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  • 1.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Jansson, Alexander
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Karlén, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Radmann, Jens
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Spatial transitions, levels of activity, and motivations to exercise during COVID-19: a literature review2022In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1231-1251Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic and its related measurements have challenged physical activity in various ways, ranging from closed fitness facilities to virtual curfews. Correspondingly, there is currently a rising scholarly interest in investigating how people have navigated their physical activity during the pandemic, and, especially, if physical activity has decreased or not. Accordingly, surveys and studies are rapidly accumulating. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to summarize, categorize, and map literature published before May 2021 on physical activity amid COVID-19.This study consists of a mixed methods explanatory sequential design, based on an outcome-oriented pragmatism of the middle. Firstly, a systematic literature review on Scopus was conducted, followed by a VOS-viewer bibliometric analysis. Subsequently, a focused literature review was written. The point of integration of methods was embedded. The systematic review resulted in 1,335 articles, which were used for two separate VOS-viewer visualizations. The illustrations reveal where research comes from, which journals have published most on physical activity during COVID-19, and how the research is globally cited. Furthermore, based on the review, three clear topical trends of research emerge; spatial transitions, frequencies of physical activity, and motivations to exercise during COVID-19. The bibliometric data demonstrates that research from only a few countries seem to be impactful, whereas the review portrays that conclusions in regard to whether physical activity has decreased or not lack agreement, possibly as a result of disclosing different definitions of physical activity.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Bandy v. ice hockey in Sweden2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 361-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1920, the year ice hockey was introduced to Sweden in connection with the Olympic Games in Antwerp, the traditional British bandy was already a well established team sport on ice in the country. In the early 1900s it had become popular among the upper classes, both men and women, since its deep connection with nature applied to the time’s sense of nostalgia. The Swedish male bandy cup final, which was first played in 1907, is still the country’s oldest large-scale annual sports event. In the press, comparisons were constantly made between the two sports and bandy and ice hockey were seen as contrasts. This resulted in bandy being regarded as truly Swedish and part of the native culture. Concurrently, the sport spread to the working people in Sweden’s rural manufacturing towns while the capital Stockholm established itself as the centre for ice hockey. Elaborating on Allen Guttmann’s theories on modernization, ice hockey’s higher degree of modernity is presented. Adjusting to the modern world was a struggle for bandy and therefore followers of ice hockey predicted its early demise. Still it survived, however surrounded by an even stronger atmosphere of nature-centred nostalgia. The increasingly Americanized sport of ice hockey, on the other hand, became the main player in the growing commercialization of Swedish sport.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hognestad, Hans
    Department of Outdoor-Life, Sport and Physical Education, University College of Southeast Norway.
    Glocal culture, sporting decline? Globalization and football in Scandinavia2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 4: Sport and Outdoor Life in the Nordic World, p. 704-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter looks at how globalization has affected and shaped the domestic elite level male football cultures of Scandinavia since the game turned more professional in the region. By drawing on empirical examples from the recent histories of Norwegian, Swedish and, to a lesser extent, Danish football, the authors analyse how the sporting cultures of these countries have changed since the 1970s. The amateur ideologies which had previously dominated football in Scandinavia faded during a period when influences from international and especially professional English football intensified. These influences stretched from playing styles to spectator cultures. While these influences initially made clubs and teams from Scandinavia more competitive in international football, the ‘hypercommodification’ which has dominated top level European football in the new millennium has to a large extent affected Scandinavian football in a negative way in term s of sporting competitiveness. Simultaneously the authors argue that global influences have injected significant fuel and new energy to the spectator cultures evident in a large number of Scandinavian football club communities.

  • 4.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV). Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jokerit’s move to KHL: an odd momentum in the commercialization of Nordic elite ice hockey2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 505-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is set to target several tensions, problems and possibilities in Finnish (and Nordic) men’s elite ice hockey, which have arisen due to increasing commercialization and professionalization. This process has accelerated simultaneously with the recent development and advances of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL), in addition to the constant and general influences of NHL (i.e., Americanization). Thus, the essay will focus on Jokerit as an illustrative case. To state, Jokerit, founded in 1967, is a powerhouse in Finnish ice hockey, both sport- ingly and financially. The commercialization of Finnish elite ice hockey culminated in 2014/2015 when Jokerit joined KHL. This article reflects on Jokerit’s financial and legal challenges, as well as the commercial press and progress in Nordic elite ice hockey and thus on Jokerit’s drift towards KHL. In addition to these topics, the essay presents and discusses different aspects of the progress of KHL, as well as its reasons and consequences.

