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  • 1.
    Aisaiti, Adila
    et al.
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Zhou, Yanli
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Wen, Yue
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Zhou, Weina
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Wang, Chen
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Zhao, Jing
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Yu, Linfeng
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Zhang, Jinglu
    Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Wang, Kelun
    Nanjing Medical University, China; Aalborg University, Denmark; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Aarhus University, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON), Aarhus, Denmark.
    Effect of photobiomodulation therapy on painful temporomandibular disorders2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 9049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner. Participants were divided into a masseter myalgia group (n = 88) and a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia group (n = 87) according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD). Both groups randomly received PBMT or placebo treatment once a day for 7 consecutive days, one session. The PBMT was applied with a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser (wavelength = 810 nm) at pre-determined points in the masseter muscle (6 J/cm2, 3 regions, 60 s) or TMJ region (6 J/cm2, 5 points, 30 s) according to their most painful site. Pain intensity was rated on a 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and mechanical sensitivity mapping were recorded before and after the treatment on day 1 and day 7. Jaw function was assessed by pain free jaw opening, maximum unassisted jaw opening, maximum assisted jaw opening, maximum protrusion and right and left excursion. Data were analyzed with a mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Pain intensity in arthralgia patients decreased over time (P < 0.001) for both types of interventions, however, PBMT caused greater reduction in pain scores than placebo (P = 0.014). For myalgia patients, pain intensity decreased over time (P < 0.001) but without difference between interventions (P = 0.074). PPTs increased in both myalgia (P < 0.001) and TMJ arthralgia patients over time (P < 0.001) but without difference between interventions (P ≥ 0.614). Overall, PBMT was associated with marginally better improvements in range of motion compared to placebo in both myalgia and arthralgia patients. Pain intensity, sensory function and jaw movements improve after both PBMT and placebo treatments in myalgia and arthralgia patients indicating a substantial non-specific effect of PBMT.

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  • 2. Andoralov, Viktor
    et al.
    Falk, Magnus
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Suyatin, Dmitry
    Granmo, Marcus
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Ludwig, Roland
    Popov, Vladimir
    Schouenborg, Jens
    Blum, Zoltan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Sergey, Shleev
    Biofuel cell based on microscale nanostructured electrodes with inductive coupling to rat brain neurons2013In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, no 3, article id 3270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniature, self-contained biodevices powered by biofuel cells may enable a new generation of implantable, wireless, minimally invasive neural interfaces for neurophysiological in vivo studies and for clinical applications. Here we report on the fabrication of a direct electron transfer based glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) from genuinely three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured microscale gold electrodes, modified with suitable biocatalysts. We show that the process underlying the simple fabrication method of 3D nanostructured electrodes is based on an electrochemically driven transformation of physically deposited gold nanoparticles. We experimentally demonstrate that mediator-, cofactor-, and membrane-less EFCs do operate in cerebrospinal fluid and in the brain of a rat, producing amounts of electrical power sufficient to drive a self-contained biodevice, viz. 7 μW cm−2 in vitro and 2 μW cm−2 in vivo at an operating voltage of 0.4 V. Last but not least, we also demonstrate an inductive coupling between 3D nanobioelectrodes and living neurons.

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  • 3.
    Argatov, Ivan
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Mech, D-10623 Berlin, Germany..
    Roosen-Runge, Felix
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Kocherbitov, Vitaly
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Dynamics of post-occlusion water diffusion in stratum corneum2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 17957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of water through membranes presents a considerable challenge, as the diffusivity often depends on the local concentration of water. One particular example with strong biological relevance is the stratum corneum (SC) as the primary permeability barrier for the skin. A simple alternative for the constant diffusivity model is provided by the Fujita's two-parameter rational approximation, which captures the experimentally observed fact that the SC diffusion constant for water increases with increasing the water concentration. Based on Fick's law of diffusion, a one-dimensional concentration-dependent diffusion model is developed and applied for the analysis of both the steady-state transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the non-steady-state so-called skin surface water loss (SSWL) occurred after removal of an occlusion patch from the SC surface. It is shown that some of the age-related changes in the SSWL can be qualitatively explained by the variation of the dimensionless Fujita concentration-dependence parameter.

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  • 4.
    Awad, Eman
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Ramji, Rathi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Cirovic, Stefan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Rämgård, Margareta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University.
    Developing and evaluating non-invasive healthcare technologies for a group of female participants from a socioeconomically disadvantaged area2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 23896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When compared to the general population, socioeconomically disadvantaged communitiesfrequently experience compromised health. Monitoring the divide is challenging since standardizedbiomedical tests are linguistically and culturally inappropriate. The aim of this study was to developand test a unique mobile biomedical testbed based on non-invasive analysis, as well as to explorethe relationships between the objective health measures and subjective health outcomes, asevaluated with the World Health Organization Quality of Life survey. The testbed was evaluated in asocioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood in Malmö, which has been listed as one of the twelvemost vulnerable districts in Sweden. The study revealed that compared to conventional protocolsthe less intrusive biomedical approach was highly appreciated by the participants. Surprisingly, thecollected biomedical data illustrated that the apparent health of the participants from the ethnicallydiverse low-income neighborhood was comparable to the general Swedish population. Statisticallysignificant correlations between perceived health and biomedical data were disclosed, even thoughthe dependences found were complex, and recognition of the manifest complexity needs to beincluded in further research. Our results validate the potential of non-invasive technologies incombination with advanced statistical analysis, especially when combined with linguistically andculturally appropriate healthcare methodologies, allowing participants to appreciate the significanceof the different parameters to evaluate and monitor aspects of health.

