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  • 1. Aagergaard, Sine
    et al.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Skogvang, Bente
    Scandinavian women’s football in world: migration, management and mixed identity2013Inngår i: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 769-780Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue has grown out of an ongoing Nordic collaborative research project (Nordcorp) using Scandinavian women’s football as a strategically selected extreme case (of organizational development) to study a Nordic sport model in transition. The common point of interest for the project group, which overlaps with the editors and authors in this issue of Soccer and Society, is a fascination with the current development of Scandinavian women’s football that stands out as an intriguing subject for bothsports research and the social sciences.

  • 2.
    Ahlberg, Annika
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Förståelse av och förhållningssätt till hälsa: några elevers syn på hälsa och skolämnet idrott och hälsa2015Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of health should not be viewed as one-dimensional, but rather a complex interplay between physical, psychological and social factors (WHO, 2014). The Swedish curriculum highlights that the school’s responsibility is to support pupils’ knowledge and promote health. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to consider pupils understanding of and attitudes towards health in the context of the subject Physical Education and Health (PEH) at school. Data was collected through the use of focus groups, questionnaires and epistolary dialog. The pupils’ ways of describing health were analysed through Zygmunt Bauman’s (2008) consuming theory and Thomas Ziehe’s (1986, 1999) concepts of cultural liberation, cultural expropriation, the performance principle and authenticity. The result shows that the pupils in the study had a good level of understanding about health. They described health as a complex concept in physical, psychological and social terms. This understanding of health affected the pupils in different ways. For example a feeling of pleasure was described by pupils who appeared well-grounded and spontaneous, while those who experienced pressure in their daily life expressed feelings of higher expectations regarding their own health practices. PEH teachers need to consider not only knowledge content of the subject area, but also variations of self-image among the pupils in their class, and the impact this can have on the way pupils un-derstand the health messages being taught in the classroom.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 3.
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Action for Good Governance in International Sports Organisations2013Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Eliteidrættens krav til offentlige idrætsanlæg2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    "Good governance" i den internationella idrottsvärlden2014Inngår i: I gråzonen: en antologi om idrottens etiska utmaningar, Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2014, s. 54-68Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet definierar begreppet "good governance" och använder sedermera begreppet för att analysera och beskriva tillståndet i de 35 internationella idrottsförbund som har en eller flera idrottsgrenar representerade på det olympiska programmet. Resultatet visar att en majoritet av organisationernas aktiviteter inte är i linje med "good governance".

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Hög standard? En studie om kommunal anläggningspolitik och elitfotbollens standardiserande arenakrav2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan millennieskiftet har den kommunala idrottspolitiken i Sverige och Danmark alltmer kretsat kring elitidrottens krav på anläggningar. Medan företrädare för idrotten krävt ökade investeringar, ofta med hänvisningar till de nationella eller internationella idrottsförbundens standardiserade arenakrav, har kritiker invänt att arenakraven är orimligt stora och inte i överensstämmelse med kommunernas faktiska behov. Trots kritiken har få kommuner i praktiken kunnat stå emot de höjda anläggningskraven, särskilt om motståndet riskerat att utmynna i bestraffningar för kommunens egna elitlag.Denna avhandling handlar om de politiska processer och kom munala erfarenheter som elitfotbollens arenakrav ger upphov till. Från institu­tionell utgångspunkt analyseras svenska och danska kommuners möjligheter, utmaningar och problem i mötet med elitfotbollens standardiserade arenakrav. Hur kan vi förstå elitfotbollens inflytande över den kommunala idrottspolitiken? Vilka handlingsalternativ har kommunala aktörer? Varför agerar kommunala aktörer som de gör? Detta är frågor som analyseras. Författaren intresserar sig särskilt på de institutionella regleringar som i många fall är styrande för den kommunala anläggningspolitiken – men han konstaterar också att det tas kommunala initiativ för att förändra de strukturer som arena­kraven ger upphov till.Jens Alm (f. 1982) är verksam som analytiker vid Idrættens Analyse­institut i Köpenhamn. Hög standard? En studie om kommunal anläggningspolitik och elitfotbollens standardiserande arenakrav är hans doktorsavhandling i idrottsvetenskap.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Comprehensive summary
  • 7.
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Idrott är politik: en studie kring elitidrottens arenor2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att analysera och förklara tillkomsten av elitidrottens arenor. Delaney & Eckstein (2004) har i en amerikansk kontext tittat närmare på offentliga investeringar i elitidrottsarenor och varför de uppförs. Få liknande studier finns för en skandinavisk kontext trots att offentliga investeringar är grunden för de skandinaviska idrottsanläggningarna. Kommuner är den främsta aktören och idrottens samhällsnytta är ett bärande argument. Debatten om huruvida kommuner ska investera i elitidrottsarenor inrymmer flera potentiella (idrotts)politiska konflikter mellan det offentliga och den organiserade idrotten samt inom idrottsområdet i sig.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV). Danish Institute for Sports Studies, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Swedish municipalities and competitive sport’s stadium requirements: competing or mutual interests?2016Inngår i: International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 455-472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the extent of an institutional change within the organisational field of municipalities and competitive sport in Sweden. First, there is both a continuation of and a challenge to the institutional relationship between municipalities and competitive sport as a result of new institutional logics. Second, although there are competing institutional logics, the municipalities have an ambivalent approach towards the stadium requirements from competitive sport. On the one hand, the municipalities wish to continue their mutual exchange with competitive sport, and finance and support it, while avoiding competing institutional logics within the organisational field. On the other hand, if they are not able to have an increased influence over the development of the stadium requirements, the municipalities express that they define the stadium requirements as private issue and a task for competitive sport itself. The conclusion is that the financing of stadium requirements and the definition of them as a public issue is under negotiation and the new institutional logics have resulted in a battle over policy formulation and a less predictable policy area.