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  • 5.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV). Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bo
    The progress of SHL Sport Ltd, in light of ‘Americanization’, juridification and hybridity2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 452-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SHL and the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation stand as the principal force or engine behind the commercialization processes in Swedish sport, due to influences from the commercial culture of NHL (i.e., the ‘Americanization’ of sport and society). In addition, the impact of the KHL with regard to player migration has forced the league to look for new commercial alternatives and forms of organization. At the same time, Swedish sport in general is, like ice hockey, basically founded on and ruled by the hegemony of the Swedish Sports Confederation and its basically idealistic values. Thus, SHL is shaped by normative dualism as well as by an incipient commercialization process. The ambition of the following text in this respect is to describe and analyze this dilemma by applying the concepts of juridification and hybridity, in addition to providing general perspectives on the Americanization processes in ice hockey and by testing and illustrating this dilemma by the case of the Växjö Lakers, Ltd/Plc.

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  • 6. Bergsgard, Nils Asle
    et al.
    Norberg, Johan R
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Sports policy and politics: the Scandinavian way2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 567-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching objective of this article is to discuss whether or not one can identify a specific Scandinavian sports policy model. First, the sports policy system of the three Scandinavian countries is presented. Then we sketch some common characteristics of the governments' involvement in sports and discuss to what extent sports policies reflect the broader Scandinavian welfare-state policies. The third part discusses whether increased pluralism in sports challenges the prevailing corporatist-like system existing between voluntary organizations and the state and/or the relationship between the executive and legislative within the government. We conclude that in many respects it is meaningful to talk about a specific Scandinavian sports policy model hallmarked by large, national and voluntary sports organizations with a near monopoly on competitive sports on the one hand and a significant involvement in sports from the government on the other. Further, the parliament plays a minor role, and there are few legal restrictions in the field of sports. However, the degree of concentration of power differs among the three countries, the Danish model being more decentralized and dispersed and the Norwegian model more centralized and concentrated, while the Swedish model lies somewhere in between these two.

  • 7.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Eskilsson, Lena
    Coming Out in Copenhagen: Homo Sports Events in City Marketing2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 314-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intense competition between places means that new and more differentiated marketing strategies are becoming increasingly important in order to attract visitors and other target groups. In order to be seen, gain positive media attention and put the place on the map many cities try to develop marketing concepts based on experiences, among other things. One such strategy used by many places is to focus on sports, including big events and arenas as well as different kinds of sports activities. Another present-day strategy is to highlight and commercialize 'the different', for instance homosexuals. An interesting phenomenon in this context is the merging of sports and homosexuals and the use of this as an economic development strategy. In this essay we analyse the homo sports event World Outgames as an outcome in the intersection between city marketing, the commercialization of sports and the commercialization of homo culture.

  • 8.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Andersson, Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV). Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    New spatial practices in organised sport following COVID-19: the Swedish case2022In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1343-1357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, the majority of European countries imposed lockdowns, whereas Sweden introduced comparatively moderate constraints. The Public Health Agency of Sweden stated that sports and physical activity could continue if conducted ‘safely’ and recommended outdoor activities. This article aims to identify new spatial practices and strategies developed by organised recreational sport providers (i.e. sport clubs, commercial providers) following the outbreak of the pandemic. Further, it identifies obstacles and opportunities for new spatial solutions, as well as possible long-term (lasting) effects of the strategies imposed. Also, it discusses these obstacles and opportunities in relation to contemporary sport facility challenge. The data draws upon 24 semi-structured interviews with sport coaches and leaders. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic analysis. The results suggest that most respondents show adaptability by moving their activities outdoors. Generally, for-profit organisations have been more innovative and adaptive. Obstacles for new spatial solutions include localisation, weather, (perceived) need of equipment, leadership, competing interests in public space, and notably the perception of what sport is. Positive examples of spatial adaptability show that there is a potential for sport providers to open up for different spatial solutions and more flexibility in relation to their activities, in order to ease the pressure on formal indoor (and, to some extent, outdoor) sport facilities while amending the perception of sport activities. 