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  • 5.
    Björklund, Sebastian
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Kocherbitov, Vitaly
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Alcohols react with MCM-41 at room temperature and chemically modify mesoporous silica2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesoporous silica has received much attention due to its well-defined structural order, high surface area, and tunable pore diameter. To successfully employ mesoporous silica for nanotechnology applications it is important to consider how it is influenced by solvent molecules due to the fact that most preparation procedures involve treatment in various solvents. In the present work we contribute to this important topic with new results on how MCM-41 is affected by a simple treatment in alcohol at room temperature. The effects of alcohol treatment are characterized by TGA, FTIR, and sorption calorimetry. The results are clear and show that treatment of MCM-41 in methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or octanol at room temperature introduces alkoxy groups that are covalently bound to the silica surface. It is shown that alcohol treated MCM-41 becomes more hydrophobic and that this effect is sequentially more prominent going from methanol to octanol. Chemical formation of alkoxy groups onto MCM-41 occurs both for calcined and hydroxylated MCM-41 and the alkoxy groups are hydrolytically unstable and can be replaced by silanol groups after exposure to water. The results are highly relevant for mesoporous silica applications that involve contact or treatment in protic solvents, which is very common.

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  • 6.
    Boscato, Noeli
    et al.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Sch Dent, Dept Restorat Dent, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Dent & Oral Hlth, Sect Orofacial Pain & Jaw Funct, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Exposto, Fernando G.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Dent & Oral Hlth, Sect Orofacial Pain & Jaw Funct, Aarhus, Denmark.;Scandinavian Ctr Orofacial Neurosci SCON, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Costa, Yuri M.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Dent & Oral Hlth, Sect Orofacial Pain & Jaw Funct, Aarhus, Denmark.;Univ Estadual Campinas, Piracicaba Dent Sch, Dept Biosci, Piracicaba, Brazil..
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Aarhus Univ, Dept Dent & Oral Hlth, Sect Orofacial Pain & Jaw Funct, Aarhus, Denmark.;Scandinavian Ctr Orofacial Neurosci SCON, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Effect of standardized training in combination with masseter sensitization on corticomotor excitability in bruxer and control individuals: a proof of concept study2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 17469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, it has been proposed that bruxism could represent an overlearned behavior due to the absence of corticomotor plasticity following a relevant tooth-clenching task (TCT). This study assessed the modulatory effects of a nerve growth factor (NGF) injection on masseter muscle corticomotor excitability, jaw motor performance, pain, and limitation in bruxer and control participants following a TCT. Participants characterized as definitive bruxers or controls were randomly assigned to have injected into the right masseter muscle either NGF or isotonic saline (IS), resulting in a study with 4 arms: IS_Control (n = 7), IS_Bruxer (n = 7); NGF_Control (n = 6), and NGF_Bruxer (n = 8). The primary outcome was the masseter motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude measured at baseline and after a TCT. After the interventions, significantly higher and lower MEP amplitude and corticomotor map area were observed, respectively, in the IS_Control and NGF_Control groups (P < 0.05). Precision and accuracy depended on the series and target force level with significant between-group differences (P < 0.01). NGF-induced masseter muscle sensitization, in combination with a training-induced effect, can significantly impact the corticomotor excitability of the masseter muscle in control participants indicating substantial changes in corticomotor excitability, which are not observed in bruxers. These preliminary findings may have therapeuthic implications for the potential to "detrain" and manage bruxism, but further studies with larger sample sizes will be needed to test this new concept.

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  • 7.
    Boyd, Hannah
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan F
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Welbourn, Rebecca J L
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
    Ma, Kun
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
    Li, Peixun
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
    Gutfreund, Philipp
    Institut Laue Langevin, France.
    Klechikov, Alexey
    Institut Laue Langevin, France; Uppsala University.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Barker, Robert
    University of Kent, UK.
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Effect of nonionic and amphoteric surfactants on salivary pellicles reconstituted in vitro2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 12913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surfactants are important components of oral care products. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is the most common because of its foaming properties, taste and low cost. However, the use of ionic surfactants, especially SDS, is related to several oral mucosa conditions. Thus, there is a high interest in using non-ionic and amphoteric surfactants as they are less irritant. To better understand the performance of these surfactants in oral care products, we investigated their interaction with salivary pellicles i.e., the proteinaceous films that cover surfaces exposed to saliva. Specifically, we focused on pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E5) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) as model nonionic and amphoteric surfactants respectively, and investigated their interaction with reconstituted salivary pellicles with various surface techniques: Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation, Ellipsometry, Force Spectroscopy and Neutron Reflectometry. Both C12E5 and CAPB were gentler on pellicles than SDS, removing a lower amount. However, their interaction with pellicles differed. Our work indicates that CAPB would mainly interact with the mucin components of pellicles, leading to collapse and dehydration. In contrast, exposure to C12E5 had a minimal effect on the pellicles, mainly resulting in the replacement/solubilisation of some of the components anchoring pellicles to their substrate.

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  • 8.
    Browning, T. K.
    et al.
    Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Tania Kjellerup
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Maric, Selma
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Malekkhaiat-Häffner, S.
    Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, G. N.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, E.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Malmsten, M.
    Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cárdenas, Marité
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Human lipoproteins at model cell membranes: Role of the lipoprotein class on lipid dynamics2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 7478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) are thought to play vital roles in the onset and development of atherosclerosis; the biggest killer in the western world. Key issues of initial lipoprotein (LP) interactions at cellular membranes need to be addressed including LP deposition and lipid exchange. Here we present a protocol for monitoring the in situ kinetics of lipoprotein deposition and lipid exchange/removal at model cellular membranes using the non-invasive, surface sensitive methods of neutron reflection and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. For neutron reflection, lipid exchange and lipid removal can be distinguished thanks to the combined use of hydrogenated and tail-deuterated lipids. Both HDL and LDL remove lipids from the bilayer and deposit hydrogenated material into the lipid bilayer, however, the extent of removal and exchange depends on LP type. These results support the notion of HDL acting as the ‘good’ cholesterol, removing lipid material from lipid-loaded cells, whereas LDL acts as the ‘bad’ cholesterol, depositing lipid material into the vascular wall.