  • 9.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV). Danish Inst Sports Studies, Kanonbadsvej 4A, DK-1437 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Solberg, Harry Arne
    Sor Trondelag Coll Univ, Trondheim Business Sch, Klaebuveien 72, N-7004 Trondheim, Norway.
    Storm, Rasmus K
    Danish Inst Sports Studies, Kanonbadsvej 4A, DK-1437 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jakobsen, Tor Georg
    Sor Trondelag Coll Univ, Trondheim Business Sch, Klaebuveien 72, N-7004 Trondheim, Norway.
    Hosting major sports events: the challenge of taming white elephants2016Inngår i: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 564-582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While the literature on the economic impacts of major sports events has grown considerably over the years, the question of utilisation of venues built for these events after the party is over has received little attention. This article fills some of the gaps in the literature. By means of a Stadium Utilisation Index, it measures the post-event utilisation of venues that were constructed of significantly refurbished to host major sports events in the period from 1996 to 2010. It reveals some of the challenges facing the utilisation of the venues once ‘the circus has left town’. The regressions identify that private owned stadiums have a higher rate of utilisation than publicly built venues. The stadiums with the highest capacity tend to have higher utilisation. Last, but not least in terms of importance, stadiums in nations with a high degree of corruption had the lowest utilisation.

  • 10.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Storm, Rasmus K
    Fodboldens krav til kommunale stadionfaciliteter: et institutionelt perspektiv2014Inngår i: Forum for Idraet, ISSN 1904-2183, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 9-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although attendance figures in Danish football’s first tier are not in line with the Danish FA’s stadium requirements, the municipalities, which to a large degree fund the stadiums, comply with the stadium requirements and assist the clubs in obtaining their necessary league licenses. Taking on an institutional perspective, this study answers the question of why Danish municipalities follow these requirements and fund professional football stadiums that have a much bigger capacity than their regular attendance demands. The findings of the study can be summarized in three parts. First, coercive isomorphic processes are present within the homogenization process Danish stadiums are facing. As it is believed to be necessary to enhance facilities in order to keep Danish clubs competitive at the national and international level, the Danish FA, the Danish league, as well as the clubs, have been successful in realizing their demands for bigger stadiums. Second, it is also possible to discern mimetic isomorphic processes in the study. The competitive situation between municipalities, along with a conception of the clubs’ significance in the new experience economy, have contributed to the Danish municipalities’ compliance with the stadium requirements. Thirdly, although the municipalities have complied with the stadium requirements and funded the facilities, the analysis reveals a municipal opposition towards the requirements. However, the power balance between the clubs and municipalities seems to indicate that the clubs have the advantage, as the municipalities, despite their opposition, have conceded to making investments on the basis of the FA’s requirements.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 11.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV). Danish Institute for Sports Studies, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Storm, Rasmus K.
    Danish Institute for Sports Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark;Trondheim Business School, Campus Rotvoll, Ranheim, Norway.
    From Standard to Directive: A Case Study on the Peculiar Policy Processes of Danish Stadium Funding2017Inngår i: Journal of Global Sports Management, ISSN 2470-4067, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 293-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003, the Danish Football Association introduced a new club licensing system for its first-tier clubs. Among the criteria for the system was a requirement for clubs to play at a stadium with a minimum capacity of 10,000 spectators. This paper aims to understand how the Danish Football Association and the Danish league clubs have succeeded in their efforts to make their licensing criteria a public concern by standardizing them at a municipal level. It presents a case study examining how the policy process surrounding the decision of building a new stadium in the Danish village Hobro changed – in a peculiar way – what in institutional theory is understood as a (voluntary) standard into a directive for Mariagerfjord Municipality. The case is illustrative of policy processes regarding stadium funding in other parts of Denmark and most likely in other Scandinavian countries.

