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  • 1.
    Backström, Martin Karaba
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Lund, Sweden..
    de Castro, Andre Luiz Moura
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Eakman, Aaron M.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Occupat Therapy, Ft Collins, CO USA..
    Ikiugu, Moses N.
    Univ South Dakota, Sch Hlth Sci, Occupat Therapy Dept, Vermillion, SD USA..
    Gribble, Nigel
    Curtin Univ, Sch Allied Hlth, Bentley, Australia..
    Asaba, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Div Occupat Therapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.;Stockholms Sjukhem, Unit Res Educ Dev & Innovat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Falkmer, Olov
    Humdrum, Perth, Australia..
    Eklund, Mona
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Ness, Nils Erik
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Occupat Therapy Programme, Trondheim, Norway..
    Balogh, Stefan
    Bosse Rad, Stod & Kunskapsctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hynes, Patrick
    St Gabriels Fdn, Limerick, Ireland.;Univ Limerick, Sch Allied Hlth, Limerick, Ireland..
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Occupational therapy gender imbalance; revisiting a lingering issue2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1113-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently, it has been suggested that gender disparity in Occupational Therapy has to do with segregated gendered job norms that position female dominated professions as a 'step down' for many males. Interestingly, this suggestion was not underpinned by experiences of males in the profession.

    Aims and methods: Thirteen male Occupational Therapists with a variety of backgrounds were invited to this Round Table research, focussing on the broader issue of the existing gender imbalance in Occupational Therapy.

    Results: Two themes emerged: 'The core values of the profession', and 'Broadening the scope of the profession'; none of them suggesting that male/female imbalance was necessarily the most pressing issue.

    Conclusions: A gender-unrelated approach to everyday problem-solving was put forward to achieve increased diversity in Occupational Therapists' backgrounds, better reflecting the people they serve. By broadening the scope and the way the profession is presented, and encouraging innovative and more entrepreneurially driven approaches, diversity in the workforce could be further facilitated. These findings are discussed within the context of 'The mutual constitution of cultures and selves' model.

    Significance: Diversity in the Occupational therapy workforce could be further facilitated with a shift in focus away from the male/female perspective to an intersectional approach.

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  • 2. Ballmer, Thomas
    et al.
    Helle, Tina
    Kaptain, Rina Juel
    Malinowsky, Camilla
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the Danish version of the management of everday technology assessment for use with older adults with and without COPD2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The trend towards telemedicine increasingly requires clients to manage everyday technology (ET) to access and use health services. The Management of Everday Technology Assessment (META) is an observation-based instrument developed to evaluate the ability to manage ET. AIM: To examine test-retest (TRR) and inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the Danish translation of the META for older adults with and without COPD. METHOD AND MATERIALS: 47 older adults with COPD (n = 23) and without (n = 24) were recruited. IRR was examined by four raters paired across 30 participants. TRR was examined for 21 participants by the same rater administering the META twice within four weeks. A rank-based method for paired ordinal data was used to calculate percentage agreement (PA) and measures of systematic disagreement and individual variability. Mann Whitney U tests were used to compare PA to health status (presence/absence of COPD). RESULTS: Inter-rater PA was acceptable across 10 of 11 items and test-retest PA across 8 of 11 items. Systematic disagreement was present for one item in TRR. No significant differences in PA were found regarding health status. CONCLUSION: The Danish META generates reliable scores for this sample. However, conclusive statements cannot be made for all items.

  • 3. Bigelius, Ulla
    et al.
    Eklund, Mona
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    The value and meaning of an instrumental occupation performed in a clinical setting2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 4-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how patients in a clinical setting, combining acute stroke care and rehabilitation, perceived the value and meaning attached to a commonly used instrumental occupation, namely “Brewing coffee and making an open-face cheese sandwich with sliced vegetable”. Another aim was to validate the ValMO model, proposing that value and meaning are related phenomena. Upon performing the occupation, 38 participants answered questionnaires concerning perceived meaning and occupational value. The results showed that the occupation was highly valued by the participants and that it was perceived as meaningful. No age or gender differences were found. The findings confirmed the proposed link between value and meaning. In conclusion, a commonly used and supposedly meaningful occupation was indeed found to be valued and meaningful by the patients and the findings validated the targeted aspects of the ValMO model. This study was unique in its focus on value and meaning in a clinical context. Futures studies should clarify if the link between meaningful occupation and well-being, which has been shown in many studies of everyday situations and is another of the assumptions in the ValMO model, can be proved in clinical contexts as well.