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  • 9. Chen, Jing
    et al.
    Shinde, Sudhirkumar
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Koch, Markus Hermann
    Eisenacher, Martin
    Galozzi, Sara
    Lerari, Thilo
    Barkovits, Katalin
    Subedi, Prabal
    Krüger, Reiko
    Kuhlmann, Katja
    Sellergren, Börje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Helling, Stefan
    Marcus, Katrin
    Low-bias phosphopeptide enrichment from scarce samples using plastic antibodies2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 11438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphospecific enrichment techniques and mass spectrometry (MS) are essential tools for comprehending the cellular phosphoproteome. Here, we report a fast and simple approach for low sequence-bias phosphoserine (pS) peptide capture and enrichment that is compatible with low biological or clinical sample input. The approach exploits molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs, "plastic antibodies") featuring tight neutral binding sites for pS or pY that are capable of cross-reacting with phosphopeptides of protein proteolytic digests. The versatility of the resulting method was demonstrated with small samples of whole-cell lysate from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, mouse brain or human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Following pre-fractionation of trypsinized proteins by strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography, pS-MIP enrichment led to the identification of 924 phosphopeptides in the HEK 293T whole-cell lysate, exceeding the number identified by TiO2-based enrichment (230). Moreover, the phosphopeptides were extracted with low sequence bias and showed no evidence for the characteristic preference of TiO2 for acidic amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid). Applying the method to human CSF led to the discovery of 47 phosphopeptides belonging to 24 proteins and revealed three previously unknown phosphorylation sites.

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  • 10.
    Chen, Yicheng
    et al.
    School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Feng, Xin
    Division of Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery, Akerhus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.
    Shi, Xie-Qi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China; Department of Clinical Dentistry, Section for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Cai, Weihua
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.
    Li, Biao
    School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Zhao, Yijun
    School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Computational fluid-structure interaction analysis of flapping uvula on aerodynamics and pharyngeal vibration in a pediatric airway2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 2013-, article id 2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uvula flapping is one of the most distinctive features of snoring and is critical in affecting airway aerodynamics and vibrations. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of pharyngeal vibration and pressure fluctuation due to uvula flapping employing fluid-structure interaction simulations. The followings are the methodology part: we constructed an anatomically accurate pediatric pharynx model and put attention on the oropharynx region where the greatest level of upper airway compliance was reported to occur. The uvula was assumed to be a rigid body with specific flapping frequencies to guarantee proper boundary conditions with as little complexity as possible. The airway tissue was considered to have a uniform thickness. It was found that the flapping frequency had a more significant effect on the airway vibration than the flapping amplitude, as the flapping uvula influenced the pharyngeal aerodynamics by altering the jet flow from the mouth. Breathing only through the mouth could amplify the effect of flapping uvula on aerodynamic changes and result in more significant oropharynx vibration.

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  • 11. Costa, Yuri M
    et al.
    Exposto, Fernando G
    Castrillon, Eduardo E
    Conti, Paulo César R
    Bonjardim, Leonardo R
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Local anaesthesia decreases nerve growth factor induced masseter hyperalgesia2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 15458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of local anaesthesia on nerve growth factor (NGF) induced masseter hyperalgesia. Healthy participants randomly received an injection into the right masseter muscle of either isotonic saline (IS) given as a single injection (n = 15) or an injection of NGF (n = 30) followed by a second injection of lidocaine (NGF + lidocaine; n = 15) or IS (NGF + IS; n = 15) in the same muscle 48 h later. Mechanical sensitivity scores of the right and left masseter, referred sensations and jaw pain intensity and jaw function were assessed at baseline, 48 h after the first injection, 5 min after the second injection and 72 h after the first injection. NGF caused significant jaw pain evoked by chewing at 48 and 72 h after the first injection when compared to the IS group, but without significant differences between the NGF + lidocaine and NGF + IS groups. However, the mechanical sensitivity of the right masseter 5 min after the second injection in the NGF + lidocaine group was significantly lower than the second injection in the NGF + IS and was similar to the IS group. There were no significant differences for the referred sensations. Local anaesthetics may provide relevant information regarding the contribution of peripheral mechanisms in the maintenance of persistent musculoskeletal pain.

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  • 12.
    Dieden, Anna
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Petri
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Korduner, Johan
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Molvin, John
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Zaghi, Amir
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nezami, Zainu
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bachus, Erasmus
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Late-Stage Development, Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolism, BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holm, Hannes
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jujic, Amra
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Cardiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Galectin-4 is associated with diabetes and obesity in a heart failure population2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 20285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An association between high Galectin-4 (Gal-4) and prevalence of diabetes in subjects with heart failure (HF) has previously been reported. The purpose of this study was to confirm these findings, as well as to further investigate this association, in a Swedish HF population. In addition, a second aim was to explore Gal-4's association with obesity and biomarkers of metabolism and heart failure. Gal-4 was measured using a proximity extension array technique in 324 hospitalized HF patients within the Swedish HeArt and bRain failure investigation trial cohort. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore associations between Gal-4 and diabetes/obesity, and linear regression models were used to explore the associations between Gal-4 and biomarkers. A total of 309 participants (29.1% female; mean age 74.8 years) provided complete data for the analysis of associations between Gal-4 and diabetes. Additionally, for the analysis of heart failure phenotype, complete data was available for 230 subjects. Gal-4 was positively associated with prevalent diabetes (OR 2.60; CI 95% 1.56-4.32). In multivariable models, Gal-4 levels were significantly associated with obesity, but only for subjects with diabetes (OR 2.48; 1.09-5.62). Additionally, Gal-4 demonstrated a significant association with the incretin Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as well as with biomarkers of HF. In the stratified analyses, the association between Gal-4 and diabetes was prominent in patients with reduced ejection fraction (n = 160, OR 3.26; 95%CI 1.88-5.66), while it was not observed in those without (n = 70, 1.96 (0.75-5.10)). In this cross-sectional, observational study, higher Gal-4 levels in HF patients were associated with higher GIP levels. Further, increased levels of Gal-4 were associated with increased likelihood of diabetes, and obesity. This association was particularly pronounced in individuals with HF characterized by reduced ejection fraction. Additionally, Gal-4 levels were significantly elevated in heart failure patients with diabetes and obesity.

