to be able to go ahead.

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  • 34.
    Khan, Jamil
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2 (The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport).
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Increasing public transport patronage: An analysis of planning principles and public transport governance in Swedish regions with the highest growth in ridership2021In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 260-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the attractiveness of public transport is a key issue in the endeavours towards more sustainable transport systems. While there is a lot of knowledge on what can be done to increase public transport patronage, there is a lack of empirically based research analysing how to do this in practice. Using a comparative case analysis of six regions in Sweden with the highest increase in passenger volumes for public transport between 2009 and 2015, this paper examines the prerequisites for increasing public transport patronage, with a focus on the governance conditions required to implement such measures. The empirical material consists of semistructured interviews with public transport planners and strategy documents for the six regions. The findings show that all regions but one employed a similar approach and implemented measures aimed at concentrating resources to corridors where the potential demand was the greatest. Only one region chose a different approach by investing in services in both strong routes and in the peripheral network. However, regardless of approach, the results highlight that there is considerable coherence regarding the governance conditions that enable implementation. Three main conditions were identified, namely political support, well-functioning collaboration between organisations, and public support through citizen dialogue. The results support key findings on collaborative conditions from previous research, including the importance of joint objectives, trust between key individuals, and the need for long time frames in order to develop collaborative capacity.

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  • 35. Khan, Jamil
    et al.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2.
    Fler resenärer i kollektivtrafiken: Erfarenheter från att arbeta för en ökad andel kollektivtrafik2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En ökning av andelen kollektivtrafik är en viktig del av omställningen mot lägre utsläppav växthusgaser och mer energieffektiva transporter. I Sverige har antalet resor medkollektivtrafiken ökat med 18% mellan åren 2009 och 2015. Det finns dock en stor skillnad mellan olika regioner där ökningen varit över 20% i flera regioner medan utvecklingen av resandet har stagnerat, eller till och med minskat, i andra regioner. Den här rapporten bygger på ett forskningsprojekt som har haft till syfte att utveckla kunskapom åtgärder och lösningar för hur man kan öka andelen resande med kollektivtrafiken i svenska regioner och kommuner, samt studera vilka arbetssätt som varit framgångsrikaför att genomföra åtgärder. I projektet har vi jämfört konkreta erfarenheter av hur regioner och kommuner arbetar för att öka kollektivtrafikens andel av resandet. Projektet har bestått av tre delstudier:

    • En internationell litteraturstudie av erfarenheter med försök att skapa mer effektiva kollektivtrafiksystem och öka resandet i kollektivtrafiken. Resultaten visar att det i flera länder finns regelverk och organisationsstrukturer som ofta gör det svårt att genomföra förändringar, speciellt då många olika aktörer är involverade och de har olikaansvarsområden och intressen. I de fall där man lyckats hitta fungerande arbetssätt har man ofta etablerat nya temporära organisationer eller nätverk för att öka samverkanmellan aktörer och komma förbi låsningar som finns inbyggda i regelverk.

    • En enkätstudie till samtliga kommuner i Sverige om hur de jobbar mer kollektivtrafik. Kartläggningen visar på en stor spridning mellan kommunerna. I större kommuner jobbar man mer aktivt, medan det ofta finns en brist på både uppsatta mål och genomförda åtgärder i mindre kommuner. Samma skillnader, fast än mer markerade, finns vad gällermål och åtgärder för att minska bilresandet (som påverkar kollektivtrafikens attraktivet). Ett annat resultat av kartläggningen var att kommunerna överlag saknade tydliga definitioner av vad som utgör kollektivtrafiknära läge och bebyggelsens täthet. Det är frågor som är av stor betydelse för en effektiv planering som gynnar kollektivtrafikenslångsiktiga konkurrenskraft och attraktivitet.

