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  • 1.
    Amssaya, Haileyesus
    et al.
    Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar Institute of Technology,Bahir Dar,Ethiopia.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Modungwa, Dithoto
    CSIR,Defence & Security,Pretoria,South Africa.
    A Monitoring and Rescuing System Using Next Generation Mobile, Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence for Freshwater Lakes in Africa2023Ingår i: 2023 IEEE AFRICON, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an experimental system assisted by emerging digital technologies is developed, for monitoring and controlling invasive water hyacinth weed and rescue operation of freshwater lakes in Africa. The system is designed to integrate fifth generation ultra-reliable low latency communication (5G URLLC), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), underwater robots, smart environmental sensing with internet of things (IoT) and machine learning techniques for real time monitoring, managing, controlling and predicting the expansion of invasive water hyacinth weed. The experimental system for sensor data collection implemented on lake Tana in Ethiopia will be expanded to other fresh water lakes of Africa affected by water hyacinth weed. System modeling and data analytics based on sensor data will be performed to generate decision inference for controlling the growth of water hyacinth in the water bodies of the lake. Environmental data collection from other local sources will be integrated with sensor data for further system modeling and critical action analysis and implementation using machine learning algorithms to remove the main causes for the rapid expansion of water hyacinth throughout the lake.

  • 2.
    Angel Vazquez, Miguel
    et al.
    Ctr Tecnol Telecomunicac Catalunya, Castelldefels, Spain..
    Paul Pallois, Jean
    Huawei Technol, Paris, France..
    Debbah, Merouane
    Huawei Res Ctr, Paris, France..
    Masouros, Christos
    UCL, London, England..
    Kenyon, Tony
    UCL, London, England..
    Deng, Yansha
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Perez-Neira, Ana
    Ctr Tecnol Telecomunicac Catalunya, Castelldefels, Spain.;Univ Politecn Cataluna, Castelldefels, Spain..
    Erfanian, Javan
    Bell Mobil, Mississauga, ON, Canada..
    Deploying Artificial Intelligence in the Wireless Infrastructure: the Challenges Ahead2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE 2nd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, s. 458-459Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques entails a substantial change in the wireless ecosystem where data as well as their owners become crucial. As a result, the roll out of AI techniques in wireless systems raises a plethora of questions. In this context, we describe the challenges observed by the wireless stakeholders when deploying AI. Furthermore, we introduce the recent discussion in field of ethics that appear when managing wireless communications data.

  • 3.
    Banda, Laurence
    et al.
    Wits Business School (WBS), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mjumo, Mzyece
    Wits Business School (WBS), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Wits Business School (WBS), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Business Models for 5G and Future Mobile Network Operators2022Ingår i: 2022 IEEE Future Networks World Forum (FNWF), IEEE, 2022, artikel-id M17754Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging 5G and future networks (5GFNs) will change the mobile communication business ecosystem by introducing multi-service wireless applications with diverse specifications. These smart and future-oriented wireless networks are intended to address not only consumer-based smartphone applications, but also the needs of various vertical industry markets (e.g., education, energy, healthcare, transportation, manufacturing, agriculture, and so forth). 5GFNs are aimed at attaining economic value for all key stakeholders, including customers, mobile network operators (MNOs), equipment vendors, public institutions, private enterprises, digital business start-ups and various third parties. This paper discusses business model options for 5GFNs from the MNOs’ perspective.  We describe current MNOs’ business models and their shortcomings. Thereafter, we present emerging business models for 5GFNs which MNOs should consider when rolling out these networks.  