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  • 13.
    Exposto, Fernando G
    et al.
    Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Aarhus University, Denmark ; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON), Aarhus, Denmark.
    Huang, Miranda
    Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Haasnoot, Talita
    Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Koutris, Michail
    Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Lobbezoo, Frank
    Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bendixen, Karina H
    Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Aarhus University, , Denmark. ; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON), Aarhus, Denmark..
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Aarhus University, , Denmark. ; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON), Aarhus, Denmark..
    Location of mechanically-evoked referred sensations within the trigeminal region are not altered following a heterotopic painful stimulus.2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 21181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether the location, area and frequency of referred sensations occurring during palpation of the masseter muscle can be influenced by application of a conditioning painful stimulus to the temporalis muscle. Thirty healthy participants were included in this cross-over study, performed in two sessions with > 48 h in between. At each session, palpation of the masseter muscle was performed before and after 0.2 ml of glutamate (1 mol/L) or isotonic saline (control) were injected into the anterior portion of the temporalis muscle. Palpation of the masseter muscle was done using four different forces (0.5 kg, 1 kg, 2 kg and 4 kg). Participants rated the perceived intensity of the palpation and any referred sensations on a 0-50-100 numeric rating scale, the perceived pain intensity following the injections on an electronic visual analogue scale and drew any referred sensations they experienced. No difference in referred sensations location, area and frequency was shown r during palpation either before or after injections (P > 0.05). A moderate correlation was found between perceived sensation scores and referred sensations intensity for the temporalis muscle following glutamate injection (r = 0.407, P < 0.05). Moreover, significantly more participants reported referred sensations for glutamate injections into the temporalis muscle when compared to isotonic saline (P < 0.05). Finally, a significant decrease in the perceived intensity of palpation of the masseter muscle was seen after glutamate injection in the temporalis muscle (P < 0.05). In the current study, location, area and frequency of referred sensations following mechanical stimulation of the masseter muscle were not altered by the application of a painful stimulus to the temporalis muscle. In addition, there seems to be a positive relationship between painful stimuli and referred sensations frequency and intensity elicited from the temporalis muscle.

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  • 14.
    Fakhouri, Hussam N
    et al.
    Department of Data Science and Artificial Intelligence, The University of Petra, Amman, Jordanc.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Department of Computer Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden; Computer Graphics and Data Engineering (COGRADE) Research Group, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Awaysheh, Feras M
    Institute of Computer Science, Delta Research Centre, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Zraqou, Jamal
    Virtual and Augment Reality Department, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan.
    A cognitive deep learning approach for medical image processing2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 4539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ophthalmic diagnostics, achieving precise segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a critical yet challenging task, primarily due to the complex nature of retinal images. The intricacies of these images often hinder the accuracy and efficiency of segmentation processes. To overcome these challenges, we introduce the cognitive DL retinal blood vessel segmentation (CoDLRBVS), a novel hybrid model that synergistically combines the deep learning capabilities of the U-Net architecture with a suite of advanced image processing techniques. This model uniquely integrates a preprocessing phase using a matched filter (MF) for feature enhancement and a post-processing phase employing morphological techniques (MT) for refining the segmentation output. Also, the model incorporates multi-scale line detection and scale space methods to enhance its segmentation capabilities. Hence, CoDLRBVS leverages the strengths of these combined approaches within the cognitive computing framework, endowing the system with human-like adaptability and reasoning. This strategic integration enables the model to emphasize blood vessels, accurately segment effectively, and proficiently detect vessels of varying sizes. CoDLRBVS achieves a notable mean accuracy of 96.7%, precision of 96.9%, sensitivity of 99.3%, and specificity of 80.4% across all of the studied datasets, including DRIVE, STARE, HRF, retinal blood vessel and Chase-DB1. CoDLRBVS has been compared with different models, and the resulting metrics surpass the compared models and establish a new benchmark in retinal vessel segmentation. The success of CoDLRBVS underscores its significant potential in advancing medical image processing, particularly in the realm of retinal blood vessel segmentation.

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  • 15.
    Hayakawa, Hidetoshi
    et al.
    Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan.
    Iida, Takashi
    Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan.
    Honda-Sakaki, Mika
    Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan.
    Masuda, Manabu
    Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan.
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). arhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON), Aarhus, Denmark.
    Komiyama, Osamu
    Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan.
    Drop homotopic effects of masseter-muscle pain on somatosensory sensitivity in healthy participants2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 10575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current pain classifications use 1.0-kg palpation of the masseter muscle to distinguish between "pain patients" and "healthy controls" but a thorough understanding of the normal physiological responses to various somatosensory stimuli is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate somatosensory function of the skin over the masseter muscle in healthy participants that were divided into a masseter pain prone group (MPP) (n = 22) and non-MPP group (n = 22), according to the response to a 1.0-kg palpation. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed at the skin above the right masseter muscle (homotopic). In an additional experiment, 13 individuals each from MPP and non-MPP received application of 60% topical lidocaine tape to the skin over the masseter muscle for 30 min. Immediately after, mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS), dynamic mechanical allodynia, and pressure pain threshold were tested. Homotopic MPS was significantly higher and PPTs significantly lower in MPP than in N-MPP (P < 0.05). Strikingly, no other differences in QST outcomes were observed between the groups (P > 0.05). After lidocaine application, no significant differences in homotopic MPS were observed between groups. The presence or absence of acute provoked pain in masseter muscle is exclusively associated with differences in homotopic MPS which is decreased following topical anesthesia.

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  • 16. Hedegaard, Sofie Fogh
    et al.
    Derbas, Mohammed Sobhi
    Lind, Tania Kjellerup
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Kasimova, Marina Robertnova
    Christensen, Malene Vinther
    Michaelsen, Maria Hotoft
    Campbell, Richard A.
    Jorgensen, Lene
    Franzyk, Henrik
    Cárdenas, Marité
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Nielsen, Hanne Morck
    Fluorophore labeling of a cell-penetrating peptide significantly alters the mode and degree of biomembrane interaction2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 6327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for highly efficient macromolecular drugs, used in the treatment of many severe diseases, is continuously increasing. However, the hydrophilic character and large molecular size of these drugs significantly limit their ability to permeate across cellular membranes and thus impede the drugs in reaching their target sites in the body. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have gained attention as promising drug excipients, since they can facilitate drug permeation across cell membranes constituting a major biological barrier. Fluorophores are frequently covalently conjugated to CPPs to improve detection, however, the ensuing change in physico-chemical properties of the CPPs may alter their biological properties. With complementary biophysical techniques, we show that the mode of biomembrane interaction may change considerably upon labeling of the CPP penetratin (PEN) with a fluorophore. Fluorophore-PEN conjugates display altered modes of membrane interaction with increased insertion into the core of model cell membranes thereby exerting membrane-thinning effects. This is in contrast to PEN, which localizes along the head groups of the lipid bilayer, without affecting the thickness of the lipid tails. Particularly high membrane disturbance is observed for the two most hydrophobic PEN conjugates; rhodamine B or 1-pyrene butyric acid, as compared to the four other tested fluorophore-PEN conjugates.