    • En jämförelse av hur man arbetat i sex regioner i Sverige där man haft en stark öknin gav kollektivtrafiken mellan 2009 och 2015. I de flesta regioner fann vi att man genomfört åtgärder som följer principerna för hur transportforskningen anser man bör planerar föratt skapa en effektiv kollektivtrafik. Det har innefattat mer resurser till kollektivtrafiken, ökat utbud av både tåg och buss i kombination med en omorganisering av busslinjer i ochmellan städer, med färre, rakare och snabbare linjer, fler avgångar och mer enhetliga tidtabeller. Det har också inneburit att man prioriterat så kallade starka stråk, något somhar lett till neddragningar av trafik i svagare stråk och på landsbygden. En region, Jönköping, skiljer sig från övriga. Där har resandeökningen uppnåtts genom ökade resurser till fler än de starka stråken och genom sänkta biljettpriser för vissa grupper. Vi har även studerat de faktorer som varit viktiga för att möjliggöra ett genomförande avåtgärder och funnit tre faktorer: politiskt stöd, kommunikation med medborgare och samverkan mellan nyckelaktörer. Samverkan var särskilt viktigt då åtgärderna var beroende av att flera aktörer deltog aktivt, nämligen kommunen, regionen och operatören.bVi fann att man i flera fall skapade nya samarbeten och sammarbetes ytor, eller fördjupade existerade samarbeten. Det var viktigt att alla parterna hade del i ägandet avförändringarna och att skapa ett stort mått av förtroende och tillit mellan de personer som deltog.

    Projektets resultat bidrar med praktisk kunskap om hur man kan gå till väga för att ökakollektivtrafikens attraktivitet, resultat som bör kunna tillämpas i andra regioner ochländer som står inför liknande utmaningar.

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  • 36. Lissandrello, E.
    et al.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tennøy, A.
    Richardson, T.
    Three performativities of innovation in public transport planning2017In: International Planning Studies, ISSN 1356-3475, E-ISSN 1469-9265, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 99-113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Parida, Manoranjan
    et al.
    Centre for Transportation Systems, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667, India.
    Patnala, Phani Kumar
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T2N2, Canada.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Chalumuri, Ravi Sekhar
    Transportation Planning and Environment Division, CSIR—Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, 110025, India.
    Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) as a Sustainable Transport Strategy for Metropolitan Cities2022In: Transportation Research in India: Practices and Future Directions / [ed] Maurya A.K.; Vanajakshi L.D.,;Arkatkar S.S.; Sahu P.K., Springer, 2022, Springer, p. 183-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a highly dense, diverse, pedestrian-friendly, accessible, and affordable urban structure within proximity to transit facilities. It embraces the idea that locating the right urban development around transit facilities promotes sustainable transportation, i.e., the use of transit, walking, and cycling. A successful TOD at the metropolitan level is inclusive and is often an effective way to create land values at the neighborhood level. Delivering positive outcomes of TOD in metropolitan cities is not easy and necessitates well-balanced urban design decisions. This chapter focuses on what planning parameters that need special attention to alleviate TOD as a sustainable transport strategy for mitigating urban problems in metropolitan cities, by taking Delhi as a suitable case study. 

  • 38.
    Paulsson, A.
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Center on Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    Hylander, J.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Center on Public Transport, Lund, Sweden; Division of Environmental and Energy Systems, Institute for Technology and Society, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    One for all, or all for oneself?: Governance cultures in regional public transport planning2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2293-2308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fragmented organizational landscape characterizing public transport, it is important to study and explore how regional governance of public transport adapts to national institutional reforms. By employing the term ‘governance cultures’ to a comparative case study of regional public transport planning in Sweden, we contribute to theories of governance by cultural sensitization. Combining governance theory with cultural analysis, we apply a cultural perspective to understand the two cases. We conclude that public transport planning in the Stockholm region is defined by ‘negotiations’ between stakeholders, whereas in the Västra Götaland region it is characterized by a governance culture of ‘collaboration’. The evidence from our case studies emphasizes the importance of understanding local governance practices as situated in cultural contexts as well as of viewing governance cultures as an important factor affecting the purpose, degree and outcomes of collaboration in planning practices. 