    Research methods

    The data draws upon 24 semi-structured interviews with sport coaches and leaders. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic analysis.

    Results and findings

    The results suggest that most respondents show adaptability by moving their activities outdoors. Generally, for-profit organisations have been more innovative and adaptive. Obstacles for new spatial solutions include localisation, weather, (perceived) need of equipment, leadership, competing interests in public space, and notably the perception of what sport is.

    Implications

    Positive examples of spatial adaptability show that there is a potential for sport providers to open up for different spatial solutions and more flexibility in relation to their activities, in order to ease the pressure on formal indoor (and, to some extent, outdoor) sport facilities while amending the perception of sport activities.

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  • 9.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Re(con)fusion of law and sport in light of ‘seriousness’ and ‘trivialization’2014In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1317-1333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes a firm departure in the thesis of the juridification of sport. By initially presenting two cases that highlight the logics and problems in the interaction between sport and the law, we receive a fertile soil for analysing the rationalization processes, as well as the trivialization processes, that emerge in light of the commercialization of sport, the ‘eventification’ of society and when, consequently, the ‘law goes pop’. The analysis and the reflections are completed by mixing the thesis of Huizinga’s cultural analysis of play and sport, with Sherwin’s analysis of the trivialization of law. Interestingly, we find, in addition to the prominent rationalization process, tendencies of a comparable ‘trivialization process’.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV). Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    'Science Slam' and sportification processes in science2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1623-1637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport's relation to society could be grasped in its connection to science. Thus, there seem to exist two parallel processes: the scientification of sport and the sportification of science. Undoubtedly, science has become an important part in the development of sport, particularly in elite sport. As regards the relation between science and sport, an opposite trend has also been observed, in which sport logic influences the (popular) presentation of science. In this respect, this essay talks about the 'sportification of science', by making reference to 'Science Slam' and 'Grand Prix in Science'.

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  • 11.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The Representation of Virtues in Sport Novels and Digital Sport2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 274-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to capture the significance of norms and virtues in computer games, with a major focus on digital sports, in relation to the traditional representations of sports in novels. The socio-legal design tells us that popular culture, as a discursive and normative agenda, has a vital moral impact on individuals in relation to virtues and values, an influence that is as good as the authority of formal law. By comparing the representation of sports in novels and digital sports, the essay discusses the transition of virtues

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The Blend of normative uncertainty and commercial Immaturity in Swedish ice hockey2015In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 290-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By describing and analysing normative uncertainties and the commercial immaturity in Swedish ice hockey (Swedish Hockey League/Swedish Ice Hockey Association), this article focuses on the tension and dialectics in Swedish sport; increasingly greater commercial attempts (i.e. entrepreneurship, ‘Americanization’, multi-arenas, innovations and public limited companies) have to be mixed with a generally non-profit making organization (e.g. the Swedish Sports Confederation) and its traditional values of health, democracy and youth sports and fosterage. In this respect, the elite ice hockey clubs are situated in a legal culture of two parallel norm systems: the tradition of self-regulation in sport and in civil law (e.g. commercial law). Indeed, the incoherent blend of idealism and commercialism in Swedish elite hockey appears to be fertile ground for hazardous (sports) management and indebtedness. This mix of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘immaturity’ has given rise to various financial trickeries and negligence, which have subsequently developed into legal matters. Consequently, the legal system appears to have become a playground for Swedish ice hockey. This article reflects on the reasons and the rationale in this frictional development by focusing on a legal case that comes under the Business Reorganisation Act. The analysis reveals support for a ‘soft’ juridification process in Swedish ice hockey in order to handle the charging tension of the two parallel norm systems.