  • 4.
    Banda, Laurence
    et al.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Wits Business Sch WBS, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Mzyece, Mjumo
    Univ Witwatersrand, Wits Business Sch WBS, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Univ Witwatersrand, Wits Business Sch WBS, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa.;Council Sci & Ind Res CSIR, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    5G Business Models for Mobile Network Operators-A Survey2022Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, s. 94851-94886Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging Fifth-generation (5G) mobile networks and associated technologies are expected to provide multi-service wireless applications with diverse specifications intended to address not only consumer-based smartphone applications, but also the needs of various vertical industry markets (e.g., healthcare, education, energy, mining, agriculture, manufacturing, and so forth). This paper extends 5G networks' technology orientation towards attaining economic value for all key 5G stakeholders, including customers, mobile network operators (MNOs), equipment vendors, public institutions, private enterprises, digital business start-ups and other third parties. Although several surveys and tutorials have discussed business models in connection with 5G networks, there is no comprehensive study on business models for emerging 5G networks from the MNO's perspective. In this survey article, we present and investigate key advances on business models for 5G networks and 5G MNOs in particular, from industry, use cases and research community perspectives. The paper focuses the theoretical business model concept from both strategic management and technological innovation perspectives. Thereafter, we discuss conventional business models for MNOs before presenting particular disruptive business models which can be considered for rolling out 5G networks with an aim to improve business efficiency. Additionally, the paper explores the emerging network deployment concept of private 5G networks and their related business models. Finally, we present some of the open research challenges and provide possible guidelines for implementing 5G business models based on various countries' socio-economic status and relevant 5G use cases applicable in a specific context of emerging economies.

  • 5.
    Banda, Laurence
    et al.
    Wits Business School (WBS), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits),Johannesburg,South Africa.
    Mzyece, Mjumo
    Wits Business School (WBS), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits),Johannesburg,South Africa.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Wits Business School (WBS), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits),Johannesburg,South Africa.
    Business Models for 5G-IoT Private Networks2023Ingår i: 2023 IEEE AFRICON, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing integration of Internet of Things (IoT) within Fifth-generation (5G) mobile ecosystem promises to provide smart and intelligent services meant to foster vertical industry digitalization. 5G-IoT private networks have become a popular choice of adoption by industry verticals in accelerating digital transformation across various sectors, thereby culminating in Industry 4.0. Research and development on 5G-IoT private networks has mainly focused on the technical aspect with less attention on the business side. This paper discusses viable business model options for 5G-IoT private networks for applications in diverse industry sectors and the attainment of economic value in terms of revenue maximization, cost minimization and sustainability.

  • 6.
    Dixit, Sudhir
    et al.
    Basic Internet Fdn, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Wireless World Res Forum, Oulu, Finland..
    Dutta, Ashutosh
    Johns Hopkins Univ Appl Phys Labs, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Agrawal, Sandeep
    C DoT, Delhi, India..
    Olivas, Marvin Arias
    Natl Univ Engn, Managua, Nicaragua..
    Bhatia, Vimal
    Indian Inst Technol, Indore, India..
    Altamirano Carrillo, Carlos Daniel
    Univ Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador..
    Jha, Pranav
    Indian Inst Technol, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Jabhera, Matogoro
    Univ Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania..
    Karna, Amit
    C DoT, Delhi, India..
    Khanganba, Sanjram Premjit
    Indian Inst Technol, Indore, India..
    Kimambo, Catherine
    African Childs Project, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Lara-Cueva, Roman
    Univ Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Council Sci & Ind Res CSIR, Durban, South Africa..
    Mody, Apurva
    A5 Syst LLC, Pleasanton, CA USA..
    Wasilwa, Nelson
    Commun Author Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kloza, Brad
    IEEE Product Manager.
    Borst, Matt
    IEEE Content Specialist.
    Connecting the Unconnected2022Ingår i: 2022 IEEE FUTURE NETWORKS WORLD FORUM, FNWF, IEEE, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Connecting the Unconnected or under-connected (CTU) is the holy grail of transforming the lives of over 3 billion people around the globe with wireless Internet who are yet to experience its value in multiple ways. If this could be accomplished, its impact on the society would be enormous. This white paper from the IEEE Future Networks CTU Working Group endeavors to highlight the need to consider the CTU requirements in 5G and B5G networks in the standardization process, in the development of the use cases, and affordable solutions. In its Vision 2030 SDG (Sustainability Development Goals) the United Nations has proclaimed access to Internet as basic human right and has said that these goals cannot be achieved without affordable access to Internet by everyone on this planet. While there are numerous projects and initiatives ongoing around the world, these are fragmented and lack the critical mass and coordination to be able to impact the future standards, product development, and cost of deployment otherwise achievable by volume. Although difficult to pin down, to define a threshold for basic connectivity for all is important. But it would need to be flexible to adapt to changing times. It is the goal of the CTU group to create an open platform where the experts can bring their ideas, solutions, and potentially collaborate to create large global projects and influence the network service providers, manufacturers and their governments. This white paper defines the CTU working group's charter, scope, and provides a brief overview of the relevant stakeholders and linkages between them. Then the paper goes into the current status of the CTU landscape and where we want to reach to accomplish the vision of connecting everybody, especially those living in rural and remote areas. We present the various standards and industry fora and how they are interlinked. While technologies are available today, they need to be customized and optimized at the systems level to bring down the cost of the network in order to be affordable. In addition, the content needs to be relevant and in local languages to be useful, not to mention the need to offer innovative human computer interaction (HCI) solutions (that are not text based) so that people who are not literate or are digitally disadvantaged can easily use the devices and consume services. Another important area is that of flexible spectrum allocation regime at the lower range of the spectrum to increase reach and coverage. Use of renewable energy sources will enable deployment in remote areas where there is lack of power grid, or it is intermittent. Thus, this white paper identifies a number of technology gaps to be filled in by 5G and B5G networks, such that access is affordable and content and services are actually consumed by the targeted set of users. Technology aside, the need to develop innovative business models is a must to be commercially sustainable in the long-term. A number of such models, especially designed for the rural population, are proposed, such as Village Level Entrepreneur (VLE) Freemium (Free + Premium), revenue sharing among the chain of service providers, subsidized billing by USOF (Universal Service Obligation Funds). Finally, the white paper presents a 10-year roadmap starting from the current state to 3 years, 5 years and 10 years.