  • 12.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Tofft-Jørgensen, Lau
    Brandt, Henrik
    Bang, Søren
    World Stadium Index: stadiums built for major events: bright future or future burden?2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Baltiska spelen: ett genombrott för idrotten2013Inngår i: Malmö 1914: en stad inför språnget till det moderna / [ed] Roger Johansson, Göran Larsson, Mezzo Media , 2013, s. 347-348280Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Den svenska fotbollens glokaliseringsprocess2012Inngår i: Kampen om tribunen: fotball, identitet og makt / [ed] Arve Hjelseth, Hans Hognestad, Akademika forlag, 2012, s. 69-88Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    "Spela fotboll bondjävlar!": en studie av svensk klubbkultur och lokal identitet från 1950 till 2000-talets början. D. 2, Degerfors, Åtvidaberg, Södertälje, Stockholm och Umeå2016Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie om svensk klubbfotboll och lokal identitet under tidsperioden 1950-2000 med fokus på Degerfors, Åtvidaberg, Södertälje, Stockholm/Solna och Umeå.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    The 1958 World Cup in Sweden: between modernity and idyll2014Inngår i: The FIFA World Cup 1930-2010: politics, commerce, spectacle and identities / [ed] Stefan Rinke, Kay Schiller, Wallstein Verlag, 2014, s. 142-161Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Elite Ice Hockey – A Pleasure Only in Major Cities?: A Comparison of Swedish and Finnish Elite Ice Hockey Clubs Geographical Location 2015/20162017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/problem/issue One feature that characterizes National Hockey League (NHL) is that NHL-owners run NHL-clubs in geographical cities/regions that have the best conditions for marketing NHL. Professionalization and commercialization of NHL has also huge impact on global elite ice hockey’s development and commercialization (Kidd and Macfarlane, 1972). NHL influences (i.e. Americanization of sport) have also reached Swedish and Finnish elite ice hockey (Backman, 2012). Even though Sweden and Finland are countries with strong historical ties and a similar tradition of organizing sport (i.e. amateurism and promotion and relegation) representatives of elite ice hockey has chosen different paths (Backman, 2012). Swedish sport and elite ice hockey is organized according to the European Model of Sport with the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation as governing body for all Swedish ice hockey. In Finland the elite ice hockey representatives has chosen to implement several significant feature of the NHL (i.e. American Model of Sport). For example one from the Finnish Ice Hockey Federation autonomous SM-liiga, that runs the elite league, and a closed league, with no promotion or relegation (Backman, 2012). The main problem and research task question is hereby to analyze if this organizational difference has affected the geographical structure where Swedish and Finnish elite ice hockey clubs was located geographically in relation to the size of population 2015/2016 season. Theory Americanization. The term Americanization means of tradition that American influence and culture is received/imported/forced to a country (Alm, 2002). Americanization has mainly been used in three different meanings. According to the first meaning the concept of Americanization is seen as a center and periphery relationship between the US and the world. As the world's most powerful state, the US, through its economic and political strength have exported their culture to other countries (Alm, 2002). In a hockey perspective this is related to the NHL's hegemonic position. In a second sense, a joint development of modernization is ongoing in the US and Europe. The third meaning refers Americanization to international intermediation of values, ideas and images and symbols with a clear American origin. The provision of these American impulses can be discussed in terms of center/periphery relations between the US and the world. The American impulses are not included in the same shape in the recipient countries; these have been adapted to the conditions in the recipient country. In this case, it is not about America's domination but about what each recipient country chosen to receive (Alm, 2002). In a hockey perspective, the third meaning is related to the impulses from the NHL as the representatives of the Swedish and Finnish ice hockey implemented and implements in each country's elite ice hockey. Method Comparative study based on document analysis. My documents consist of public statistics from Statistics Sweden and Finnish Population Register Center, media publications, research about NHL, Swedish and Finnish ice hockey and the American and European Model of Sport. Result In the Swedish elite league (SHL) six of a total of fourteen clubs were from the ten largest municipalities in terms of population. Five clubs were from municipalities located 11-30. Other clubs were from smaller municipalities. One club came from the municipality that did not belong to the fifty largest in terms of population. In Swedish ice hockey there are exceptions from the principle that cities or regions with biggest ice hockey interest have clubs in the elite league (Östman, 1996). Hereto several large Swedish cities don’t have elite league ice hockey, for example Norrköping, Uppsala and Umeå. This development can be explained by Swedish elite ice hockey’s structure, i.e. sporting logic with promotion and relegation, and close connection to the European Model of Sport. In the Finnish elite ice hockey league (SM-liiga) ten of the fifteen clubs was geographically located in the ten most populous municipalities. Five clubs were from municipalities located 11-30 in terms of population. I should be noted that the biggest Finnish elite ice hockey club in economic terms, Jokerit HC from Helsinki, plays since 2014/2015 in the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL). According to historian Jani Mesikämmen Finnish elite ice hockey began to be concentrated in the larger cities in connection with the ice hockey sport’s emergence (Mesikämmen, 2001). Finnish elite ice hockey is by these facts closer to the NHL’s geographical structure (i.e. American Model of Sport) than Swedish elite ice hockey. A feature of the Swedish ice hockey (and the European Model of Sport) is that small clubs in small cities/regions can advance to the elite league (SHL). References Alm, Martin (2002), Americanitis: Amerika som sjukdom eller läkemedel: svenska berättelser om USA åren 1900–1939 [Americanitis: America as disease or medicine: Swedish stories about the US the years 1900-1939], Diss. Lunds universitet. Backman, Jyri (2012), I skuggan av NHL: En organisationsstudie av svensk och finsk elitishockey, licentiatavhandling [In the shade of the NHL: An organizational study of Swedish and Finnish elite ice hockey], Göteborgs universitet, IPD-rapporter/institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, 2012 Nr. 4. Kidd, Bruce and Macfarlane, John (1972), The Death of Hockey, New press, Toronto. Mesikämmen, Jani (2001), ”From Part-time Passion to Big-time Business: The Professionalization of Finnish Ice Hockey” in Howell D. Colin [ed.] (2011), Putting it in Ice, Volume II: Internationalizing ´Canada´s Game´, Gorsebrook Research Institute, Saint Mary´s University, Halifax. Östman, Lars (1996), Från byalagen till Leksand Stars [From a village team to Leksand Stars], Con Scientia, Nacka.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 18.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    I skuggan av NHL: en organisationsstudie av svensk och finsk elitishockey2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna licentiatuppsats har svenska elitseriens respektive finska SM-liigas seriemodeller analyserats i ljuset av NHL:s dominans över den globala ishockeyn. Bakgrunden till problemområdet är att företrädarna för svensk respektive finsk elitishockey implementerat olikartade organisatoriska lösningar, trots att de utvecklats i kontexter med likartade sportmodeller och samhällsvillkor. Metodologiskt bygger denna licentiatuppsats på komparativa studier. Som grund för min analys har jag använt mig av dokumentanalys med inslag av rättsdogmatik. Den teoretiska ramen har utgjorts av historikern Martin Alms amerikaniseringsbegrepp samt juristen och forskaren Lars Halgreens analys om amerikaniseringen av europeisk sport. Följande frågeställningar har analyserats: Hur har elitserien respektive SM-liiga utvecklats i relation till den amerikanska respektive europeiska sportmodellen, sedan 1970-talets mitt? Vilka kännetecken kan fastställas för de respektive organisationsmodellerna? På vilka sätt skiljer respektive liknar de varandra samt vilka förutsättningar för parallellverkan kan urskiljas, dels generellt och dels specifikt i en ishockeykontext? Vilka tendenser och inslag kan skönjas i elitserien respektive SM-liiga av det faktum att ishockeyn genom åren både sportsligt och kommersiellt dominerats av NHL? Min studie visar att ishockeysporten är en spjutspets i amerikaniseringen och kommersialiseringen av nordisk sport samt att ishockeyns kommersialisering och professionalisering i någon form leder till en amerikanisering. Studien visar att företrädarna för den finska elitishockeyn haft stor autonomi präglat av förbundssplittring, vilket har sin förklaring i Finlands 1900-talshistoria. Denna självständighet har utgjort grund för den finska elitishockeyns snabba och häftiga utveckling efter andra världskriget. I jämförelse är Sverige präglat av konsensusorientering med Sveriges Riksidrottsförbund som centraladministration och paraplyorganisation för hela den svenska idrotten, även om Svenska Hockeyligan Ab på senare år fått allt större roll inom svensk ishockey. En slutsats är att Finlands högsta ishockeyserie kan anses vara en hybrid mellan den amerikanska respektive europeiska sportmodellen. Sveriges högsta ishockeyserie är å andra sidan närmare sammanlänkad med den europeiska sportmodellen, även om det finns stora kommersiella intressen inom svensk elitishockey.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    KHL: en rysk ishockeybjörn reser sig ur den sovjetiska ishockeyns ruiner2017Inngår i: Idrott, historia och samhälle: Svenska idrottshistoriska föreningens årsskrift. 2017 / [ed] Daniel Alsarve, Svenska Idrottshistoriska Föreningen , 2017, s. 7-30Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how the proud and successful Soviet/Russian ice hockey has recovered in the wake of the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991. Since ice hockey was introduced in the Soviet Union, the country became a superpower on the global ice hockey scene, the national team won for example 7 Olympic gold, 22 World Cup and Canada Cup in 1981. The Soviet national ice hockey team – “The Big Red Machine” – was a fierce opponent during the Cold War. After the last Soviet leader and its first and last executive president Mikhail Gorbachev initiated glasnost and perestroika in the wake of a decaying empire would change the Soviet Union and the world. And ice hockey. The proud and successful Soviet ice hockey was ravaged. After Russia failed in several international ice hockey tournaments, president Vladimir Putin decided that it was time to reintroduce Russian ice hockey where it belongs. The result: Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) was established in 2008.