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  • 17.
    Jakubauskas, Dainius
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, DK-1871 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalewska, Lucja
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Biol, Inst Expt Plant Biol & Biotechnol, Dept Plant Anat & Cytol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Sokolova, Anna, V
    ANSTO, Australian Ctr Neutron Scattering, Sydney, NSW 2234, Australia..
    Garvey, Christopher J.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. ANSTO, Australian Ctr Neutron Scattering, Sydney, NSW 2234, Australia.;Lund Inst Adv Neutron & Xray Scattering, Lund, Sweden..
    Mortensen, Kell
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Jensen, Poul Erik
    Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, DK-1871 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1871 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ultrastructural modeling of small angle scattering from photosynthetic membranes2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 19405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has seen a range of studies using non-invasive neutron and X-ray techniques to probe the ultrastructure of a variety of photosynthetic membrane systems. A common denominator in this work is the lack of an explicitly formulated underlying structural model, ultimately leading to ambiguity in the data interpretation. Here we formulate and implement a full mathematical model of the scattering from a stacked double bilayer membrane system taking instrumental resolution and polydispersity into account. We validate our model by direct simulation of scattering patterns from 3D structural models. Most importantly, we demonstrate that the full scattering curves from three structurally typical cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane systems measured in vivo can all be described within this framework. The model provides realistic estimates of key structural parameters in the thylakoid membrane, in particular the overall stacking distance and how this is divided between membranes, lumen and cytoplasmic liquid. Finally, from fitted scattering length densities it becomes clear that the protein content in the inner lumen has to be lower than in the outer cytoplasmic liquid and we extract the first quantitative measure of the luminal protein content in a living cyanobacteria.

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  • 18.
    Jankovskaja, Skaidre
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Engblom, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Rezeli, Melinda
    Clinical Protein Science and Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Marko-Varga, György
    Clinical Protein Science and Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ruzgas, Tautgirdas
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Björklund, Sebastian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Non-invasive skin sampling of tryptophan/kynurenine ratio in vitro towards a skin cancer biomarker2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tryptophan to kynurenine ratio (Trp/Kyn) has been proposed as a cancer biomarker. Non-invasive topical sampling of Trp/Kyn can therefore serve as a promising concept for skin cancer diagnostics. By performing in vitro pig skin permeability studies, we conclude that non-invasive topical sampling of Trp and Kyn is feasible. We explore the influence of different experimental conditions, which are relevant for the clinical in vivo setting, such as pH variations, sampling time, and microbial degradation of Trp and Kyn. The permeabilities of Trp and Kyn are overall similar. However, the permeated Trp/Kyn ratio is generally higher than unity due to endogenous Trp, which should be taken into account to obtain a non-biased Trp/Kyn ratio accurately reflecting systemic concentrations. Additionally, prolonged sampling time is associated with bacterial Trp and Kyn degradation and should be considered in a clinical setting. Finally, the experimental results are supported by the four permeation pathways model, predicting that the hydrophilic Trp and Kyn molecules mainly permeate through lipid defects (i.e., the porous pathway). However, the hydrophobic indole ring of Trp is suggested to result in a small but noticeable relative increase of Trp diffusion via pathways across the SC lipid lamellae, while the shunt pathway is proposed to slightly favor permeation of Kyn relative to Trp.

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  • 19.
    Kopecky, Jan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Glioma Immunotherapy Grp,Div Neurosurg, Barngatan 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Perez, Julio Enriquez
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Glioma Immunotherapy Grp,Div Neurosurg, Barngatan 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Visse, Edward
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Glioma Immunotherapy Grp,Div Neurosurg, Barngatan 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Siesjo, Peter
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Glioma Immunotherapy Grp,Div Neurosurg, Barngatan 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Sect Neurosurg, Lund, Sweden..
    Darabi, Anna
    Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Glioma Immunotherapy Grp,Div Neurosurg, Barngatan 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Intratumoral administration of the antisecretory peptide AF16 cures murine gliomas and modulates macrophage functions2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 4609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glioblastoma has remained the deadliest primary brain tumor while its current therapy offers only modest survival prolongation. Immunotherapy has failed to record notable benefits in routine glioblastoma treatment. Conventionally, immunotherapy relies on T cells as tumor-killing agents; however, T cells are outnumbered by macrophages in glioblastoma microenvironment. In this study, we explore the effect of AF16, a peptide from the endogenous antisecretory factor protein, on the survival of glioma-bearing mice, the tumor size, and characteristics of the tumor microenvironment with specific focus on macrophages. We elucidate the effect of AF16 on the inflammation-related secretome of human and murine macrophages, as well as human glioblastoma cells. In our results, AF16 alone and in combination with temozolomide leads to cure in immunocompetent mice with orthotopic GL261 gliomas, as well as prolonged survival in immunocompromised mice. We recorded decreased tumor size and changes in infiltration of macrophages and T cells in the murine glioma microenvironment. Human and murine macrophages increased expression of proinflammatory markers in response to AF16 treatment and the same effect was seen in human primary glioblastoma cells. In summary, we present AF16 as an immunomodulatory factor stimulating pro-inflammatory macrophages with a potential to be implemented in glioblastoma treatment protocols.