  • 7.
    Dludla, Gcina
    et al.
    CSIR NGEI, POB 395, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR NGEI, POB 395, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Dynamic Spectrum Sharing for Future Wireless Networks: Regulators Perspective2021Ingår i: 2021 IST-Africa Conference (IST-Africa), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio Frequency spectrum is the superhighway enabling a myriad of wireless ICT services and applications. Spectrum scarcity and expensive licensing cost has resulted in research and innovations by the CSIR, wireless network providers and telecom regulators, which helped to develop techniques to dynamically share & manage spectrum, thereby enabling efficient spectrum utilization. Spectrum management based on spectrum sharing techniques such as LSA & SAS are being considered by spectrum regulators, aiming at efficient use of spectrum as a scarce natural resource, while ensuring non-interference & fairness between different radio spectrum users and wireless services. This paper recommends the improvement of spectrum management by regulatory authorities using recent research and technologies developed for spectrum sharing and application of new spectrum licensing frameworks. The paper presents spectrum licensing & management approaches and focuses on the enabling role smart spectrum sharing can play in spectrum efficient and affordable broadband wireless networks. A comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of a regulator licensing spectrum, as compared to allowing mobile operators to sub-license allocated spectrum is also discussed in the paper.

  • 8.
    Jayram, Shastri
    et al.
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, South Africa..
    Ouahada, Khmaies
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, South Africa..
    Rimer, Suvendi
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Future Wireless Networks, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Stochastically Resonant Interference Managing Ontological Cognitive Radio for TV White Space An introduction, review of current research and demonstrating stochastic resonance2016Ingår i: 2016 THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCES IN COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION AND ENGINEERING (ICACCE 2016) / [ed] Kumar, V Singh, UG Sudarsan, SD, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 336-341Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a review of current research, design and development of an Ontological Cognitive Radio (OCR) which uses Stochastically Resonant Spectrum Sensing (SRSS) and Interference Management (IM) to facilitate, expedite and optimize TV White Space is provided. We discuss the OCR basis and address IM aspects briefly, and, discuss and demonstrate the Stochastic Resonance (SR) effect using additive noise.

  • 9.
    Jayram, Shastri
    et al.
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Ouahada, Khmaies
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Rimer, Suvendi
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Pitsillides, Andreas
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, Auckland Pk, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Univ Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Future Wireless Networks, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Stochastically Resonant Spectrum Sensing for White Space Communications Dynamic Spectrum Access and Intelligent Radios and Networks2018Ingår i: Proceedings of 2018 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications and Computing (SigTelCom) / [ed] Bao, VNQ Duy, TT, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, s. 208-213Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and investigates Stochastically Resonant Spectrum Sensing (SRSS) in order to expedite Dynamic Spectrum Access and TV White Space (TVWS) communications. SRSS adds noise to a signal in order to enhance its Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and can be useful in sensing and detecting weak signals, e.g. weak Primary User or even Secondary User activity in TVWS. We demonstrate that SR is a useful Spectrum Sensing technique and can improve SNRs by similar to 8-10 dB using MATLAB simulations. Typically, SRSS uses only Additive SR Noise and we include and also investigate Multiplicative SR Noise effects, showing that in certain instances the latter can also improve SNRs by similar to 2 dB. We compare the Additive versus the combined Additive and Multiplicative cases using Uniform and Normal/ Gaussian distributions and present our results. Our ultimate goal is to include SRSS in an IEEE/DySPAN-SC 1900.* Standards based Interference Managing Ontological Cognitive Radio, Intelligent Radio or Policy Based Radio for Ad-Hoc and Heterogeneous i.e. Composite Wireless Networks.