  • 20.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Licensierings- och registreringssystemet för spelaragenter: en komparativ undersökning inom svensk respektive finsk elitishockey2014Inngår i: Artikelsamling 2014 / [ed] Krister Malmsten, SISU Idrottsböcker , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Multia Arenas in Swedish Elite Ice Hockey: A Tax Challenge?2017Inngår i: The 25th EASM Conference 5–8 September 2017 Bern and Magglingen, Switzerland Challenges and Developments of Sport Organisations: Book of Abstracts, Institute of Sport Science, University of Bern , 2017, s. 302-303Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/problem/issue Swedish ice hockey is by tradition built on the principles of the European Model of Sport (pyramid struc- ture, non-profit, utility maximization, youth fostering, and promotion and relegation etc.) and governed by the Swedish Sport Confederation. Corporation is however allowed since 1999, i.e. sport plc. But, unlike business life generally the Swedish Sport Confederation don’t allow full corporation, there is a so called 51-percent barrier, which means that a non-profit sport club must own the majority of votes in its sport plc. (Malmsten & Pallin, 2005). With inspiration from National Hockey League (NHL), i.e. Americanization of sport, new modern multi arenas has mushroomed in Swedish elite ice hockey during the first decade of the new millennium (Lundberg, 2009). These new multi arenas has not only created better sporting facilities. They have also created new sources for revenues and establishment of (sport) business groups. Generally, in Swedish elite ice hockey a non-profit sport club is majority (sole) owner of a multi arena throw a real estate company. To understand some of the legal challenges that arises for clubs in Swedish elite ice hockey, and their plc.’s, take-off must be taken in the Swedish (2005: 551) Companies Act. According to Companies Act (Chap. 1, §11) a limited liability company is a parent company if the limited company owns more than 50 percent of the votes or shares in the subsidiary. A socalled mother-daughter relationship, also called a genuine busi- ness group. Similar rules are contained in the Swedish (1995: 1554) Annual Accounts Act (Chap. 1, §4). If the requisites is not met, instead, a spurious (sport) business group arises. This means directly that a Swed- ish sport business group is a spurious business group, due to the fact that non-profit sport club’s must own the majority of votes, i.e. the non-profit sport club is parent company. This means from a Swedish corporate and tax law perspective that group contributions can’t be made (Swedish Income Tax Act [1999: 1229], chap. 22 and 35). The reason why Swedish sport business groups are not allowed to do group contributions is that corporate income would avoid taxation. In addition, competition would be distorted against other business forms with other owners (Ågren, 2011). Two Swedish elite ice hockey clubs that faced the Swedish Tax Agency’s interest in light of this intricate corporate and tax law area is Leksands IF and Modo Hockey Club. The Swedish Tax Authority’s interest were primary based on the question of withdrawal of assets. As a consequence, these two club’s real estate companies have been convicted for withdrawal of assets for the 2006/2007 season with 2.4 million and 1.96 million Swedish crowns. The main problem and research task question is hereby to analyze how the organization and regulation of Swedish elite ice hockey and establishment of new multi arenas creates tax challenges. Theory Theory is not necessary for analyzing Swedish jurisprudence. However, Americanization is a valuable theory to understand the commercialization of Swedish elite ice hockey and the growth of new multi arenas, i.e. American influence and culture is received/imported/forced to a country (Alm, 2002). Method The study is based on jurisprudence and document analysis, primarily of Swedish legislation, case law and preparatory work. Also, publications about Swedish elite ice hockey and the American and European Model of Sport has been used. From a jurisprudence perspective, the Swedish Company Act and Income Tax Act, preparatory work and two indicative judgements from Appeal Court in Sundsvall has been analyzed. By analyzing these legal documents important knowledge is achieved from a corporate and tax law perspec- tive. 302  Result Swedish corporate and tax law can never open up for group contributions for Swedish sport business groups without tax consequences even though sport plc’s has been established. This also applies to sub- sidiaries. The transition from the non-profit sector to the fully taxable corporate sphere has been driven by financial reasons and international influences. By incorporating the well-known benefits of public limited companies and combining these with international influences, representatives of Swedish elite ice hockey want to be competitive. Swedish Corporate Act and Income Tax Act creates challenges for Swedish sport with the 51percent regulation, which can result in unpleasant tax consequences in case of unconsidered re- structuring. This means that international influences from a Swedish corporate law and tax law perspective are not automatically transferable and applicable to Swedish elite sport. Representatives for Swedish elite ice hockey clubs should for this reason work for the removing the 51-percent regulation (i.e. full corpora- tion). Group contributions can then be made without tax consequences. References Ågren, B. (2011). Beskattning av idrottskoncern [Taxation of Swedish sport business groups]. Skattenytt [Tax news, peer review], 254. Alm, M. (2002). Americanitis: Amerika som sjukdom eller läkemedel: svenska berättelser om USA åren 1900–1939 [Americanitis: America as disease or medicine: Swedish stories about the US the years 1900–1939] (Doctoral Dissertation). Lunds universitet. Kammarrätten i Sundsvall [Appeal Court in Sundsvall]. (2013). Mål nr. 1229–11 and Mål nr. 1594–11, 3436–11. Lundberg, H. (2009). Kommunikativt entreprenörskap: underhållningsidrott som totalupplevelse före, un- der och efter formeringen av den svenska upplevelseindustrin 1999–2008 [Communicative entrepre- neurship: Entertainment sport as experience before, under and after the formation of the Swedish entertainment industry 1999–2008] (Doctoral Dissertation). Växjö universitet. Malmsten, K. & Pallin, C. (2005). Idrottens föreningsrätt [Sport association]. Stockholm: Norstedts.

