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  • 1.
    Berman, Anne H
    et al.
    Uppsala University; Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala University.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University.
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Claes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR). Uppsala University.
    Compliance with recommendations limiting COVID-19 contagion among university students in Sweden: associations with self-reported symptoms, mental health and academic self-efficacy2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 70-84, article id 14034948211027824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The COVID-19 containment strategy in Sweden uses public health recommendations relying on personal responsibility for compliance. Universities were one of few public institutions subject to strict closure, meaning that students had to adapt overnight to online teaching. This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported recommendation compliance and associations with self-reported symptoms of contagion, self-experienced effects on mental health and academic self-efficacy among university students in Sweden in May-June 2020.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional 23 question online survey in which data were analysed by multinomial regression, taking a Bayesian analysis approach complemented by null hypothesis testing.

    RESULTS: A total of 4495 students consented to respond. Recommendation compliance ranged between 70% and 96%. Women and older students reported higher compliance than did men and younger students. Mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms were reported by 30%, severe symptoms by fewer than 2%; 15% reported being uncertain and half of the participants reported no symptoms. Mental health effects were reported by over 80%, and changes in academic self-efficacy were reported by over 85%; in both these areas negative effects predominated. Self-reported symptoms and uncertainty about contagion were associated with non-compliance, negative mental health effects, and impaired academic self-efficacy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Students generally followed public health recommendations during strict closure of universities, but many reported considerable negative consequences related to mental health and academic self-efficacy. Digital interventions should be developed and evaluated to boost coping skills, build resilience and alleviate student suffering during the pandemic and future similar crises.

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  • 2. Canivet, Catarina A
    et al.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Jakobsson, Irene L
    Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Hagander, Barbro
    Infantile colic, maternal smoking and infant feeding at 5 weeks of age2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 284-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many parents seek help from health professionals because of their infants' persistent crying in the early months. The aetiology of this condition, often labelled ``infantile colic'', is still unclear. Aims: To assess whether smoking during pregnancy, and/or smoking at infant age 5 weeks, is associated with infantile colic, and to describe how feeding at infant age 5 weeks and smoking are related to colic. Methods: This was a community-based study, with telephone interviews in late pregnancy, and at infant age 5 weeks, covering 1,625 mother—infant dyads, i.e. 86% of the eligible population. Results: Daily maternal smoking in pregnancy was related to subsequent colic, with an age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.74 (95% confidence interval 1.08—2.82). In the multivariate model, the OR was largely unaltered. The association between smoking at infant age 5 weeks and colic did not reach statistical significance. The subgroups based on smoking and infant feeding were small, but the results suggest that exclusive breast-feeding was protective against colic, including for infants of smoking mothers. Conclusions: This study presents yet another argument why smoking in pregnancy should be discouraged — some cases of infantile colic may be avoided. With regard to mothers who are not able to give up smoking, the results add some support for the conclusion that if a mother is worried about colic, she certainly should not refrain from breast-feeding even if she smokes. 

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Jansson, Annkristin
    Dykes, Anna-Karin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Precautions taken by mothers to prevent burn and scald injuries to young children at home: An intervention study2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 471-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent individual-based extended information given to mothers from city parts of low education can improve precautions taken by them to prevent burn and scald injuries involving young children in the home and further to compare the results with a group of mothers who had not received extended information. METHODS: This intervention study, with a comparison group, has a quasi-experimental design. Individual-based information, with an empowerment approach, was given to a group of mothers living in two separate areas of a city in southern Sweden with a low level of education. In total, 99 mothers of children under the age of 7 months participated. The mothers were selected through the local child healthcare authorities. Observations were made and bivariate analyses were established. RESULTS: The results showed that the intervention had a significant impact on improving the precautions the participating mothers introduced to protect their children against burn and scald injuries in the home and further, in relation to a comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Through empowerment, workshops, and home visits aimed to increase their consciousness and knowledge, the participating mothers' precautions taken against child injuries in the home improved. It is of great importance that a framework for considering the problem of burn and scald injuries to children is presented from a preventive perspective which, in combination with evidence-based interventions, may enable the creation of injury prevention programmes for implementation by the community health care.