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  • 13.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV). Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Stark, Tobias
    Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Introduction: the progress of elite ice hockey beyond the NHL2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 355-360Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction to Special Issue: The Progress of Elite Ice Hockey, Beyond NHL: A Focus on (G)local culture(s), Migration, Entrepreneurship, Americanization and Oligarchism. Guest Editors: Bo Carlsson, Jyri Backman and Tobias Stark

  • 14.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The position and relevance of sport studies: an introduction2014In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 17, p. 1225-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume will tactically put the stubborn challenge of defining sport in ‘intellectual brackets’ and instead reflect on the position and relevance of sport science – of studying and analysing sport

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Kalle
    Faculty of Teaching, Humanities and Society, Halmstad College University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Kutte
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Introduction: the blend of science and sport2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1497-1500Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction to a theme issue of the journal Sport in Society, in which the relationship between science and sports are being scrutinized from different perspectives.

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  • 16.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Lindfelt, Mikael
    Legal and Moral Pluralism: Normative Tensions in a Nordic Sport Model in Transition2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 718-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a departure from sport ethics and sociology of law this article deals with norms, rules, ethical principles and legal instruments that have an influence on the development of sport. The subject is connected to the Nordic regulation of sport, with a tradition of self-regulation and internal dispute resolutions; recently this 'autonomy' has been challenged by the interests of the market, different political pressures and by ethical discourses in the civil society. This is conceptualized as a state of normative tension and a 'sport model' in transition. The ethical departure focuses on the phenomenology of sport, illuminating internal values important to sport and the development of different conflict resolutions within sport organisations. The socio-legal perspective places sport in a social and normative context, focussing on various normative sources exterior to sport that will have an impact on the development of sport.

  • 17.
    Ekberg, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Strange, Michael
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    What happened to the protests?: The surprising lack of visible dissent during the Sochi Winter Olympics2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 532-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the build-up to the Sochi Olympics, there was substantial anticipation that its legacy would be dominated by dissent and political controversies rather than gold-winning performances. Yet, when the torch was lit, far fewer of those expected controversies ignited. In turning to International Relations theory (IR), the article argues the Sochi Olympics evidenced a tension between, on one hand, a tight process of political management by Russian state representatives, the organizing committee and the International Olympic Committee, whilst on the other hand utilizing certain key norms to help ensure consent. Utilizing a Social Constructivist emphasis on norms as key tools for conducting global politics, the analysis shows how that tension incorporated well-recognized ideas from both the IR schools of Realism and Liberalism to silence protesters. In evidencing the value-added of drawing upon other schools of thought outside conventional sports analysis, the article illustrates a new way for conducting research in Olympic studies.

  • 18.
    Enderle (Mohammadi), Shahrzad
    et al.
    Independent Researcher, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Mashreghi, Sepandarmaz
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Methodological challenges and opportunities in working within a participatory paradigm in the context of sport, forced migration and settlement: an insider perspective2022In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 469-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a growing body of scholarship in (forced) migration, sport for development and peace, and community sport development contexts has advocated the use of participatory approaches and innovative methodologies, there is a lack of published empirical research on the complexities and challenges of implementing such approaches in the study of sport, forced migration and settlement. Drawing on the personal experiences of the authors as insider action researchers in two different geographical locations, this study aims to reveal the challenges and opportunities in working within a participatory paradigm. The insight gained through this work may provide practical tool for (sports) researchers and evaluators as well as community members taking up participatory approaches.

  • 19.
    Hansen, Lars Funch
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Language and Linguistics (SPS).
    Local Circassian reactions to the 2014 Sochi Olympic Winter Games2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 518-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates how a mega-sports event such as the Sochi Olympics can generate renewed spaces for production of knowledge and counter-branding for marginalized groups. As the indigenous people of the area, the Circassians in different ways, locally and transnationally, used the 2014 Sochi Olympics to promote greater knowledge of local Circassian history. Such knowledge was for many decades suppressed, during the Soviet period as well as afterwards, in the Russian Federation. This paper discusses cases of Circassian counter-branding of local history that were observed in connection with the Sochi Olympics and in opposition to the Russian Olympics project. The paper contends that the processes of counter-branding made visible local indigenous knowledge that even the authorities in Sochi have gradually come to accept.