  • 4.
    Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Persson, Dennis
    Hagell, Peter
    Rasch analysis of an instrument for measuring occupational value: Implications for theory and practice2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing perceived occupational value, the 26-item OVal-pd. Data from 225 Swedish subjects with and without known mental illness were analysed regarding fit to the Rasch measurement model (partial credit model), differential item functioning (DIF), and functioning of the OVal-pd four-category response scale. The reliability (index of person separation, analogous to Cronbach's alpha) was good (0.92) but there were signs of overall and item level (six items) misfit. There was DIF between people with and without mental illness for three items. Iterative deletion of misfitting items resulted in a new 18-item DIF-free scale with good overall and individual item fit and maintained reliability (0.91). There were no disordered response category thresholds. These observations also held true in separate analyses among people with and without mental illness. Thus, the first steps of ensuring that occupational value can be measured in a valid and reliable way have been taken. Still, occupational value is a dynamic construct and the aspects that fit the construct may vary between contexts. This has implications for, e.g., cross-cultural research and calls for identification of a core set of culture-free items to allow for valid cross-cultural comparisons.

  • 5.
    Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Örnsberg, Lena
    Ekström, Christina
    Jansson, Birgitta
    Kjellin, Lars
    Effects of an activity-based assessment in occupational therapy on client satisfaction and occupational performance: A randomised study2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, p. 196-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Gunnarsson, Anna Birgitta
    et al.
    Peterson, Kerstin
    Leufstadius, Christel
    Jansson, Jan-Åke
    Eklund, Mona
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Client perceptions of the Tree Theme Method™: a structured intervention based on storytelling and creative activit2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tree Theme Method (TTM) is an intervention based on sessions involving creative activities and life storytelling/story-making, in which the client paints trees representing various periods of his/her life. The aim of this study was to investigate clients' experiences of participating in a TTM intervention and their perceptions of the therapeutic relationship. Thematic interviews were undertaken. Twenty clients attending general outpatient mental healthcare units were recruited after having participated in the intervention. A qualitative content analysis resulted in six categories: “From feeling a pressure to perform to becoming focused and expressive”, “Expressing oneself and one's life situation led to awakening of memories and feelings”, “New perspectives of self-image, everyday life and relations to others”, “Story-making led to shaping and reconstructing one's life story”, “Interaction was of importance when reconstructing one's life story” and, finally, “The attitude of the occupational therapist was of importance for the development of the therapeutic relationship”. There seemed to be a close association between the intervention and the therapeutic relationship in starting a process of opening up new perspectives on everyday life, but there is a need for further studies including therapists' experience of using the TTM and their perception of the client–therapist relationship.

  • 7.
    Helle, Tina
    et al.
    University College North, Aalborg, Denmark; Karolinska Institutet.
    Joho, Tanja
    Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kaptain, Rina Juel
    University College North, Aalborg, Denmark; Karolinska Institutet.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Karolinska Institutet.
    Activity repertoires and time use in people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 564-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Understanding the dynamics and aspects of how activity choices impact health and well-being in people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important to inform rehabilitation. Aim:To describe, firstly, how much time people living with COPD spend on work, daily living tasks, recreation and rest; secondly, how this population perceived competence, importance and enjoyment related to these activities; thirdly, if differences in such perceptions and time use were associated with the living situation and COPD severity. Material and methods:This cross-sectional study involved 76 participants (+45 years, COPD, living in ordinary homes), who completed the Occupational Questionnaire (OQ). Descriptive statistics and group comparisons were performed. Results:Most of the participants' time were spent on daily living activities and recreational activities. Participants spent approx. 80% of their recorded time in OQ on activities they valued, enjoyed and in which they felt competent. Participants living alone scored significantly lower on enjoyment in restful activities than those living in couples (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in perceived competence, importance or enjoyment was found in relation to COPD severity. Conclusions and significance:Findings underscore the importance of targeting overall daily activity repertoires including compositions of activity types, time use and perceived competence, importance and enjoyment.