  • 4.
    Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Country of origin, social support and the risk of small-for-gestational age birth.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 442-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study investigates the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) in relation to country of origin of the mother. The role of psychosocial resources, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was examined in different causal models. Methods: Among all pregnant nulliparous women in the city of Malmö, Sweden, who gave birth in 1991 - 92, 872 (87.7%) women completed a questionnaire during their first antenatal visit. The study was carried out among women whose pregnancies resulted in a singleton live birth (n=826); 22% (n=182) of these women were foreign-born. Results: Fifty-five (6.7%) of the infants were classified as SGA, 37 (5.7%) of mothers of Swedish origin and 18 (9.7%) of foreign origin. SGA deliveries were much more prevalent among Middle East- and North Africa-born women (22%) and sub-Saharan-born women (15%). In all, women of foreign origin had increased odds for delivering SGA babies (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.0,3.2). In a multivariate analysis psychosocial and socioeconomic factors explained 30% and 40%, respectively, of the increased SGA risk. Psychosocial factors seemed to be more prominent risk factors for SGA among mothers of foreign origin. A possible synergistic relation was demonstrated between foreign origin of the mother and low social anchorage. Conclusions: This study showed that psychosocial factors, most probably linked to a disadvantaged social situation, could be the theoretically most important focus for preventing SGA in immigrant women. This could also further support a hypothesis of a link between psychosocial stress and SGA in general. However, this should not exclude the need for intervention in the antenatal care system in terms of specially tailored support and education.

  • 5.
    Hammarström, Sofia
    et al.
    Närhälsan Knowledge Centre for Sexual Health, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health science, Linköping, University, Sweden.
    Stenqvist, Karin
    Närhälsan Knowledge Centre for Sexual Health, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Lindroth, Malin
    Jönköping University, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad.
    Sexual health interventions for young people in state care: a systematic review2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 817-834Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To describe evaluated sexual health interventions for young people in state care and provide an assessment of the quality of and evidence for these interventions.

    Methods: A systematic review of sexual health interventions for young people in state care was conducted. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs were eligible, 2051 records were screened, 412 full-text studies retrieved, and 12 publications with low-to-moderate risk of bias included.

    Results: Due to substantial heterogeneity in study populations, settings, intervention approaches, outcomes and measures, standard summary measures for intervention outcomes was not used. Instead, data were synthesised across studies and presented narratively.

    Conclusion: Without making recommendations, the result suggests that group-based educational interventions in general increase knowledge, attitudes and behaviour compared with standard care. However, these findings need to be further investigated, with a special emphasis on cultural context and the involvement of young people.

  • 6.
    Janzon, Ellis
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Engström, Gunnar
    Hedblad, Bo
    Berglund, Göran
    Janzon, Lars
    Smoking as a determinant of the geographical pattern of cardiac events among women in an urban population2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 272-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To assess to what extent geographical differences of the female incidence of myocardial infarction in the city of Malmö in Sweden can be accounted for by smoking and to what extent intra-urban variances of smoking are related to socio-economic circumstances. Method. Area specific prevalence’s of smokers is based on a sample of 17319 women, aged 45-73 years. A comprehensive score was used to rank the 17 residential areas in terms of socioeconomic circumstances. Incidence of myocardial infarction and death is based on official statistics 1989-97. Results. The area-specific prevalence of female smokers, which ranged from 17.5 to 32.5% was inversely related to the socio-economic score in 45-54 and 55-64 years old, r = -0.65 (p<0.05) and -0.59 (p<0.05). No correlation was found for women above 65 years of age. The annual age-adjusted incidence of cardiac events in the residential areas which ranged from 151 to 414 per 100 000 person years, was strongly related to the prevalence of smokers, r = 0.75 (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Between 50-60% of the intra-urban variance of the female incidence of myocardial infarction was accounted for by smoking in this urban population. The geographical pattern of smoking was strongly related to inferior socio-economic circumstances. Key words: cardiac events, smoking women, risks and prevention

  • 7. Janzon, Ellis
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Lindström, Martin
    Berglund, Göran
    Hedblad, Bo
    Janzon, Lars
    Who are the "quitters"? a cross-sectional study of circumstances associated with women giving up smoking.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 175-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is an important preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and many other diseases. Even though tobacco consumption is declining in Sweden, it is not declining in all groups. This study explored socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances hindering or facilitating smoking cessation in three birth cohorts of women from the general population.