  • 22.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Perspektiv på NHL :s historiska framväxt2017Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, nr November 27, 2017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 23.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Vad är idrottsjuridik?2016Inngår i: Idrottsvetenskap: En introduktion / [ed] Susanna Hedenborg, Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, s. 165-191Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24. Bang, Søren
    et al.
    Storm, Rasmus K
    Alm, Jens
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Stadionleje i Danmark: notat om danske superligaklubbers lejeforhold2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 25.
    Bangsbo, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Duda, Joan
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Hillman, Charles
    Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Faculty of Teacher Education and Sport, Sogn and Fjordane University Colleage, Sogndal, Norway Department of Exercise Epidemiology, Center of Research in Childhood Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Weiss, Maureen
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Williams, Craig A
    Children's Health and Exercise Research Centre, Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Lintunen, Taru
    Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Green, Ken
    University of Chester, Chester, UK.
    Riis Hansen, Peter
    Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.
    Naylor, Patti-Jean
    School of Exercise Science, Physical and Heal, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Ericsson, Ingegerd
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Nielsen, Glen
    Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Froberg, Karsten
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Bugge, Anna
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schipperijn, Jasper
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Dagkas, Symeon
    Health Sport and Biosciences, London, UK.
    Agergaard, Sine
    Department of Public Health, Section for Sports Science, Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus, Denmark.
    von Seelen, Jesper
    Department for Research and Development, UC Syddanmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Charlotte
    Institute of School and Learning, Metropolitan University College, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Skovgaard, Thomas
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Busch, Henrik
    Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016: children, youth, and physical activity in schools and during leisure time2016Inngår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, nr 19, s. 1177-1178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord on the effects of physical activity on children's and youth's fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with presentation of the state-of-the art in each domain followed by plenary and group discussions. Ultimately, Consensus Conference participants reached agreement on the 21-item consensus statement.