  • 20.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Lis Hartel: an extraordinary equestrian2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1030-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyse the life story of the Danish equestrian Lis Hartel. Hartel was an international top rider as proven by her silver medals in the Olympic Games in 1952 and 1956. She was one of few women competing at this level in a gender-mixed sport, the first woman to win an Olympic medal in the dressage event, and the only equestrian competitor who had suffered from polio. She also developed therapeutic training methods that inspired others. To understand Hartel’s status as an extraordinary sportswoman, her extreme efforts, training methods and high level of performance must be contextualized. In this article, the analysis of her life story focuses on how her accomplishments challenged contemporary constructions of gender and the body, as well as how her public persona was negotiated. The analytical framework has been informed by insights from gender and disability studies and the new biography.

  • 21.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hedenborg White, Manon
    Changes and variations in patterns of gender relations in equestrian sports during the second half of the twentieth century2012In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 302-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to explain changes and variations in patterns of gender relations over time and space, the article analyses women's and men's participation rates in equestrian sports focusing on equestrianism in the Olympic Games 1952–2000 with an emphasis on Britain and Sweden. More men than women compete in Olympic equestrianism, although the number of female riders has increased over time and gender patterns vary within equestrianism. A majority of competitive dressage riders are women. Also, British women were involved in equestrian sports earlier than Swedish women. A comparison between Britain and Sweden provides insight into how national politics and cultural context shape gender relations. The destabilization of the societal gender order brought about by the First World War and the Second World War may have disrupted the gender order in equestrianism, creating opportunities for some female riders. Furthermore, governmental support or lack thereof is likely to have influenced female and male participation patterns.

  • 22.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Pfister, Gertrud
    Introduction2012In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 283-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Pfister, Gertrud
    Introduction2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 995-997Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Pfister, Gertrud
    Introduction: Special Issue - Gender, Media, Sport2015In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 131-135Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Svensson, Daniel
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Radmann, Aage
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Global challenges and innovations in sport: effects of Covid-19 on sport2022In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1227-1230Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hellborg, Anna Maria
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Making it work-fitting parenthood into an elite sport career2024In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and problematize the possibilities and challenges of combining an elite sport career with parenthood among elite athletes in Sweden. Specific focus will be on time management, financial conditions, and support. Ten active or formerly active elite athletes who had combined or tried to combine elite sports with parenthood were interviewed. The athletes represent a range of different sports and played in teams or as individual competitors. Some were full-time athletes, while others had additional employment. Work-family conflict was present for the athletes, with the results showing that combining elite sports with parenthood can work, but only if the athlete has adequate resources. The most important resource is social support from the athlete's family. The sport organizations appear somewhat invisible as a supportive structure; therefore, the athletes have contributed with ideas of what these organizations can do to increase their support.

  • 27.
    Hellborg, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The rocker and the heroine: gendered media representations of equestrian sports at the 2012 Olympics2015In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 248-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse mediated gender relations in equestrian sports in two Swedish morning papers during the 2012 Olympic Games. The fact that men and women compete against each other in the same competition regulated by the same rules evoked questions in this article regarding whether media reports on equestrian sports are freed from gender constructions and whether gender constructions are viable in media reports on equestrian sports than in media reports on other sports or even dissolved altogether. The study demonstrates that the media narratives of both female and male riders are complex and sometimes contradictory. Some narratives can be ssen as (gender)norm-breaking, whereas others confirm gender stereotypes. This conclusion points to the possibility of media narratives of equestrian sports as including inclusive masculinity and femininity.

  • 28.
    Jonasson, Kalle
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV). Malmö Univ, Dept Sport Sci, SE-20506 Malmö, Sweden..
    Modern sport between purity and hybridity2014In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1306-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues of purity are central to modern sport, as well as to modernity in general. This paper ponders the role of purity in modern sport by also including its counterpart, hybridity, in the discussion. In sport studies, the concept of the 'human' is identified as something taken for granted, and therefore remains under-theorized. Bruno Latour's conception of modernity and scientific practice is here combined with Sigmund Loland's analogy between scientific experiments and sport competitions. Purity is assumed to be related to the idea of modern sport as a practice, which revolves around distilling samples of 'humanness' that should not be polluted by non-human interference. This paper argues that while modern sport strives to minimize non-human impact, it acknowledges the hybrid material that sport results are moulded from. The concept 'Human' is therefore not an a priori in modern sport but an a posteriori.