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  • 20.
    Larpant, Nutcha
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Pham, Anh Duc
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Shafaat, Atefeh
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan F
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Sjöholm, Johan
    Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida
    Faridbod, Farnoush
    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Ruzgas, Tautgirdas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Sensing by wireless reading Ag/AgCl redox conversion on RFID tag: universal, battery-less biosensor design2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 12948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive integration of biosensors into design of Internet-of-Things (IoT) is vital for progress of healthcare. However, the integration of biosensors is challenging due to limited availability of battery-less biosensor designs. In this work, a combination of nanomaterials for wireless sensing of biological redox reactions is described. The design exploits silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as part of the RFID tag antenna. We demonstrate that a redox enzyme, particularly, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), can convert AgNPs into AgCl in the presence of its substrate, hydrogen peroxide. This strongly changes the impedance of the tag. The presented example exploits gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-assisted electron transfer (ET) between AgNPs and HRP. We show that AuNP is a vital intermediate for establishing rapid ET between the enzyme and AgNPs. As an example, battery-less biosensor-RFID tag designs for H2O2 and glucose are demonstrated. Similar battery-less sensors can be constructed to sense redox reactions catalysed by other oxidoreductase enzymes, their combinations, bacteria or other biological and even non-biological catalysts. In this work, a fast and general route for converting a high number of redox reaction based sensors into battery-less sensor-RFID tags is described.

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  • 21. Laurynenas, Audrius
    et al.
    Butkevicius, Marius
    Dagys, Marius
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Kulys, Juozas
    Consecutive Marcus Electron and Proton Transfer in Heme Peroxidase Compound II-Catalysed Oxidation Revealed by Arrhenius Plots2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 14092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron and proton transfer reactions in enzymes are enigmatic and have attracted a great deal of theoretical, experimental, and practical attention. The oxidoreductases provide model systems for testing theoretical predictions, applying experimental techniques to gain insight into catalytic mechanisms, and creating industrially important bio(electro) conversion processes. Most previous and ongoing research on enzymatic electron transfer has exploited a theoretically and practically sound but limited approach that uses a series of structurally similar ("homologous") substrates, measures reaction rate constants and Gibbs free energies of reactions, and analyses trends predicted by electron transfer theory. This approach, proposed half a century ago, is based on a hitherto unproved hypothesis that pre-exponential factors of rate constants are similar for homologous substrates. Here, we propose a novel approach to investigating electron and proton transfer catalysed by oxidoreductases. We demonstrate the validity of this new approach for elucidating the kinetics of oxidation of "non-homologous" substrates catalysed by compound II of Coprinopsis cinerea and Armoracia rusticana peroxidases. This study-using the Marcus theory-demonstrates that reactions are not only limited by electron transfer, but a proton is transferred after the electron transfer event and thus both events control the reaction rate of peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of substrates.

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  • 22.
    Li, Qianjin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Shinde, Sudhirkumar
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Grasso, Giuliana
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Caroli, Antonio
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Abouhany, Rahma
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Lanzillotta, Michele
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Pan, Guoqing
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Wan, Wei
    Rurack, Knut
    Sellergren, Börje
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Selective detection of phospholipids using molecularly imprinted fluorescent sensory core-shell particles2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 9924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingo-lipid with a broad range of activities coupled to its role in G-protein coupled receptor signalling. Monitoring of both intra and extra cellular levels of this lipid is challenging due to its low abundance and lack of robust affinity assays or sensors. We here report on fluorescent sensory core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) particles responsive to near physiologically relevant levels of S1P and the S1P receptor modulator fingolimod phosphate (FP) in spiked human serum samples. Imprinting was achieved using the tetrabutylammonium (TBA) salt of FP or phosphatidic acid (DPPA·Na) as templates in combination with a polymerizable nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-urea monomer with the dual role of capturing the phospho-anion and signalling its presence. The monomers were grafted from ca 300 nm RAFT-modified silica core particles using ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker resulting in 10-20 nm thick shells displaying selective fluorescence response to the targeted lipids S1P and DPPA in aqueous buffered media. Potential use of the sensory particles for monitoring S1P in serum was demonstrated on spiked serum samples, proving a linear range of 18-60 µM and a detection limit of 5.6 µM, a value in the same range as the plasma concentration of the biomarker.

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  • 23. Lira-Junior, Ronaldo
    et al.
    Åkerman, Sigvard
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Klinge, Björn
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Boström, Elisabeth A.
    Colony stimulating factor-1 in saliva in relation to age, smoking, and oral and systemic diseases2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colony stimulating factor (CSF)-1 is a growth factor that stimulates the survival, proliferation and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes, which has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated the possible influence of age, sex, smoking, periodontitis, caries, and several systemic conditions on salivary levels of CSF-1. Four-hundred and forty-one individuals were enrolled in this study. All participants answered a health questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive oral examination. Stimulated saliva was collected and CSF-1 levels were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary levels of CSF-1 were significantly increased in participants over 64 years old and in non-smoking individuals, whereas no difference was observed between men and women. Individuals having periodontitis and manifest caries had significantly higher levels of CSF-1. Participants with muscle and joint disease exhibited increased CSF-1 levels as compared to those without. Age, smoking, percentage of pockets >= 4 mm, number of manifest caries lesions, and presence of tumor were associated with CSF-1 levels. Salivary levels of CSF-1 are associated with age, smoking, periodontitis, manifest caries, and the presence of muscle and joint diseases and tumors. CSF-1 might be a promising biomarker candidate in saliva of both local and systemic conditions that needs further investigation.