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  • 26.
    Bergman, Lotta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för kultur, språk och medier (KSM).
    Ericsson, IngegerdMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Educare 2012:1: Artiklar2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Bergman, Lotta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för kultur, språk och medier (KSM).
    Ericsson, IngegerdMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Educare 2013:1: Artiklar2013Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Bergman, Lotta
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för kultur, språk och medier (KSM).
    Ericsson, IngegerdMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).Hartsmar, NannyMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för natur, miljö, samhälle (NMS).Lang, LenaMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för skolutveckling och ledarskap (SOL).Ljungberg, CarolineMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för barn, unga och samhälle (BUS).Småberg, ThomasMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för Individ och samhälle (IS).Söderman, JohanMalmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen för barn, unga och samhälle (BUS).
    Educare 2014:2: Childhood, Learning and Didactics2014Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 29.
    Bjärsholm, Daniel
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    An interesting and much-needed book that could have done better: A book review of the anthology "Sport Entrepreneurship and Innovation"2017Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, nr 2017-09-27Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 30.
    Bjärsholm, Daniel
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Networking as a Cornerstone within the Practice of Social Entrepreneurship in Sport2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the research During the last decades, society has changed and become increasingly market driven. As a result, organizations within all sectors of society, and particularly those within the nonprofit/voluntary sector, have been encouraged, and in many cases forced, to compete for funding from a diminishing governmental budget while simultaneously minimizing their excessive governmental dependence. Consequentially, traditional sector boundaries have eroded. However, neither the state nor the free market have managed to provide universal social welfare/security or respond to some of our major societal challenges (e.g., mass migration and inequality; Huybrechts & Nicholls, 2012). A possible answer to these challenges might be social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurs are found within the blurred sectors of society. Social entrepreneurs in sports consist of organizations that prioritize social values ahead of both sporting results and financial profits (Schenker & Peterson, 2017), differing from CSR in terms of the organizations’ primary goals and handling of profits (Huybrechts & Nicholls, 2012). Research has however shown that organizations engaged in social entrepreneurship have difficulties in creating sustainable businesses (e.g., Austin, Stevenson & Wei-Skillern, 2006). One possibility often highlighted in research to successfully maintain and develop such businesses is the use of networks. Despite this, Phillips, Lee, Ghobadian, O’Regan and James (2015) show that (a) social entrepreneurs struggle to identify and develop relevant networks, and (b) research needs to be more empirical (qualitative) regarding which roles the actors within the organizations might have for social entrepreneurs. The aim of this study is to better understand and discuss how social entrepreneurship and networking can be manifested in a sports organization. Hence, this study fills a knowledge gap in research on social entrepreneurship in general, and in sport in particular. Theoretical background Social entrepreneurs do not operate in a vacuum, but in a social context in which they navigate to find resources. By synthesizing the welfare triangle, with its theoretical description of society’s organization (Pestoff, 1998), with different types of networks (Lechner, Dowling & Welpe, 2006), it is possible to illustrate, understand and discuss the transboundary work and networking of social entrepreneurs within the blurred sectors of society. Methodology This study is based on an explorative case study of a sports organization within the voluntary sector, situated on a small island in Sweden. The sports organization can, based on Schenker and Peterson’s (2017) theoretical development of the concept of sport and social entrepreneurship, be compared to a social entrepreneurial sports organization. The data includes documents (e.g., annual reports) and semi-structured interviews with six respondents from the sports organization as well as its partners, who were chosen based on the theoretical framework. The data underwent a qualitative content analysis. Data containing the organization’s business and network was first organized based on the theoretical framework. All identified partners were then categorized with respect to the welfare triangle. Lastly, the different collaborations were analysed and discussed in a concept-driven manner. Results The sports organization in question has a multifaceted business, which can be seen as a result of their stated social goal. An example of their social responsibility is that they incorporate youths from a juvenile detention centre into their activities, thereby contributing to the youths’ rehabilitation. The study shows that the organization relies on and uses various types of networks within different sectors of society. Most collaborations are with other actors in the voluntary sector. This finding implies that organizations most easily collaborate with actors with similar sectorial affiliations, probably because these organizations “play” by the same rules (Pestoff, 1998). Also, due to the organizational form, the organization has access to several institutional networks (e.g., with the municipality). Some of these are strengthened by the organization’s use of various reputational networks (e.g., by contact with universities), which increase their legitimacy. However, the organization is not dependent on institutional networks and grants. It generates approximately 55 percent of its revenue by arranging income-generating activities of their own and through the use of different networks (e.g., a commercial local hotel & conference center). Several of these networks are furthermore characterized by both an interdependence and a drive for win-win situations, rather than the unilateral dependence otherwise apparent in research. The present study fills a research gap (Phillips et al., 2015) and contributes to an understanding of the importance of various types of networks. Additionally, although entrepreneurs exist within a certain social context, this study contributes to inspiration for practitioners. References Huybrechts, B. & Nicholls, A. (2012). Social entrepreneurship: Definitions, drivers and challenges. In C. K. Volkmann, K. O. Tokarski, & K. Ernst (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship and social business: An introduction and discussion with case studies (pp. 31–48). Wiesbaden: Springer-Gabler. Lechner, C., Dowling, M. & Welpe, I. (2006). Firm networks and firm development: The role of the relational mix. Journal of Business Venturing, 21, 514–540. Pestoff, V. A. (1998). Beyond the market and the state: Social enterprises and civil democracy in a welfare society. Aldershot: Ashgate. Peterson, T. & Schenker, K. (2017). Sport and social entrepreneurship in the Swedish context. Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics. Advance online publication. 1–16. Phillips, W., Lee, H., Ghobadian, A., O’Regan, N. & James, P. (2015). Social innovation and social entrepreneurship: A systematic review. Group and Organization Management, 40, 428–461.

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  • 31.
    Bjärsholm, Daniel
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Bladh, Greta
    Lidström, Isak
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Hållbar idrott i skola och samhälle: Rapport från SVEBI-konferensen i Växjö, 11–12 november 20152015Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, nr 151127, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 32.
    Bjärsholm, Daniel
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Gerrevall, Per
    Linnér, Susanne
    Peterson, Tomas
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Schenker, Katarina
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Idrott och socialt entreprenörskap: en utmaning för idrottsrörelsen2016Inngår i: Idrottsforskaren, ISSN 0348-9787, nr 2, s. 38-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialt entreprenörskap kan ses som en kritik mot att samhällsstödet inte är tillräckligt. Kritiken kan vara riktad mot såväl det offentliga som det privata. De sociala entreprenörerna skapar en verksamhet som de erbjuder en viss målgrupp, som uppfattas vara i behov av just denna verksamhet. Och liksom målgruppen kan vara i behov av denna verksamhet så kan samhället också uppfattas behöva verksamheten. Ibland är det till och med så att staten ringar in problemen och ger idrottsrörelsen i uppdrag att lösa dem, vilket då kräver att den utmanar och utvecklar sin egen verksamhet.