  • 10.
    Lysko, Albert A.
    et al.
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Masonta, Moshe T.
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mofolo, Mofolo R. O.
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mfupe, Luzango
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Montsi, Litsietsi
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Johnson, David L.
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Ngwenya, Dumisa W.
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Ntlatlapa, Ntsibane S.
    CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Hart, Arno
    TENET, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Harding, Charlie
    Google Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    Lee, Andy
    Google Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    First Large TV White Spaces Trial in South Africa: A Brief Overview2014Ingår i: 2014 6th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014, s. 407-414Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper overviews African first of the really large scale trials of television (TV) white space (TVWS) technology and white space devices (WSDs) designed to co-use the frequency spectrum allocated to TV broadcasting. The WSD obtains information about availability of the spectrum in a particular area for a particular period of time from a geolocation spectrum database (GLSD). The GLSD bases its estimations about the availability on stored information about primary users/transmitters in the area, propagation prediction algorithms and local spectrum management regulations. As the overall system is fairly complex and new, extensive testing and trials are required to prove its functionality and compatibility with existing users of the spectrum. Some of the experiences, specifically those from the largest in Africa TVWS trial providing Internet to 10 large schools, held in Tygerberg, South Africa, and conclusions on testing of WSD and use of white space are overviewed.

  • 11.
    Masonta, Moshe T.
    et al.
    Tshwane Univ Technol, FSATI, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa.;CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mzyece, Mjumo
    Tshwane Univ Technol, FSATI, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Djouani, Karim
    Tshwane Univ Technol, FSATI, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Adaptive Spectrum Decision Framework for Heterogeneous Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2015 12th IEEE International Conference on Green Innovation for Africon Renaissance (AFRICON), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectrum decision is the ability of a cognitive radio (CR) system to select the best available spectrum band to satisfy dynamic spectrum access network (DSAN) users' quality of service (QoS) requirements without causing harmful interference to primary users. In order to have reliable spectrum decision, CR nodes or secondary users (SUs) should identify available spectrum bands and from these candidate spectrum, a SU can select channels which are suitable to meet user QoS requirements. This paper proposes an adaptive spectrum decision framework (ASDF) which is a channel allocation scheme that selects suitable channels from a list of available channels based on SU preferred options. The scheme relies on a geo-location spectrum database for identification of available chanels. Key parameters (i.e. available channel bandwidth, time, and power) are extracted from each available spectrum and tagged according to their level in order to build a matrix of available channels. Our ASDF then maps channels with SUs based on channel properties and SU preferred options. Simulation results show that our ASDF is reliable and consistent when it comes to channel selection. Furthermore, our scheme provides efficient bandwidth utilization when compared to the first come first serve channel allocation scheme.

  • 12.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Enabling Wireless Broadband Technologies and Services for the Next Billion Users2011Ingår i: IEEE AFRICON 2011, CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa.: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As wireless devices and the useful services they can deliver become more pervasive and affordable; the need for wireless broadband technologies meeting the demands of emerging market countries is growing. In this paper the technology choice in wireless broadband access and service architecture is discussed with reference to three important wireless broadband technologies and relevant parameters such as service activation, authentication and delivery, cost effectiveness and sustainability. The main focus of the article is towards wireless broadband technology deployment in developing countries and rural communities for providing innovative wireless broadband services.