  • 29.
    Jonasson, Kalle
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Thiborg, Jesper
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Electronic sport and its impact on future sport2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no No. 2, p. 287-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mere mentioning of computer gaming (E-sport) as a form of sport i subversive, according to public health and media discourses. As a matter of fact, the two practices are considered to be oppositional. Sports are often regarded as a virtue, whereas computer gaming is looked upon as avice. In this light, the basic aim of this essay is to discuss and analyse the 'sporting qualities' of competitive computer gaming in relation to the definition of sport. The reasoning will also forecast the future of competitive gaming. How might this new form of 'sport' develop and what impact will it have on future sports in general? We answer the question by presenting three possible futuristic scenarios. Might it even be that we are standing on the threshold of a new phase in the evolution of sports.

  • 30.
    Jönsson, Kutte
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Situated knowledges, sports and the sport science question2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1528-1537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I will elaborate on the feminist scholar Donna Haraway’s understanding of the concept of situated knowledges. I believe it is a concept that can be usefully applied to sports and sport science, in that it may create stories about the intertwined relationship between sport science and the narratives of sport science – stories we can believe in.

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  • 31.
    Jönsson, Kutte
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Sport beyond gender and the emergence of cyborg athletes2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 249-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The essay is based on two premises: (1) sports culture (as we know it) is based upon rather specific (masculine) gender structures; (2) technological innovations play a significant role in modern sport. I combine these two premises and discuss whether technologies can be used as tools in order to make sport gender neutral and therefore more genuine or authentic. I argue that we have good reasons to make such a claim, based on the fast development of sport technology as a whole. But this claim is not unproblematic. In fact, the main problem may not be the advantages that come with the technologies, but that we tend to hold on to conservative ideas regarding gender. Nonetheless, perhaps the development of sport technologies may undermine the foundation of gender, which may in turn lead to the birth of a new kind of athlete: (non-gendered) cyborg athletes.

  • 32.
    Jönsson, Kutte
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Introduction (to special issue Directions in Contemporary and Future Sport Guest)2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 167-170Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Larneby, Marie
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Transcending gender hierarchies?: Young people and floorball in Swedish school sport2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 8-9, p. 1202-1213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research insight discusses young people’s construction and display of gender in a mixed-sex floorball group in a Swedish sport school and explores in what ways gendered power relations were exercised. Observations of floorball lessons with 21 students aged 12–16 and interviews with 7 students were analysed through Lorber’s concept of gender as a social institution. Findings suggested that training in a mixed-sex group seemed to actualize a need to dichotomize and construct distinct groups of boys and girls, and a ‘boys are better than girls’ discourse prevailed. This was explained as being a result of their experiences of playing separately in floorball clubs during leisure time. All contributed to the construction of a discourse where boys were superior and girls inferior, although they were striving towards a uniform way to play. Their attitudes and actions indicated that while gender hierarchies were not transcended, they were, to some extent, negotiated.

  • 34.
    Lidström, Isak
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Linnaeus Univ, Vaxjo, Sweden..
    Anders Zorn and naturalistic ski competitions versus the progress of the hegemonic Swedish sport policy at the beginning of the 20th century2022In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1106-1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we will use a historical approach to comprehend, firstly, the progress and challenges of the Swedish Sport Movement, and secondly, as a stimulus to a reflection on current challenges in regard to the policy and organization of Swedish sport.Thus, the famous Swedish painter Anders Zorn, and his entrepreneurial approach in regard to ski competitions, in addition to his naturalistic ideas, stood in the early 1900 as a (serious) challenge to the initial progress of the Swedish Sport Confederation and its tradition, ideology and, in the prolongation, its hegemonic position. This historical review will, additionally, be related to a contemporary case -'The Motor Sport Case'- in which the Swedish Sport Model has become challenged by EU Law and Competition Law. The presentation will offer a fair amount of - archeological - evidence to better understand the inherent (generic) conflicts as well as the hegemony of the Swedish sport movement. The theoretical framework builds roughly on the perspectives of power and hegemony, which includes concept such as domination, encapsulation, rebellion and noncomplia nce.The reflection focuses on the'organizational capital'as the vital drive in the progress of the Swedish Sport Confederation and its monopoly.