  • 39.
    Paulsson, A.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, 581 95, Linköping, Sweden; K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, 223 81, Lund, Sweden.
    Hylander, J.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, 581 95, Linköping, Sweden; K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, 223 81, Lund, Sweden; Lund University, division of Environment and Energy Systems, 221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, 581 95, Linköping, Sweden; K2 – The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, 223 81, Lund, Sweden.
    What Culture does to Regional Governance: Collaboration and Negotiation in Public Transport Planning in Two Swedish Regions2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 19, p. 147-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Paulsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2.
    Rye, Tom
    Lindkvist Scholten, Christina
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Samverkan i kollektivtrafiken: Varför, hur och med vilka konsekvenser?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kollektivtrafik planeras och bedrivs i regionala nätverk som inkluderar ett flertal organisationer. Förutom regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter är kommuner, trafikföretag, resenärsgrupper och handelsföreningar med flera involverade i dessa nätverk på olika sätt. För att kunna styra dessa nätverk krävs samverkan. Med samverkan menas att flera formellt självständiga organisationer arbetar tillsammans för att etablera och realisera gemensamma mål. I den här rapporten beskrivs hur samverkan fungerar som ett medel för de regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheterna att styra de regionala nätverk där kollektivtrafik planeras och bedrivs.

    Utifrån den forskning som rapporten bygger på framkommer att det finns ett stort behov av samverkan mellan offentliga planeringsorganisationer på nationell, regional och lokal nivå, samt mellan offentliga och privata aktörer. Samverkan är en styrningsform som skapar förutsättningar för en sammanhållen kollektivtrafik som fungerar utifrån ett resenärsperspektiv. Ett konkret exempel är den nära koppling som behöver finnas mellan bebyggelseplanering och planering och utveckling av kollektivtrafik för att kollektivtrafiken ska bli smidig och kostnadseffektiv. Utan samverkan blir denna koppling svår att få till i praktiken. Samtidigt är det viktigt att uppmärksamma att samverkan både kan komplettera och motverka andra styrningsformer. Styrning baserad på tillit och ömsesidig förståelse kan undergrävas om det samtidigt sker en kontroll och övervakning av andre parten.

    Slutsatsen i rapporten är att samverkan är ett medel för att styra i de regionala nätverk där kollektivtrafik planeras och bedrivs. Samverkan är en särskilt viktig styrningsform i två hänseenden. För det första är det ett sätt att utveckla gemensamma överenskommelser om prioriteringar för kollektivtrafik och för regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter att säkerställa genomförbarheten av långsiktiga planer i en situation där kommunerna har monopol på markanvändningen. För det andra är samverkan ett sätt för de regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheterna att etablera en gemensam identitet med de aktörer, främst kommuner och trafikföretag, som de arbetar tillsammans med. Vare sig det rör sig om informella samverkansformer eller formella avtal, så krävs någon typ av gemensam identitet och målbild för att de alla ska kunna se sin roll i att skapa ett fungerande och effektivt kollektivtrafiksystem.

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  • 41. Paulsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Sorensen, Claus Hedegaard
    Hrelja, Robert
    Rye, Tom
    Scholten, Christina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Collaboration in public transport planning - Why, how and what?2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 69, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about collaboration in public transport governance. Drawing upon the emerging literature that views collaboration through the lens of networks, we explore why and how regional public transport authorities collaborate with both municipalities and public transport operators in the planning of public transport. We also explore the advantages and disadvantages of such collaborations. Based on interviews with civil servants (government officers) in the Swedish metropolitan regions of Stockholm, Vastra Gotaland and Scania, we conclude that collaboration is, firstly, a way for the regional public transport authorities (RPTA) to engage with the local municipalities and develop joint agreements on public transport priorities. It is also a way to build a common identity with the public transport operators, who operate services under tendered contracts. Secondly, we find that collaboration takes place during official meetings, as well as in informal conversations and face-to-face dialogues. Thirdly, the potential advantages and disadvantages of collaboration hinge on the ability of coordinating actors to put in place processes where the feasibility of plans can be established, and where a sense of common identity can be constructed.