  • 8. Kjellin, Lars
    et al.
    Cizinsky Sjödahl, Rosmarie
    Eklund, Mona
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Activity based assessment (BIA) – inter-rater reliability and staff experiences2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Malinowsky, Camilla
    et al.
    Nygård, Louise
    Pantzar, Monica
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Test-retest reliability of the short version of the everyday technology use questionnaire (S-ETUQ).2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 567-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Everyday technologies (ET) such as smart phones, and internet banking are increasingly incorporated into daily activities. Therefore, valid assessments are needed to identify ability in ET use and to design and evaluate interventions.

    Aims: To evaluate and compare the stability over time (test-retest reliability) of measures generated with the short version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (S-ETUQ) in older adults with cognitive impairment or mild dementia.

    Materials and Methods: Data was collected with S-ETUQ at two occasions (m = 20.9 days in between) in a sample of (n = 73) older adults with cognitive impairment of different origin (n = 38) or mild dementia (n = 35). Stability of each participant’s S-ETUQ measure was examined using standardised difference z-comparisons. The test-retest reliability coefficient of the S-ETUQ measures was determined by Intraclass Correlation Coefficients. Comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney u-tests.

    Results: The S-ETUQ measures were statistically stable between the two occasions. Hence, the group of persons with cognitive impairment demonstrated slightly higher stability and fewer differences compared to the group with mild dementia. The ICCs (0.82–0.90) indicated good to excellent agreement.

    Conclusions: S- ETUQ can be used with older people with cognitive impairments of varying degree to gather reliable and precise information regarding their use of ET.

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  • 10. Nilsson, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Argentzell, Elisabeth
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Leufstadius, Christel
    Eklund, Mona
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Measuring perceived meaningfulness in day centres for persons with mental illness2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 312-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Rationale: As support in leading a meaningful and active life, a person with mental illness is often given the opportunity to attend a day centre. However, few studies have investigated the meaningfulness perceived by the person visiting a day centre. For such a purpose, a self-report instrument was developed. Aims: To explore whether perceived meaningfulness, as expressed in the recently developed instrument Evaluation of Perceived Meaning in Day Centers (EPM-DC), could be viewed as one dimension and also to investigate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Methods: Persons with mental illness attending five day centres in Sweden participated and completed the questionnaire. The data were analysed by Rasch analysis. Major findings: The study showed that the concept captured in the instrument could be viewed as unidimensional and the result gave preliminary evidence for sound psychometric properties. Principal conclusion: The results indicate promising signs of validity and reliability, but the suitability of self-reporting may be questioned.

  • 11.
    Pooremamali, Parvin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV).
    Eklund, Mona
    Östman, Margareta
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV).
    Persson, Dennis
    Muslim Middle Eastern clients' reflections on their relationship with their occupational therapists in mental health care2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 328-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons with a Middle Eastern background represent a minority in Sweden which has significantly increased in size over recent years. The purpose of the present study was to explore the elements that shape the experiences and perceptions of clients with a Middle Eastern background living by Muslim norms who received occupational therapy in mental health care at the time of participating in the study. The study included interviews with 11 clients who received occupational therapy in mental health care. Data collection and analysis were carried out in accordance with the grounded theory approach. One core category, desiring a union, described the clients’ desire for an alliance with the therapists that encompassed the realities and truths embedded in their values, preferences, world-views, and belief systems, as well as a wish to reconstruct their abilities to function and perform daily life tasks within their cultural contexts. The core category included sub-categories: desiring relationship, desiring affiliation, and desiring affirmation as well as some related components. The overall findings showed a tentative model in which the notion of mahram affinity was embedded. The results demonstrated that the clients’ views regarding desiring a union had their support in collectivistic world-views that often clash with those of the therapists.