  • 13.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    et al.
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, Telecom & Media, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mfupe, Luzango
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, Future Wireless Networks, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Spectrum Sharing & Affordable Broadband in 5G2017Ingår i: 2017 Global Wireless Summit (GWS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 114-118Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 5th generation wireless ICT eco-system is being standardized with 3 important pillars of innovation: (a) Low latency, (b) Enhanced gigabits wireless broadband and (c) massive machine type communication. 5G is expected to transform the way humans and devices communicate and exchange services and automation of industry. The aim of this paper is to extend recent research in unlicensed wireless technologies, including current 5G research activities to develop use cases and associated technologies to address the requirements of affordable wireless broadband The ITU broadband commission clearly indicates the need for affordable broadband connectivity and provision of ICT based societal services in emerging markets and specifically rural communities. The three aspects are spectrum sharing including unlicensed spectrum networks, energy efficiency including green networking and the promise of network infrastructure cost reduction by SDN/NFV technologies. In this paper the first aspect on spectrum sharing for 5G and affordable networks will be discussed with a network test-bed developed as proof of concept. Finally the paper will conclude with a challenge to existing and future research in technology standards for 5G to contribute towards the achievement of universal affordable broadband for the next billion customers.

  • 14.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    et al.
    CSIR Meraka Inst, Telecom & Media, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mfupe, Luzango
    CSIR Meraka Inst, Future Wireless Networks, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Spectrum Sharing for Unlicensed 5G Networks2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    5th generation wireless ICT eco-system promises three important pillars of network innovation: (a) Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication, (b) Enhanced gigabits wireless broadband and (c) massive machine type communication. 5G is expected to transform the way humans and devices communicate and exchange services and improved automation of industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss recent research in spectrum sharing and unlicensed wireless networks, including its extension to 5G research based on use cases and associated technologies to address the requirements of affordable wireless broadband. The paper presents research contributions on spectrum toolboxes, including smart spectrum sharing for 5G and affordable networks. The research outcome will be presented with a proof of concept network test-bed developed in South Africa. Finally the paper will conclude with a challenge to existing and future research in technology standards for 5G to contribute towards the achievement of universal affordable broadband for the next billion customers.

  • 15.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    et al.
    CSIR, Networked Syst & Applicat, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Nigussie, Ethiopia
    Univ Turku, Dept Comp, Fac Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Schmitt, Eva
    Tech Univ Dresden, Fac Elect Engn, Vodafone Chair Mobile Commun, Dresden, Germany..
    Gonzalez, Arturo
    Tech Univ Dresden, Fac Elect Engn, Vodafone Chair Mobile Commun, Dresden, Germany..
    Tegegne, Tesfa
    Bahir Dar Inst Technol, ICT4D Reseach Ctr, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Fettweis, Gerhard
    Tech Univ Dresden, Fac Elect Engn, Vodafone Chair Mobile Commun, Dresden, Germany..
    Rescuing the Fresh Water Lakes of Africa through the Use of Drones and Underwater Robots2021Ingår i: 2021 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Development for Africa (ICT4DA) / [ed] Nigussie, E Alemneh, E Tegegne, T Mekuria, F Dargie, W, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, s. 154-159Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a conceptual system architecture for real-time monitoring, predicting and controlling of invasive water hyacinth in freshwater bodies through the use of emerging technologies. The proposed system is planned to be deployed as one of the rescue efforts to preserve the fresh water lakes of Africa. The case study and the system presented in this paper are based on the Lake Tana, situated near the city of Bahir Dar, in Ethiopia. The rescuing efforts of Lake Tana so far focused on removal of the weed by hand and using harvesting machines. With the weed invasion doubling every two weeks, the current approaches will not be able to control the rapid invasion of the weed, which is causing considerable socioeconomic losses. The proposed system architecture employs networked underwater robots, aerial drones and other environmental sensors for better mapping of the weed coverage in real-time, predicting the floating paths of the weed, and learning the favourable environmental conditions of the lake for eradicating the invasive weed. The advantages of the proposed technical intervention lie not only in accurate monitoring and fast removal of the weed, but also in facilitating data collection for better understanding of the underlying environmental and chemical conditions that facilitate the rapid infestation and growth of the invasive weed.