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  • 24. Lundblad, Lennart K. A.
    et al.
    Miletic, Ruzica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Piitulainen, Eeva
    Wollmer, Per
    Oscillometry in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the impulse oscillometry and tremoflo devices2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 11618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impedance, or oscillometry, measurements of the respiratory system can generate information about the function of the respiratory system not possible with traditional spirometry. There are currently several instruments on the market using different perturbations. We have compared a new respiratory oscillometry instrument, the tremoflo, with Impulse Oscillometry (IOS). Patients with a physician's diagnosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and healthy subjects were recruited. They underwent assessment of respiratory function with oscillometry using the IOS and tremoflo devices and the resulting impedance data from the two methods were compared. The two devices were also tested against a reference respiratory phantom with variable resistances. Whereas both devices detected impairments in the patients' lung function commensurate with small airways pathology, the tremoflo appeared to be more sensitive than the IOS. We found systematic differences between the two instruments especially for reactance measurements where the area over the reactance curve (AX) was significantly lower with the IOS compared with the tremoflo (p < 0.001). Moreover, the agreement between the two devices was reduced with increasing severity of the disease as determined with a Bland-Altman test. Testing both instruments against a respiratory phantom unit confirmed that the resistance measured by the tremoflo compares closely with the known resistance of test loads, whereas the IOS'resistance correlated with a test load of 0.19, kPa.s.L-1 at higher loads it deviated significantly from the known resistance (p < 0.0028). We conclude that the absolute values measured with the two devices may not be directly comparable and suggest that differences in the calibration procedures might account for the differences.

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  • 25.
    Mahdi, Adam
    et al.
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Błaszczyk, Piotr
    University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland.
    Dłotko, Paweł
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Salvi, Dario
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Chan, Tak-Shing
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Harvey, John
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Gurnari, Davide
    University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Wu, Yue
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; The Alan Turing Institute, London, UK.
    Farhat, Ahmad
    American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Hellmer, Niklas
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Zarebski, Alexander
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Hogan, Bernie
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Tarassenko, Lionel
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    OxCOVID19 Database, a multimodal data repository for better understanding the global impact of COVID-19.2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 9237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxford COVID-19 Database (OxCOVID19 Database) is a comprehensive source of information related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This relational database contains time-series data on epidemiology, government responses, mobility, weather and more across time and space for all countries at the national level, and for more than 50 countries at the regional level. It is curated from a variety of (wherever available) official sources. Its purpose is to facilitate the analysis of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus and to assess the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce the impact of the pandemic. Our database is a freely available, daily updated tool that provides unified and granular information across geographical regions. Design type Data integration objective Measurement(s) Coronavirus infectious disease, viral epidemiology Technology type(s) Digital curation Factor types(s) Sample characteristic(s) Homo sapiens.

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  • 26.
    Maric, Selma
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Lind, Tania Kjellerup
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Raida, Manfred Roman
    Singapore Lipidomics Incubator (SLING), Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Bengtsson, Eva
    Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, CRC, Box 50332, 212 13, Malmö, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin
    Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, CRC, Box 50332, 212 13, Malmö, Sweden.
    Rogers, Sarah
    ISIS Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.
    Moulin, Martine
    Life Science Group, Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Haertlein, Michael
    Life Science Group, Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Forsyth, V. Trevor
    Life Science Group, Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France; Faculty of Natural Science and Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom.
    Wenk, Markus R.
    Singapore Lipidomics Incubator (SLING), Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Pomorski, Thomas Guenther
    Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871, Frederiksberg C, Denmark; Dept. of Molecular Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 44780, Bochum, Germany.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Lund, Reidar
    Dept. of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0315, Oslo, Norway.
    Cárdenas, Marité
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering as a probe for the dynamics of lipid exchange between human lipoproteins and naturally derived membranes2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 7591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerosis is the main killer in the western world. Today's clinical markers include the total level of cholesterol and high-/low-density lipoproteins, which often fails to accurately predict the disease. The relationship between the lipid exchange capacity and lipoprotein structure should explain the extent by which they release or accept lipid cargo and should relate to the risk for developing atherosclerosis. Here, small-angle neutron scattering and tailored deuteration have been used to follow the molecular lipid exchange between human lipoprotein particles and cellular membrane mimics made of natural, "neutron invisible" phosphatidylcholines. We show that lipid exchange occurs via two different processes that include lipid transfer via collision and upon direct particle tethering to the membrane, and that high-density lipoprotein excels at exchanging the human-like unsaturated phosphatidylcholine. By mapping the specific lipid content and level of glycation/oxidation, the mode of action of specific lipoproteins can now be deciphered. This information can prove important for the development of improved diagnostic tools and in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

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  • 27. Mold, Matt
    et al.
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Siesjö, Peter
    Darabi, Anna
    Shardlow, Emma
    Exley, Christopher
    Unequivocal identification of intracellular aluminium adjuvant in a monocytic THP-1 cell line2014In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, no 4, article id 6287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium-based adjuvants (ABA) are the predominant adjuvants used in human vaccinations. While a consensus is yet to be reached on the aetiology of the biological activities of ABA several studies have identified shape, crystallinity and size as critical factors affecting their adjuvanticity. In spite of recent advances, the fate of ABA following their administration remains unclear. Few if any studies have demonstrated the unequivocal presence of intracellular ABA. Herein we demonstrate for the first time the unequivocal identification of ABA within a monocytic (THP-1) cell line, using lumogallion as a fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium. Use of these new methods revealed that particulate ABA was only found in the cell cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ABA were contained within vesicle-like structures of approximately 0.5–1 μm in diameter.

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  • 28.
    Moriguchi, Daisuke
    et al.
    Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Japan.
    Ishigaki, Shoichi
    Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Japan.
    Lin, Xiaoyu
    Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Japan.
    Kuyama, Kotaro
    Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Japan.
    Koishi, Yukiko
    Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Japan.
    Takaoka, Ryota
    Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Japan.
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Yatani, Hirofumi
    Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
    Clinical identification of the stimulus intensity to measure temporal summation of second pain2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 12915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) has been suggested as a psychophysical index for central sensitization, one of the critical mechanisms in the chronification of pain. However, there is no gold standard for protocols to measure TSSP. The purpose was to establish the stimulus intensity for measuring TSSP. Female patients with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders pain (n = 16) and healthy female volunteers with no pain (n = 15) participated. Pain thresholds (PT °C) were measured, and repetitive heat stimuli at three stimulus intensities (PT °C, PT + 1 °C, PT + 2 °C) were applied. TSSP parameters were quantified as TSSP magnitude (TSm) and TSSP frequency (TSf). In healthy female volunteers, pain ratings significantly decreased at PT °C (p < 0.050), besides TSm and TSf at PT + 2 °C were significantly higher than those at PT °C (p < 0.025). In chronic pain patients, pain ratings significantly increased at PT + 1 °C and PT + 2 °C (p < 0.050). At PT + 2 °C, TSm and TSf in chronic pain patients were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers (p < 0.050). It could be helpful to measure TSSP with the stimulus intensity adjusted individually to the patient’s pain thresholds + 2 °C for assessing central sensitization.