    METHODS: Between 1991 and 1996 a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to 17,319 women, 45-73 years old, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Smoking habits were compared in relation to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances in three birth cohorts.

    RESULTS: Of these women, 44% were never smokers, 28% were ex-smokers, and 28% were smokers (regular or occasional). When compared with smokers, ex-smokers were more often married, had a higher socioeconomic position, a longer education, more smoke-free surroundings, better emotional support, higher BMI, and better self-perceived health. Ex-smokers reported less work-related stress and less shift work. A history of cardiovascular disease was not associated with smoking cessation. The socioeconomic differences between current and former smokers were higher for young women as compared with older birth cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Continuing smokers and quitters differ with regard to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances and factors related to working life and environmental tobacco exposure. By determining who the quitters are through continued follow-up, useful insights can be gained to develop strategies to achieve successful cessation of smoking.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Leena Eklund
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Publ Hlth Inst, Unit Hlth Promot Res, Degnevej 14, DK-6705 Esbjerg, Denmark..
    Balkfors, Anna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    Univ West, Dept Hlth Sci, Trollhattan, Sweden..
    Povlsen, Lene
    Univ Southern Denmark, Publ Hlth Inst, Unit Hlth Promot Res, Degnevej 14, DK-6705 Esbjerg, Denmark..
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Mejsner, Sofie Buch
    Univ Southern Denmark, Publ Hlth Inst, Unit Hlth Promot Res, Degnevej 14, DK-6705 Esbjerg, Denmark..
    Ikonen, Anne Leena
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Fac Educ & Psychol, Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Fosse, Elisabeth
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Are universal measures sufficient in reducing child poverty in the Nordic countries?: An analysis of policies and political commitments2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 892-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have long traditions of social welfare policies that have eradicated poverty as part of their goals.The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of why child poverty is still significant in the Nordic countries despite existing strategies. Methods: A qualitative analysis of Nordic government documents and reports between 2007 and 2019 was carried out to track changes in public health priorities and political measures and to determine the similarities and differences between the five countries. Results: In all countries, most of the measures were universal, such as benefits during pregnancy, paid parental leave before and after the child was born, paid parental leave related to children's sickness, child allowances, day care, free health care for children and support for disabled children. National policies aimed to reduce social inequalities and child poverty exist in all five countries, but unaffordable housing, unequal disposable family income distribution and unequal income distribution at local municipality levels seem to be obstacles to reaching national policy goals. Conclusions: Despite comprehensive universal measures to eradicate child poverty, inequalities are significant and increasing in some of the Nordic countries. This might be due to a lack of proportional universalism, where universal measures are in place in all Nordic countries, but with a lack of scale and intensity proportional to the children and families at risk. The significance of eliminating social inequalities needs to be emphasised at the local level.

  • 9.
    Lindroth, Malin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Tikkanen, Ronny
    Löfgren-Mårtenson, Lotta
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Unequal sexual health: differences between detained youth and their same aged peers2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 722-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe sexual health risks in an understudied group, youth in detention, and compare these to sexual health risks among non-detained youth. In addition, variables predicting adverse sexual health outcomes are sought and compared. Methods: In 2009, a self-administered questionnaire on sexuality was conducted amongst youth in Sweden. In 2010, the same Internet-based questionnaire was applied in a study at Swedish detention centres. In this article, sexually active youth aged 15–20 years in the two groups are compared and bivariate logistic regression analyses are conducted in order to find predictors of adverse sexual health outcomes, among detainees and non-detainees respectively. Results: Major differences between the detained and the non-detained concerning a majority of risk-taking variables exist. Conclusions: Although detained youth display several risky sexual behaviors, no specific risk factors are found in a logistic regression analysis. However, this is a vulnerable group. The mere fact that an adolescent is placed at a detention centre should be an imperative for professionals to address the subject of sexual health and safer sex. Furthermore, the results will be used in a forthcoming sex education curriculum tailored especially at detained youth. This is one, but by far not the only way to minimize the health inequalities that are presented in this study.