  • 16.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    et al.
    Grad Sch Telecom & IT, GSTIT, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Sutherland, Ewan
    Grad Sch Telecom & IT, GSTIT, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Future networks and services in sub-saharan Africa2006Ingår i: 2006 Innovations in Information Technology, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An assessment of the enabling environment for future networks and services in Sub-Saharan Africa. The development of GSM services was rapid, profitable but not uniform. 3G is beginning, but lacks a business model beyond simple Internet access. Fixed broadband has been slow, with a small base of fixed lines, supplemented by WIMAX experiments. Telecommunications regulation has often focused on interpretation of licence conditions, rather then opening markets. Clear regulation is a prerequisite for the development of content, but it has been too sensitive for governments to address directly. Significant policy changes are necessary to achieve the MDGs.

  • 17.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    et al.
    Meraka Inst, CSIR, POB 395, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Twala, Bhekisipho
    Univ Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Marwala, Tshilidzi
    Univ Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Ntlatlapa, N.
    Meraka Inst, CSIR, POB 395, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Building a Sustainable Research & HCD Eco-system: Case Study of Two Wireless Communication Eco Systems2013Ingår i: 2013 IST-Africa Conference and Exhibition (IST-AFRICA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the organization and management of two wireless eco-systems in next generation wireless communications research and human capacity development. The developed eco-systems have been tested and presented at an international workshop organized by the council for science and industrial research and collaborating universities in South Africa. Furthermore, the possibility of extending such a framework to the regional context to improve wireless communications research, standards, human capacity development and technology innovation endeavours of emerging economies is presented. Finally the paper proposes a technology transfer and innovation framework to convert ideas and new technology solutions in the wireless eco-systems into small scale service and knowledge based industries.

  • 18.
    Mfupe, Luzango
    et al.
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa.;Tshwane Univ Technol TUT, Dept Elect Engn, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mzyece, Mjumo
    Tshwane Univ Technol TUT, Dept Elect Engn, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Geo-location White Space Spectrum Databases: Models and Design of South Africa's First Dynamic Spectrum Access Coexistence Manager2014Ingår i: KSII TRANSACTIONS ON INTERNET AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, ISSN 1976-7277, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 3810-3836Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Geo-location white space spectrum databases (GL-WSDBs) are currently the preferred technique for enabling spectrum sharing between primary users and secondary users or white space devices (WSDs) in the very-high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) bands. This is true because technologies for making low-cost WSDs capable of autonomous sensing and detection of available white space (WS) spectrum are not yet feasible. This paper reviews the necessary enabling technical conditions to allow coexistence of primary and secondary systems in the VHF and UHF spectrum through a GL-WSDB approach. The practical implementation of South Africa's first GL-WSDB was performed. Results of WS channels available from five cities in South Africa calculated from the implemented GL-WSDB was compared with a commercially available GL-WSDB and was found to be 68% similar. Additionally, results from the implemented GL-WSDB were compared with measurements obtained from field spectrum scanning campaigns at two different locations in Cape Town, South Africa, and was found to be 64% similar.

  • 19.
    Mfupe, Luzango
    et al.
    CSIR, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mzyece, Mjumo
    Tshwane Univ Technol, Dept Elect Engn, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Spectrum Management Frameworks for Futuristic Wireless Networks: The Context of Developing Countries2017Ingår i: International Journal of Mobile Information Systems, ISSN 1574-017X, E-ISSN 1875-905X, Vol. 2017, artikel-id 8610353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    National regulatory authorities (NRAs) in developing countries need an accelerated means to formulate technical regulations for the telecommunications sector. This will enable countries to gain maximum benefits from the rapid advances in technology. The existing regulation-making processes are time-consuming and do not cope with the emergence of global technological changes. This article presents an efficient and quicker approach to formulate regulatory framework to govern the wireless technologies that are based on the Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) technique. The approach utilises Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) tools. The article uses a case study to evaluate dominant Dynamic Spectrum Management (DSM) frameworks. Finally, a sustainable DSM framework that has potential to address the digital divide challenges in the context of developing countries is proposed.

  • 20.
    Mfupe, Luzango
    et al.
    Tshwane Univ Technol, Dept Elect Engn, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa.;CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Montsi, Listietsi
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mzyece, Mjumo
    Tshwane Univ Technol, Dept Elect Engn, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Enabling Dynamic Spectrum Access through Location Aware Spectrum Databases2013Ingår i: AFRICON, 2013, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013, s. 517-522Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) regulations and associated radio network technologies are expected to result in efficient frequency spectrum utilization by future wireless networks. TV white space (TVWS) networks supported by location aware spectrum databases (LASDs) will be the first step to realize DSA, until cost-effective cognitive radio (CR) devices are reliable enough for building future networks. This paper describes a design and development process of a LASD for rural communities in South Africa. Apart from avoiding the difficult problem of spectrum sensing, the database also protects primary TV broadcasters from any harmful interference that might be caused due to secondary spectrum usage. The LASD is designed as a tool for testing DSA policy frameworks and enables reconfigurable TVWS networks to provide full capacity and affordable wireless broadband Internet connectivity for rural communities.