  • 42.
    Pettersson, F.
    et al.
    Transport & Roads, Lund University.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    How to create functioning collaboration in theory and in practice: practical experiences of collaboration when planning public transport systems2020In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 43. Rye, T.
    et al.
    Monios, J.
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Isaksson, K.
    The relationship between formal and informal institutions for governance of public transport2018In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 69, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Rye, Tom
    et al.
    Molde University College.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US). K2 (The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport).
    Policies for Reducing Car Traffic and Their Problematisation: Lessons from the Mobility Strategies of British, Dutch, German and Swedish Cities2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 19, article id 8170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the paper is to explore whether particular problematisations of cars and car use lead to sets of solutions that may not deal with all problems associated with car use, and whether this leads to any internal conflicts within the chosen policies. The paper is based on a review of local transport policy documents from 13 cities in four countries using the lens of policy problematization as an analytical framework. The paper finds that the problems most typically highlighted in the strategies reviewed are poor accessibility (as a “bad” in itself, but also because it is seen to compromise economic growth); the negative impacts of tra_c on liveability of the central part of the city and therefore its ability to attract inhabitants, especially those needed to support a knowledge economy; local air and noise pollution; and road safety. The resulting visions are for urban areas less dominated by private cars, with more green and public space, in order to maximise accessibility and liveability to attract economic development; and most cities also seek to reduce car travel as a proportion of trips. However, in many cities this vision covers mainly the central city, with car use set to remain dominant in outer cities and for regional trips. In almost all cities, only one measure, parking management, is proposed as a means of cutting car use. The differing sets of measures envisaged for outer areas of cities threatens to undermine those envisaged for more central cities.

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  • 45.
    Rye, Tom
    et al.
    Molde University College, Norway.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Malmö University, Institute for Urban Research (IUR). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Monios, Jason
    Kedge Business School, Marseille, France.
    McTigue, Clare
    Transport Research Institute, Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Partnership or franchising to improve bus services in two major English urban regions?: An institutional analysis2021In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 114, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses two differing approaches to the improvement of local bus services, using the analytical lens of formal and informal institutions. Both formal and informal institutions govern the behaviour of authorities and operators, but they do it in different ways and they have advantages and disadvantages. In so doing we seek to understand both how the informal institutional approach (e.g. voluntary partnership working) can be used effectively, but also to assess its limits; and to understand why a formal institutional approach (e.g. franchising), in spite of its strong underlying basis in law, may nonetheless not always function. Through doing so, this paper contributes to the current understanding of how to handle the unintended consequences of a deregulated market through the different (formal and informal) ways available.

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  • 46.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Antonson, Hans
    Lunds universitet.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Klimatomställningens knäckfrågor2017In: Att äga framtiden: perspektiv på kommunal utveckling / [ed] Josefina Syssner, Sören Häggroth, Ulf Ramberg, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2017, p. 213-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47. Storbjörk, Sofie
    et al.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Antonson, Hans
    Hrelja, Robert
    VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut).
    Kommunerna och klimatomställningen: Lärdomar om klimatfrågans integrering i lokal policy och planering2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Summerton, Jane
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Beslut om hastighetsgränser: prioriteringar, avvägningar och aktörer i regionala beslutsprocesser2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns the results of phase two of the research project "Speed issues on a regional level". Phase 2 describes and analyzes the concrete decision-making concerning the setting of speed limits. The study is based primarily on interviews with official representatives from the relevant authorities and private individuals as well as examination of documentation of a number of cases of contested speed limits as indicated by applications to the County Board. The study is primarily limited to the County of Östergötland but also concerns relevant relations within the broader Swedish Road Administration (SRA) region consisting of five counties, as well as relations with the national level. The results show that all participating agencies give a stronger priority to car traffic mobility than to the private citizens' perceived safety and security in cases where residents contest speed limits on specific stretches of road. It is clear from the study that SRA has dominant direct control over decisions about speed limits despite the fact that it is the County Board that takes the formal decisions on local traffic regulations. The two goals or priorities that are balanced against each other in actual decisions about changing speed limits are mobility and road safety. The interviewed individuals typically view the County Administrative Board's rejection of their applications for lowering speed limits as incomprehensible. They do not accept that their perceived security risk is not accounted for and that road mobility is prioritised by the officials. Based on the findings of the study, various issues for further research are discussed, issues that also provide input in discussions about how to develop and improve current decision making models in the context of changing speed limits. This study suggests that there is a need to develop the decision making model and the decision-making system that guides decisions on changes in speed limits. Speed limits are not currently assessed on the basis of an overall transport policy target perspective. The interview responses show that many of the officials involved, and even private citizens who have applied for reduced speed limits, call for a broader "safety and security review" process that involves more policy measures than speed limits.

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  • 49. Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Summerton, Jane
    Hrelja, Robert
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The politics of speed: Local and regional actors’ views on speed limits, traffic safety and mobility in Sweden2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
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