  • 10.
    Mangrio, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Carlson, Elisabeth
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Zdravkovic, Slobodan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Newly arrived refugee parents in sweden and their experience of the resettlement process: A qualitative study2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 699-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The Swedish public support system for integration and establishment of newly arrived refugees includes an individualized introduction plan, containing language, civic and health information classes. As the plan requires active involvement, the simultaneous establishment of childcare and school start for children risks creating additional challenges and frustrations. The aim of the study was to explore the experience of adjustment among newly arrived refuge parents in the resettlement process, so as to understand how this risk may be mitigated. Methods: A qualitative study conducted with 24 Syrian refugee parents participating in the resettlement process and having received asylum status. Results: Parents experienced stress due to long waiting times for residence permits and the struggle to find stable housing. The parents established themselves by enrolling in language studies and looking for employment. They also faced challenges adjusting socially since they were mainly meeting people from their own country and therefore felt excluded from the Swedish society. Conclusions: The parents describe the experiences of having escaped from a war-torn country and arrived in new surroundings as mainly challenging for their current situation. Feelings of uncertainty arise as families struggle with daily life while waiting for residence permits, finding stable housing, learning a language and adjusting to new social circumstances. Having this in mind, we conclude that this group of refugees is exposed to health risks in the near future and as such is in need of additional support.

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  • 11. Nayak, Raj
    et al.
    Zdravkovic, Slobodan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV).
    Janzon, Ellis
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV).
    Incidence of myocardial infarction among Swedish and immigrant women: can physical activity modify the risk? An epidemiological study on the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 672-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sweden has shown a decreasing tendency in the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), except among middle-aged women. The incidence among middle-aged immigrant women is less explored. AIM: To determine if foreign-born women have a higher risk of MI as compared to women born in Sweden. Furthermore, to examine if physical activity (PA) modifies the risk of MI regardless of immigration status and smoking habits. METHODS: The Malmo Diet and Cancer Study was used for analyses. A total of 16,776 women aged 45-73 years participated. The mean follow-up time was 13.8+/-4 years. RESULTS: Mean age was 57.4+/-7.9 years. No difference was found in incidence of MI between Swedish and immigrant women (p=0.72). For current smokers among Swedish women, the relative risk (RR) with no/low PA was 2.93 (95% CI 2.07-4.14) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 2.21 (95% CI 1.61-3.03) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. Among immigrant smoking women, the RR with no/low PA was 4.56 (95% CI 1.62-12.8) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 3.27 (95% CI 1.21-8.84) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. CONCLUSIONS: PA reduces the risk of MI in non-smokers as well as in smokers, regardless of immigration status. Furthermore, PA was even more beneficial for women born outside Sweden. Against this background, immigrant women ought to get special consideration and attention from both caregivers and public health workers.

  • 12.
    Nordh, Emme-Lina W
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Grip, Karin
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Afzelius, Maria
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Axberg, Ulf
    Faculty of Social Studies, VID Specialized University, Norway.
    Mental health in children of parents being treated by specialised psychiatric services.2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 1113-1123, article id 14034948221076208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: One in ten children have a parent diagnosed with a mental illness by specialised psychiatric services. Severe parental mental illness is a well-established risk factor for children's mental health problems, making the identification and support of these children a public health concern. This study investigated the mental health and family context of children of parents diagnosed with depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder in this clinical setting.

    METHODS: Parental reports on 87 children aged 8-17 years were analysed. The children's mental health was compared with that of a Swedish population-based sample. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate associations between child mental health and child gender, child age, parent symptoms and social status, family functioning, and perceived parental control. Furthermore, a cumulative risk index explored the effect of multiple risk factors on child mental health.

    RESULTS: The children reportedly had significantly more mental health problems than did the population-based sample and about one-third had scores above the clinical cut-off. A significant multiple linear regression explained 49% of the variance in child mental health, with lower perceived parental control and younger child age being associated with more child mental health problems. With more reported risk factors, children reportedly had more mental health problems.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results underline the importance of identifying a patient’s children and assessing multiple relevant risk factors in the child’s life. Furthermore, the results indicate that the needs of younger children and of patients in their parenting role are important to address.