  • 12.
    Pooremamali, Parvin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV).
    Persson, Dennis
    Eklund, Mona
    Occupational therapists' experience of working with immigrant clients in mental health care2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 109-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s cultural diversity generates considerable challenges for occupational therapists. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and perceptions of occupational therapists working with immigrant psychiatric clients from the Middle East region. The study included interviews with eight occupational therapists employed in mental health care and working in a variety of settings. The data collection and analysis were carried out in accordance with the grounded theory approach. One core category, “the challenges of the multicultural therapeutic journey—a journey on a winding road” was identified. The core category included three categories: dilemmas in clinical practice, feelings and thoughts, and building cultural bridges, in turn comprising sub-categories and components. The results showed that the many dilemmas influencing effective multicultural occupational therapy were cultural, societal, and professional in nature. The dilemmas influenced feelings and thoughts, in turn influencing both motivation for seeking cultural knowledge and choice of adequate strategies in which the multicultural therapeutic relationship could develop. The results imply that culturally congruent occupational therapy practice needs to be further developed and more research is needed on how cultural issues can be met in occupational therapy practice.

  • 13.
    Porter, Susann
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Lexén, Annika
    Swedish occupational therapists’ considerations for leaving their profession: outcomes from a national survey2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Occupational therapists are an essential healthcare profession and play a vital rolein rehabilitating patients in the activities of daily life. Nevertheless, many occupational therapistsin Sweden are leaving the profession and this jeopardises occupational therapy services.Objective: To explore factors that cause occupational therapists to seriously consider leavingtheir profession.Material and methods: As part of a larger national study of Swedish occupational therapists’health and work environment, qualitative content analysis with a summative approach wasapplied to explore the reasons for considering leaving their profession among 1279 Swedishoccupational therapists.Results: Three themes emerged: (1) facing work environment deficiencies, (2) pursuing owndevelopment and (3) Personal factors and external constraints. The largest category, belongingto theme 1, was stress and high work pressure given 344 times as a reason to consider leavingthe profession.Conclusions and significance: This article provides new and important insights on the reasonswhy occupational therapists may seriously consider leaving their profession. The results are significant for managers and employing organizations to consider in order to prevent a shortageof occupational therapy services.

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  • 14.
    Schulze, Christina
    et al.
    School of Health Professions, Zurich University of Applied Science, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Meichtry, Andre
    School of Health Professions, Zurich University of Applied Science, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Page, Julie
    School of Health Professions, Zurich University of Applied Science, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Psychometric properties of the German Version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI-G): A factor analysis2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 621-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Activities of daily living (ADL) are crucial for children because they enable them to participate in everyday life. For the evaluation of children`s ADL performance, health professionals such as occupational therapists use standardized ADL assessments. To implement assessments into practice it is important that the score generated from an assessment can be viewed as a unidimensional measure. Aim: To investigate the factor structure of the German Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI-G) in a sample of typically developing children and children with an impairment. Material and Methods: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with factor rotation was performed to assess the factor structure for the PEDI-G domains (self-care, mobility and social function) of the Functional Skills Scale and the Caregiver Assistance Scale. Results: 262 children (118 (45%) girls and 144 (55%) boys) participated in this study. Their mean age (SD) was 4 years (SD 1.91). Results suggest that the PEDI domains of the Functional Skills Scale and the Caregivers Assistance Scale can be used as unidimensional measures to evaluate child`s ability to perform activities of daily living. Conclusion: The results of this study support the use of the PEDI-G for research and practice in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.

  • 15. Wallcook, Sarah
    et al.
    Malinowsky, Camilla
    Nygård, Louise
    Charlesworth, Georgina
    Lee, Jenica
    Walsh, Ryan
    Gaber, Sophie
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    The perceived challenge of everyday technologies in Sweden, the United States and England: Exploring differential item functioning in the everyday technology use questionnaire2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 554-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The changing technological environment is reflected in regular updates made to the everyday technology (ET) use questionnaire (ETUQ). Newly added ETs may not present comparable challenges across countries and diagnoses.

    Aims: To identify whether country context, or dementia diagnosis, impact ETs’ challenge level.