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  • 35.
    Monsees, Leah
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Same, same but different?: A comparative discourse-theoretical content analysis of the constructions of football talent in German and Swedish newspapers2023In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although people may make sense of concepts like ‘talent’ and get influenced through discourses reinforced in the media, not much research has investigated the construction of ‘talent’ in the media or in relation to football, yet. By applying Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse-theoretical analysis and aspects of quantitative content analysis to forty-four news articles, this study compares how German and Swedish media construct and reinforce discourses of ‘talent’ in football. The findings suggest that cross-cultural media share common reference points in shaping discourses on ‘football talent’. However, these nodal points are allocated and formed in distinct ways within each country, thus constituting floating signifiers. The study unveils that ‘talent’ constitutes an empty concept within and across specific cultural settings. Nonetheless, the conceptual notions surrounding talent seems more uniform in Swedish media compared to Germany. Moreover, gender disparities in the context of ‘football talent’ discourses predominantly link talent with male football players.

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  • 36.
    Peterson, Tomas
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Schenker, Katarina
    Social Entrepreneurship in a Sport Policy Context2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 452-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates social entrepreneurship in relation to government state policies in Sweden and to the Swedish sports movement. Social entrepreneurship within sport comprises three elements that need to be qualified: the social element, entrepreneurship and sport. We wish to offer both a specific and a wider definition of social entrepreneurship in sport; specific in the sense that we try to define the concept theoretically, and wider in that we place the concept in a societal context where we relate it to different sectors in society. The method can be described as ethnographically inspired case studies. Four cases are presented. Previous research and the cases have helped us to formulate theses concerning ‘sport’ and ‘profit’ as means for social entrepreneurship, ‘social’ being normatively defined in the public sector, and entrepreneurial activities being understood as acts, crossing boundaries between the different sectors of society, leading to conflicts.

  • 37.
    Petersson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Vamling, Karina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Language and Linguistics (SPS).
    Fifteen minutes of fame long gone: Circassian activism before and after the Sochi Olympics2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 505-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss the effects of the Sochi Olympics on the indigenous Circassian population in North Caucasus. The Circassian situation was paradoxical in the sense that whereas this indigenous group fiercely opposed the organization of the Winter Games in Sochi, the Games themselves denoted a rare opportunity for them to make their voices heard internationally. During the run-up to the Olympics they all of a sudden had a global audience for their claims for recognition of their cause. This was quite simply their ‘fifteen minutes of fame’, a rare and short-lived period of celebrity and worldwide attention. The paper will look into whether the anti-Sochi activism helped to unite Circassians in the diaspora and abroad around common claims, and to what extent the Circassians managed to use media attention to make their cause more widely known by international society.

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  • 38.
    Petersson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Vamling, Karina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Language and Linguistics (SPS).
    Yatsyk, Alexandra
    When the party is over: developments in Sochi and Russia after the Olympics 20142017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, no 4, p. 455-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi, Russia, were during the preparations and run-up phase intensely followed by the global community and were generally associated with a vast array of problems: political, democratic, economic, ecological and securityrelated. When the hosting of a mega-event such as the Olympic Games has been awarded to a site in an authoritarian state, the global community has moral responsibilities to live up to. There is a need and an obligation to raise one’s voice and criticize where criticism is due also after the Games are concluded. For Sochi, as for sites of all major sports events, continued critical attention is therefore warranted also after the competitions. It is essential to try to gauge the extent to which predicted problems materialized, what happened afterwards, and what have been the more long-term consequences and local effects. This is the general perspective that brought the authors of this special issue together.