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  • 13.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    BTH.
    Berglund, Johan
    BTH.
    Tick prevention in a population living in a highly endemic area2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 432-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To describe environmental and personal tick preventive measures and their predictors, taken by a population living in a highly tick-endemic area. Methods: Due to the recent confirmation of human tick-borne encephalitis cases, vaccination against tick borne encephalitis was offered to the population living in the endemic area through the use of leaflets and media campaigns. At the time for the initial dose, information and enrollment to this cohort study was carried out. Participants´ characteristics, frequency of tick-bites and preventive measures were included in questionnaires. Logistic analysis was used to determine behavioural differences in activities taken in order to prevent tick-bites. Conclusion: In total, 70% of the permanent residents had themselves vaccinated before the next tick-season. Of the studied participants 356/517 (69%) regularly took preventive measures in their environment and/or personally. Women in particular, and those previously treated for a tick-borne disease took significantly more preventive measures. When analysing all variables together, spending less time in tick-endemic area and being tick-bitten the latest tick-season significantly increased the probability of taking preventive measures. After being tick-bitten, men were more inclined to start taking preventive measures than women. Awareness of the risks caused by living in a high endemic area to ticks influenced the participant’s daily life through preventive activities. Public health action should be considered thus encouraging out-of-door activities for the population, without anxiety for risks for contracting tick-borne disease after being tick-bitten.

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  • 14. Thern, Emelie
    et al.
    Sjögren Forss, Katarina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för hälsa.
    Jogreus, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för hälsa.
    Factors associated with active commuting among parents-to-be in Karlskrona, Sweden2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of active commuting and factors associated with participation in active commuting in the municipality of Karlskrona, Sweden. Active commuting is defined here as walking or cycling to and from school/work for at least 15 min one-way. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included baseline data from parents-to-be. Pregnant females and their partners were invited to participate in the study when they contacted either of the municipality’s two antenatal clinics. Data collection ran from March 2008 to February 2009. When completing the questionnaire, the participants were asked to reflect on their situation one month before the female became pregnant. The final sample consisted of 432 participants (response rate 51.9% for females and 85.0% for males). Results: The main mode of commuting was motor vehicle (63.0%), with active commuters forming a minority (8.3%). The main facilitating factor for active commuting was living in an urban as opposed to a rural area. Regular participation in outdoor recreational physical activity was significantly positively associated with active commuting. Being Swedish and being surrounded by a green space environment were significantly negatively associated with active commuting. Conclusions: This study found that the number of people who are active commuters is modest and other modes of transportation are preferred. Several facilitating and impeding factors associated with active commuting were also found, indicating the importance of applying a broad health-promoting approach to encouraging active commuting.

  • 15.
    Wemrell, Maria
    et al.
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Sweden; Department of Gender Studies, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lenander, Cecilia
    Family Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Kristofer
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Perez, Raquel Vicente
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hedin, Katarina
    Family Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Futurum, Region Jönköping County, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden Lund University, Sweden; .
    Merlo, Juan
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Sweden; Center for Primary Health Care Research, Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Socio-economic disparities in the dispensation of antibiotics in Sweden 2016-2017: An intersectional analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 347-354, article id 1403494820981496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Antimicrobial resistance presents an increasingly serious threat to global public health, which is directly related to how antibiotic medication is used in society. Actions aimed towards the optimised use of antibiotics should be implemented on equal terms and according to the needs of the population. Previous research results on differences in antibiotic use between socio-economic and demographic groups in Sweden are not entirely coherent, and have typically focused on the effects of singular socio-economic variables. Using an intersectional approach, this study provides a more precise analysis of how the dispensation of antibiotic medication was distributed across socio-economic and demographic groups in Sweden in 2016-2017. Methods: Using register data from a nationwide cohort and adopting an intersectional analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy, we map the dispensation of antibiotics according to age, sex, country of birth and income. Results: While women and high-income earners had the highest antibiotic dispensation prevalence, no large differences in the dispensation of antibiotics were identified between socio-economic groups. Conclusions: Public-health interventions aiming to support the reduced and optimised use of antibiotics should be directed towards the whole Swedish population rather than towards specific groups. Correspondingly, an increased focus on socio-economic or demographic factors is not warranted in interventions aimed at improving antibiotic prescription patterns among medical practitioners.

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