  • 33.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Att utveckla idrottens anläggningar2015Inngår i: Idéer för idrottsutveckling / [ed] Josef Fahlén, Staffan Karp, SISU Idrottsböcker , 2015, s. 193-208Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Brukar- och medborgardialoger2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning om och utveckling av kollektivtrafik kan bedrivas på många olika sätt. Här berättar K2 om deras Living Lab i Uddevalla med syftet att lära sig mer om samverkansfrågor i kollektivtrafiken och fördjupa insikterna i resenärsperspektivet. Vilka kollektivtrafikfrågor tycker olika aktörer och grupper är viktiga? Vilka olika uppfattningar om kollektivtrafik kommer fram när aktörer och invånare får komma tills tals? Hur kan vi arbeta vidare utifrån dessa? Insatser och inriktning bestäms av vad deltagarna kommer fram till. Arbetet bedrivs gemensamt av två forskningsområden inom K2: Samverkan och Resenärsperspektivet.”

  • 35.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Damerna i underläge på golfbanan2016Inngår i: Idrottens Affärer, nr 2016-08-09Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 36.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Det här önskar människor (krönika)2015Inngår i: Idrottens Affärer, nr 2015-12-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tjejerna lyfte fram köpcentra och caféer och kanske är sociala ytor i anslutning till idrotten för att möjliggöra socialt häng det kanske mest centrala då idrottsytor planeras eller byggs om framöver.

  • 37.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Fast OS är inte så tokigt2016Inngår i: Idrottens Affärer, nr 2016-03-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Här söker alla exponering2016Inngår i: Idrottens Affärer, nr 2016-06-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Här är tjejernas egna svar (krönika)2016Inngår i: Idrottens Affärer, nr 2016-03-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Vi är just tjejer och därför idrottar vi inte och så vi värdesätter betydelsen av att vara med kompisarna”, det är deras egna svar på frågan om varför inte fler tjejer idrottar.

  • 40.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Idrotten i den fysiska planeringen2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att visa på hur kommuner arbetar med fysisk planering, till exempel översiktsplanering, och hur idrotten och idrottsfrågor kommer in eller kan komma in i planeringsprocessen. Kopplat till detta syftar projektet också till att identifiera hinder och möjligheter för att idrottsfrågor kan rymmas i den fysiska planeringen.

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  • 41.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Idrottens hållbara rum och arenor2014Inngår i: I gråzonen: en antologi om idrottens etiska utmaningar / [ed] Christine Dartsch, Johan R Norberg, Johan Pihlblad, Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2014, s. 71-84Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Både stora multiarenor och kommunala badhus har under senare år blivit dyra affärer för idrotten, skattebetalarna och miljön. Hur skapas egentligen hållbara idrottsliga rum som är anpassade till både dagens och framtidens behov och intressen?

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  • 42.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Idrottsgeografi: Fysisk aktivitet äger rum2016Inngår i: Idrottsvetenskap: en introduktion / [ed] Susanna Hedenborg, Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, s. 211-232Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Jag skäms lite, men... (krönika)2016Inngår i: Idrottens Affärer, nr 2016-01-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    De som anmäler sig till matcherna ska anstränga sig, ta det på allvar helt enkelt. Och jag ska erkänna något som jag skäms lite för; det händer att jag går in och tittar i serietabellerna för att se hur våra lag ligger till…

  • 44.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Kapplöpning med tiden som motståndare2012Inngår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 34-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 45.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Motions in the city: Activity and mobility in a segregated city2012Inngår i: The 20th EASM conference: Sport between business and civil society: abstract book, Danish Institute for Sports Studies , 2012, s. 141-142Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 46.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Motions in the City: Physical Activity and Mobility in a Segregated City2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a long tradition of youth sports in non-profit sports clubs that belong to what is known as the Swedish sports movement. A large proportion of adolescents are at some point members of the sports movement; however, this share is decreasing, and sports participation is becoming increasingly diverse. This paper deals with the activity level and geographical/territorial range in connection to physical activity among adolescents in three residential areas with different spatial and socio-economic characteristics in Malmö, Sweden. The methods employed include surveys, interviews and field trips, and the time-geographical constraint concept is used as a tool for understanding the patterns. Organised activities are more frequent among the adolescents in the middle-class area than in the lower status areas. The self-organised activity rate is fairly high in all areas, but the geographical range increases with socio-economic status and fewer constraints. In this paper, I also discuss the planning of different types of physical-activity places and emphasise the importance of ordinary, everyday environments, in which many adolescents spend their leisure time. However, it is also essential to develop new types of spaces for physical activities and social interactions; to invite different groups, preferably in new constellations, into the planning process; and to spread information concerning the supply of spaces and activities in a way that reaches out to all groups.

  • 47.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Olympiska kommittén kan lära mycket av Malmös senaste evenemang2014Inngår i: Sydsvenskan, ISSN 1652-814X, nr 2014-02-08Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Debattartikel om vinter-OS i Sotji under rubriken Åsikter, Sydsvenska Dagbladet, 8 feb 2014.