  • 21.
    Mthethwa, Nosipho
    et al.
    Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,Pretoria,South Africa.
    Sebopetse, Nakampe
    Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,Pretoria,South Africa.
    Vilakazi, Mla
    Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,Pretoria,South Africa.
    Mfupe, Luzango
    Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,Pretoria,South Africa.
    Mofolo, Mofolo
    Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,Pretoria,South Africa.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Sustainable Internet4All in South African Rural and Township Communities2023Ingår i: 2023 IEEE AFRICON, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    International Telecommunications Unions (ITU) and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSMA) statistics show that over half of the world's population is still not connected to broadband Internet, let alone to get services based on emerging digital technologies. Most of these digitally excluded communities are situated in rural emerging economy countries and experience the brunt of the adverse effects of the digital divide. This paper presents the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Television White Space (TVWS) deployment ecosystem and the complementary projects for the provision of affordable broadband connectivity in rural and township communities in South Africa. Subsequently, the paper presents the socio-economic impact achieved by the four women and youth-owned beneficiary Small, Micro, and Medium Enterprises (SMMEs) Rural Network Operators (RNOs) which were supported by the CSIR in Phase I of the project. Furthermore, this paper briefly introduces the nine women and youth-owned beneficiary RNOs that will be supported in Phase II of the project.

  • 22.
    Nigussie, Ethiopia
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Olwal, Thomas O.
    Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Lemma, Atli
    Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Peterson, Bo
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    IoT Architecture for Enhancing Rural Societal Services in Sub-Saharan Africa2020Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 177, s. 338-344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of IoT in contributing towards sustainable economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through digital transformation and effective service delivery is widely accepted. However, the unreliability/unavailability of connectivity and power grid infrastructure as well as the unaffordability of the overall system hinders the implementation of a multi-layered IoT architecture for rural societal services in SSA. In this work, affordable IoT architecture that operates without reliance on broadband connectivity and power grid is developed. The architecture employs energy harvesting system and performs data processing, actuation decisions and network management locally by integrating a customized low- cost computationally capable device with the gateway. The sharing of this device among the water resource and quality management, healthcare and agriculture applications further reduces the overall system cost. The evaluation of LPWAN technologies reveals that LoRaWAN has lower cost with added benefits of adaptive data rate and largest community support while providing comparable performance and communication range with the other technologies. The relevant results of the analysis is communicated to end-users’ mobile device via 2G/3G GPRS. Hence, the proposed IoT architecture enables the implementation of IoT systems for improving efficiency in three key application areas at low cost.

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  • 23.
    Ntuli, Elesa
    et al.
    Tshtwane Univ Technol, Dept Comp Engn, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Du, Chunling
    Tshtwane Univ Technol, Dept Comp Engn, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Future Wireless Technol, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Review of Interference Mitigation Techniques for White Space Networks2019Ingår i: 2nd IEEE Wireless Africa Conference (IEEE WAC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, s. 31-36Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An important challenge to guarantee the successful operation of white space networks based on spectrum sharing, in a heterogeneous wireless network environment, is mitigation of interference. Interference mitigation (IM) is a term used to describe the techniques applied to minimize interference between networks operating in the same or adjacent spectrum hands. This paper will present a review of existing interference mitigation techniques with the aim of improving co-existence between spectrum sharing white space networks; it will also improve network quality of service. Furthermore, the paper will provide a detailed description of some of the recent IM techniques developed for TV white space networks, involving the geo-location spectrum database (GLSD) and reconfigurable radio devices.