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  • 39.
    Radmann, Aage
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hit and tell: Swedish hooligan narratives2015In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 202-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hooligans telling their own story represent a new voice in the sports narrative: the hooligan memoir. While this is a comparatively new phenomenon in Sweden, this literary genre has a long and productive history in England under the name hit and tell. The purpose of this article is to expound on the pop cultural expressions of hooliganism in Sweden, as epitomized by four hooligan memoirs. The article explores football culture, hooliganism, violence, masculinity and media in Sweden, as it is imperative to the understanding of hooliganism that it is analysed in the contexts in which it occurs. Research has demonstrated that hooliganism and violence in football and supporter culture have become increasingly visible in popular culture over the last few years. The article shows how hooligan culture is created in dynamic interaction between media, political reactions and cultural praxis, arguing that the cultural praxis of hooliganism is manifested through actual fights and, to an even greater extent, the various media narratives surrounding the hooligan subculture presented in the four memoirs.

  • 40.
    Radmann, Aage
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Dept Teacher Educ & Outdoor Studies, Oslo, Norway..
    Karlén, Sara
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Spectators longing for live action: a study of the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on (football) supporters in Sweden2022In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1327-1342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how sports audiences have been affected by being unable to attend competitions physically on site during the Covid-19 pandemic.The study shows how Swedish supporters, mainly football fans, have experienced the 2020 season, coinciding with the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis highlights the importance of physical place for the audience and discusses the relationship between physical sports arenas and digital platforms during the pandemic. Finally, the effects of the suspension of live experiences are discussed. According to the persons studied, something essential-fellowship, solidarity, pulse, excitement-is lost when sporting events are held without an audience.The theoretical framework is derived from cultural sociology and draws inspiration from key concepts such as topophilia, space and place, and emotional attachments.

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  • 41.
    Rosén, Annika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Palmquist, Gabriella Thorell
    Karlstad University.
    Källén, Ellinor
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Team performance and gendered parenthood in horse-riding activities for young children2023In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the experiences of children and parents and prepare those who arrange the activities for parental needs the aim of this article is to describe and analyse parental roles in a horse-riding activities for younger children in Sweden and Norway. Horse-riding for younger children is an individual sport but conducted in interplay with others such as parents and horses. To understand these interactions, Goffman’s dramaturgical approach and insights from research on sport and gender have been used. The main result is that during the activity, the child and the parent interact and perform as a team. In addition, the team performance is influenced by gender constructions. The gender construction is, however, different from what former has been shown in research on sport and gender.

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  • 42.
    Rosén, Annika
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Thorell, Gabriella
    Ridskolan Strömsholm, Strömsholm, Sweden.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The competent child and (in)competent others. Horse-riding school activities for preschool children2022In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2501-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, riding schools have opened their activities for younger children. Previous research has described the learning environment of the stable as strongly inspired by a traditional military discourse (Thorell 2017) and in strong contrast to other socialization arenas. The aim of this article is to increase the understanding of riding school activities for preschool children. Research questions concern why and how activities for young children are organized and handled, norms guiding these activities and how children and others participating are perceived. Sources consist of 452 riding schools’ websites and interviews with nine representatives from riding schools. The analytical framework derives from the sociology of childhood. The study shows that a majority of the Swedish riding schools offer activities for preschool children. The activities are framed by contrasting ideas about the competent child, the child’s biological and vulnerable body, incompetent parents, competent youth leaders, and horses.

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  • 43. Seippel, Ørnulf
    et al.
    Ibsen, Bjarne
    Norberg, Johan R
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Introduction: sport in Scandinavian societies2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 563-566Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44. Toftegaard Stöckel, Jan
    et al.
    Strandbu, Åse
    Solenes, Oskar
    Jörgensen, Per
    Fransson, Kristine
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Sport for children and youth in the Scandinavian countries2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 625-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the course of less than 100 years, children's sport in the Scandinavian countries has been going through a remarkable transition. By the turn of the twentieth century, voluntary sport participation was primarily an adult domain, and children's opportunities for participation were generally limited to a small selection of sports and primarily through the public school system. Today, children's sport is an important public health and welfare issue in all of the Scandinavian countries, and children are far more sport active than adults, and the majority of children's sports participation takes place in voluntary sport clubs or in commercial sport settings. The comparative analyses show that the states of Denmark, Norway and Sweden have willingly and frequently sought to regulate school sport. By contrast, traditions regarding the voluntary sport organizations have been much more diverse and ranged from heavy interference in Norway to almost no interference in Denmark.

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