  • 48.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Physical activity, self-organized sport, and sustainable urban development2017Inngår i: Routledge Handbook on Sport, Sustainability and the Environment / [ed] Brian P. McCullough, Timothy B. Kellison, Routledge, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable city is not only a city where the air is clean, waste is recycled, motor traffic is reduced, and ecological questions are central to city planners, but it is also a city that creates opportunities for its citizens to live healthy lives. This consideration includes prioritizing planning for physical activity, a central focus in this chapter. In particular, in this chapter, I discuss how physical activity and sport in public spaces can serve as tools for making cities more sustainable, with a particular emphasis on Swedish cities.

  • 49.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Planning for activity: linking physical activity trends and urban development trends2015Inngår i: 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Sustainable Sport, 24-27 juni 2015 Malmö, Sweden, European College of Sport Science , 2015, artikkel-id 242Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation takes as point of departure a number of physical activity and sporting trends in Sweden, but also other Western World countries. The trends highlighted, are of an everyday and non-elite character and include among others: Decreased interest in organized sport activities, increased interest in flexible, individual and self-organized activities as well as activities provided by commercial actors, the rise of ‘new’ activities like parkour and lifestyle sports and a growing activity segregation. A common feature of these activities is a need for other (urban) environments than ordinary sports facilities. This paper analyses the new physical activity trends in the light of urban development and planning, using research results and examples from different cities. The presentation has a conceptual and comprehensive character using results mainly from three research projects conducted by Karin Book: -The role of sport in urban plan- ning: This project deals with the perception of sport and its role and place in urban planning in Sweden. The starting point of this project is on the one hand the changing conditions for planning including for instance increased focus on densification and infill strategies as well as new solutions for integration of different functions. And, on the other hand it is the changing conditions for the sports movement and how sport is carried out. -Motions in the city. Physical Activity and Mobility in a Segregated City: This project deals with the activity level and geographical/territorial range in connection to physical activity among adolescents in three residential areas with different spatial and socio-economic characteristics in Malmö, Sweden. Moreover, the project deals with the planning of different types of physical-activity places in ordinary, everyday environments, in which many adolescents spend their leisure time. -Running out of time? Strategies and perceptions in connection to physical activity: This project concerns perspectives on time use and perception and strategies for physical activity with basis in the following research question: how, when and where do employed people (in Sweden), age 30-50, find time and space for physical activities? This project highlights both exercise trends among the adult population and the role of the spatial context. These projects are connected under the heading of planning for activity.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Book, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle (LS), Institutionen Idrottsvetenskap (IDV).
    Planning for sport in a changing urban and sport context2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM This presentation deals with the perception of sport and its role and place in urban planning in Sweden with basis in a research project carried out 2013-2015. The main research questions are: • How do changing conditions within sport and urban planning affect the planning for sport? • How are sport (as in organised sport) and sport issues being handled in the urban planning? • How is sport viewed and defined in urban planning? BACKGROUND The starting point of this project is on the one hand the changing conditions for and policies within urban planning including increased focus on densification and infill strategies as well as new solutions for integration of different functions (see for instance Boyko & Cooper, 2013). And, on the other hand it is the changing conditions for the sports movement and how sport is carried out. This includes a decreased interest in organised sport activities, increased interest in flexible, individual and self-organised activities as well as activities provided by commercial actors, the rise of ‘new’ activities like parkour and lifestyle sports and a growing activity segregation. A common feature of these activities is a need for other (urban) environments than traditional sport facilities. (For an international perspective on sport participation see for instance: Nicholson Hoye & Houlihan, 2011). METHODOLOGY This project analyses sport in urban development and planning, using research results and examples mainly from Malmö and Stockholm. The approach is qualitative. Although planning processes and the frames for it, like legal regulations, have been studied, the most important part of the project has been about gaining a deeper understanding of meanings and perceptions regarding sport among planners and planning among sport organisations. Several types of material and methods have been used, for instance analysis of planning and legal documents, semi structured interviews with 21 persons representing municipal planning and leisure departments, sport organisations etc, a focus group and a workshop. The results have been presented in a report published by the Swedish Sports Confederation (Book, 2015). RESULTS The main results could be summarised as follows, where each of the points will be discussed and illustrated in the oral presentation: • Changing definition/perception of sport among planners: where the definition has become wider in order to include self-organised physical activities, which is fuelled by a critical perception of organised sport and of the municipal leisure or sport department. • Changing focus in urban planning: mainly towards health related strategies rather than traditional sport. • As a consequence health, recreation, physical activity, self-organised sport (and sport as part of the experience economy) are gaining support in urban planning, while more traditional sport activities and facilities are not. A common quote among planners: ”Well, it is hard to find space for a football pitch”. • A growing need and demand for coordination of different types of leisure and sport activities and cooperation between different actors and sectors. • A growing need for sport organisations/the sport movement to understand how planning works, as the level of knowledge is low and hence the opportunities to participate. • A need for sport organisations to develop strategies for handling the criticism among planners (and others) in order to be included in the planning processes. REFERENCES Book, K. (2015) Idrotten i den fysiska planeringen. FoU-rapport 2015:2. Stockholm: RF. Boyko, C.T. &, Cooper, R. (2013) Density and Decision-Making: Findings from an Online Survey. Sustainability 2013, 5(10), 4502-4522 Nicholson, M., Hoye, R.& Houlihan, B. (eds.) (2011) Participation in Sport: International Policy Perspectives. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. Swedish Sports Confederation (2011) Svenska folkets idrotts- och motionsvanor. Stockholm: RF.

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