  • 24.
    Olwal, Thomas Otieno
    et al.
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, Wireless Comp & Network, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, Wireless Comp & Network, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    The FIREMAN: Foraging-Inspired Energy Management in Multi-Radio Wi-Fi Networks2013Ingår i: AFRICON, 2013, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013, s. 448-452Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tremendously rapid evolution of wireless networks into the next generation heterogeneous broadband and mobile networks has necessitated the emergence of the multi-radio, wireless infrastructure. These wireless infrastructural technologies have been designed in such a manner so as to enable them be self-organized, self-configured, reliable and robust, with a capacity that sustains high traffic volumes and long "online" time. However, the desired networking and complex features have resulted in unnecessary network energy consumption, impacting negatively on the economy, environment and the ICT markets. In order to reduce the potential energy consumption in these networks, this paper proposes a novel energy management scheme based on behavioral ecology. Inspired by the applied foraging theory, whereby a solitary forager in a random ecosystem makes optimal decisions that maximizes its energy (nutrients) consumption, survival probability and lifetime; a Foraging-Inspired Radio-Communication Energy Management (FIREMAN) method has been developed. The FIREMAN method achieves both optimal energy consumption and lifetime in multi-radio Wi-Fi networks. The efficacy of the new method has been extensively validated through computer simulations of the energy and throughput performance.

  • 25.
    Olwal, Thomas Otieno
    et al.
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Montsi, Litsietsi
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mofolo, Mofolo
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    The eCOMBAT: Energy Consumption Monitoring Tool for Battery Powered Communication Device2013Ingår i: AFRICON, 2013, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013, s. 453-457Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever rising demand for energy all over the world, following the dwindling of the fossil fuel resources and adverse effects on the climate change, has compelled the need to save energy and lower the cost of energy utilization in the wireless computing, communication and networking applications. One of the best ways to obtain energy-efficient communication and networking is to invest in the renewable energy sources to charge batteries for communication devices and to develop smart energy consumption monitoring tools. As a result, this paper presents an energy monitoring software tool hereby referred to as the 'eCOMBAT' which is aimed at getting real-time information on the quantity of energy consumed by the communication and networking device. The knowledge of such data on time may enable the device user to reduce energy consumption thereby lowering the CO2 emissions into the environment. This paper proposes an integrated battery's discharge and device's energy consumption model; the description of the developed tool and experimental results of the tool obtained via a user friendly and well designed graphic user interface (GUI).

  • 26.
    Somdyala, Bomkazi
    et al.
    ICASA, Private Bag X10002, ZA-2146 Sandton, South Africa..
    Rananga, Seani
    CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mfupe, Luzango
    CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Masonta, Moshe
    CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    CSIR Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Spectrum Regulation for Future Internet Networks in Developing Economies2017Ingår i: 2017 ist-africa week conference (ist-africa), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency spectrum resources play a crucial role as enabler in future wireless ICT infrastructure and development of affordable broadband services. Activities by research organisations such as the CSIR and regulators such as the FCC of the USA, Ofcom of UK and ICASA of South Africa are promoting innovation-based spectrum sharing technologies to improve the effective utilisation of national spectrum resources. Experimental test-beds have been deployed to address affordable broadband demand in underserved communities. Although the technology is most beneficial for emerging economies, telecommunication regulators in Africa are still lagging behind the rest of the world in enacting the necessary enabling dynamic spectrum regulations for the industry to flourish and provide the necessary socio-economic benefit. This paper presents research to support formulation of the dynamic spectrum regulatory framework including co-existence techniques, interference avoidance and network device technology aspects in support of telecom regulators in emerging economies. Furthermore, the paper discusses the importance of spectrum sharing as a component of the emerging 5th Generation networking standard in addressing the exponentially increasing bandwidth capacity demand to enable the planned wireless ICT services.

  • 27.
    Twala, Bhekisipho
    et al.
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, ZA-2006 Johannesburg, South Africa. CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Elect & Elect Engn Sci, ZA-2006 Johannesburg, South Africa. CSIR, Meraka Inst, ZA-0001 Pretoria, South Africa..
    Ensemble Multisensor Data Using State-of-the-Art Classification Methods2013Ingår i: AFRICON, 2013, IEEE , 2013, s. 1255-1260Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection and identification from sensing image is a common task for many applications. In order to improve the performance of detection and identification the use of multiple classifier combination is demonstrated and evaluated in the paper using two industrial image datasets. Experiments show that multiple classifier combination can improve the performance of image classification and image detection and identification with boosting and bagging achieve higher accuracy rates. Accordingly, good performance is consistently derived from static parallel systems.

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