    Material and methods: 315 older adults from three countries were included; Sweden (n = 73), United States (n = 114), England (n = 128), and had a confirmed diagnosis of mild dementia (n = 99) or no known cognitive impairment (n = 216). Differential Items Functioning (DIF) analysis was performed on 88 ETs included in the ETUQ by country and diagnosis. The impact of DIF was evaluated in a Differential Test Functioning (DTF) analysis.

    Results: Nine items (10.2%) in the ETUQ showed statistically significant DIF between countries; five of which were public space ETs and none of which were information and communication technologies (ICTs). Three ICT items, and no others, showed significant DIF by diagnosis. The items’ DIF was shown to have no impact upon person measures of ability to use ET in the DTF.

    Conclusions and significance: The utility of the ETUQ in occupational therapy practice and research internationally is highlighted through the stability of the challenge hierarchy and lack of impact on person measures.

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  • 16. Weiber, Ingrid
    et al.
    Tengland, Per-Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Berglund, Johan Sanmartin
    Eklund, Mona
    Everyday life when growing up with a mother with an intellectual or developmental disability: Four retrospective life-stories.2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 418-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The voices of those who have grown up in a family with maternal intellectual or developmental disability (IDD) are valuable for gaining an understanding of their situation, which is essential in order to be able to support these families and avoid potentially detrimental situations.

    Aim: The study aim was to describe the experience of having grown up in a family where the mother has an IDD, with a focus on everyday life and perceived health consequences in adult life.

    Method: A qualitative method with retrospective narrative interviews and narrative content analysis was chosen. In-depth interviews were performed with four women who had experiences of a childhood with maternal IDD.

    Findings: Four themes emerged: Living under adverse circumstances; Dealing with one’s everyday life situation; Receiving insufficient support and wishing for more; and The echo from childhood into adult life. The findings revealed a distressing childhood, characterized by neglect, abuse, anxiety, and overburdening responsibilities, and also endeavors to keep the family situation a secret, while at the same time wanting the adult world to react.

    Discussion: The findings can hopefully stimulate occupational therapists and other professionals to more effectively identify the situation of these children and provide support to prevent adverse future health conditions and poor well-being.

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  • 17. Wenger, Ines
    et al.
    Schulze, Christina
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Are the American normative standard scores applicable to the German version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI-G)?2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is an assessment to evaluate children’s performance in activities of daily living.

    Aims: The study investigated if the normative standard scores of the PEDI are applicable to the German version of the PEDI (PEDI-G) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and whether there are differences in the applicability of the PEDI-G between the three countries.

    Materials and methods: 75 children with normal development (35 girls, 40 boys) from Germany (n = 17), Austria (n = 16), and Switzerland (n = 42) aged between 0.9 month and 7.3 years (SD = 2.03) participated in the study. Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey tests were applied.

    Results: No significant differences were identified. However, the German-speaking sample showed higher scores for the domain social function in both scales and in the Caregiver Assistance Scale self-care. Lower scores were identified in the Functional Skills Scale mobility.

    Conclusions and significance: The results support that the normative standard scores of the PEDI are applicable to the PEDI-G and for Austria, Germany and Switzerland, as no significant differences between the countries were identified. However, the generalizability of the results is limited due to sample size and recruitment procedures.

  • 18. Wästberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Haglund, Lena
    Eklund, Mona
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Psychometric properties of the Worker Role Self-assessment instrument used to evaluate unemployed people in Sweden2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, p. 238-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to determine the psychometric properties of the new Worker Role Self-assessment (WRS) instrument. The content validity, utility, test–retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and predictive validity of the WRS were investigated in two subject samples, which were selected at work and pain rehabilitation clinics, respectively. One of these groups consisted of 23 clients and four occupational therapists, and the other comprised 83 clients. All clients in both samples were unemployed. The results showed that both the clients and the occupational therapists perceived the content validity and the utility of the WRS as good. The test–retest reliability showed mostly good to moderate agreement, and the internal consistency was satisfactory. One of the items showed predictive validity for work capacity, and the same item was sensitive to change. However, a ceiling effect reduced the utility and the sensitivity to change. Our findings indicate that the WRS is promising as a tool that clinicians can use to evaluate the capacity for return to work and for planning interventions, although some revisions are needed to counteract the ceiling effect.

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