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  • 29.
    Morin, Maxim
    et al.
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Ruzgas, Tautgirdas
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Svedenhag, Per
    Anderson, Christopher D
    Ollmar, Stig
    Engblom, Johan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Björklund, Sebastian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Skin hydration dynamics investigated by electrical impedance techniques in vivo and in vitro.2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 17218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin is easily accessible for transdermal drug delivery and also attractive for biomarker sampling. These applications are strongly influenced by hydration where elevated hydration generally leads to increased skin permeability. Thus, favorable transdermal delivery and extraction conditions can be easily obtained by exploiting elevated skin hydration. Here, we provide a detailed in vivo and in vitro investigation of the skin hydration dynamics using three techniques based on electrical impedance spectroscopy. Good correlation between in vivo and in vitro results is demonstrated, which implies that simple but realistic in vitro models can be used for further studies related to skin hydration (e.g., cosmetic testing). Importantly, the results show that hydration proceeds in two stages. Firstly, hydration between 5 and 10 min results in a drastic skin impedance change, which is interpreted as filling of superficial voids in skin with conducting electrolyte solution. Secondly, a subtle impedance change is observed over time, which is interpreted as leveling of the water gradient across skin leading to structural relaxation/changes of the macromolecular skin barrier components. With respect to transdermal drug delivery and extraction of biomarkers; 1 h of hydration is suggested to result in beneficial and stable conditions in terms of high skin permeability and extraction efficiency.

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  • 30. Pulyalina, Alexandra
    et al.
    Polotskaya, Galina
    Goikhman, M
    Podeshvo, I
    Chernitsa, B
    Kocherbitov, Vitaly
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Toikka, Alexander
    Novel approach to determination of sorption in pervaporation process: a case study of isopropanol dehydration by polyamidoimideurea membranes2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 8415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of novel membranes with optimal performance, selectivity, and stability is a key research area in membrane technology. In the present work aromatic polyamidoimideurea (PAIU) is synthesized and tested as promising membrane material for separation of water and alcohol mixtures. The PAIU membrane structure, density, and transport properties are studied. Mass transfer of water and isopropanol through the membrane is estimated by sorption and pervaporation tests to determine equilibrium sorption degree, diffusion coefficients, flux through the membrane, and separation factor. Two techniques of sorption study from liquid and from vapor phases are used as novel approach to experimental study of mass transfer. The vapor sorption calorimetry permits to analyze the behavior of the polymer material in sorption process. In pervaporation of water–isopropanol mixture, almost pure water mainly permeates through PAIU membrane. To improve the performance, a double layer membrane containing a thin PAIU layer on the surface of porous poly(phenylene oxide) support is developed. The double layer membrane is extremely effective in dehydration of isopropanol.

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  • 31.
    Ramji, Rathi
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Rämgård, Margareta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Carlson, Elisabeth
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Shleev, Sergey
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Awad, Eman
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Cirovic, Stefan
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Health and quality of life among women after participation in a CBPR-informed physical activity intervention: with a pandemic perspective.2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 17972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of culturally and contextually oriented interventions promoting physical activity (PA) has led to increased physical inactivity among women living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Sweden. In this study one such intervention informed by community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been evaluated among 34 women from a disadvantaged neighbourhood before and during COVID-19. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), behavioural and biomedical outcomes were assessed directly prior and post-intervention, followed by evaluations at 6-months and 18-months follow-up during COVID-19. The results revealed that HRQOL, particularly psychological, social, and environmental health significantly increased post-intervention compared to prior to intervention but reversed back at 6-months follow-up. Perceived health satisfaction and environmental health increased at 18-months follow-up during COVID-19. Participation in PA improved post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Everyday activities and fruit and vegetable intake continued to increase through all timepoints. Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased post-intervention and 6-months follow-up; blood flow rate increased significantly at all timepoints. Overall, the findings underscores the potential effectiveness of CBPR approaches in promoting and sustaining healthy lifestyles, even during acute situations such as the COVID-19. It may even serve as a future model for promoting health and addressing health disparities in similar groups.

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  • 32. Rossetti, Cecilia
    et al.
    Switnicka-Plak, Magdalena A.
    Halvorsen, Trine Gronhaug
    Cormack, Peter A. G.
    Sellergren, Börje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Reubsaet, Leon
    Automated Protein Biomarker Analysis: on-line extraction of clinical samples by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust biomarker quantification is essential for the accurate diagnosis of diseases and is of great value in cancer management. In this paper, an innovative diagnostic platform is presented which provides automated molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for biomarker determination using ProGastrin Releasing Peptide (ProGRP), a highly sensitive biomarker for Small Cell Lung Cancer, as a model. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and analytical optimization of the most promising material led to the development of an automated quantification method for ProGRP. The method enabled analysis of patient serum samples with elevated ProGRP levels. Particularly low sample volumes were permitted using the automated extraction within a method which was time-efficient, thereby demonstrating the potential of such a strategy in a clinical setting.

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  • 33. Scheiblbrandner, Stefan
    et al.
    Breslmayr, Erik
    Csarman, Florian
    Paukner, Regina
    Fuehrer, Johannes
    Herzog, Peter L.
    Shleev, Sergey V.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Osipov, Evgeny M.
    Tikhonova, Tamara V.
    Popov, Vladimir O.
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Ludwig, Roland
    Kittl, Roman
    Evolving stability and pH-dependent activity of the high redox potential Botrytis aclada laccase for enzymatic fuel cells2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 13688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungal high redox potential laccases are proposed as cathodic biocatalysts in implantable enzymatic fuel cells to generate high cell voltages. Their application is limited mainly through their acidic pH optimum and chloride inhibition. This work investigates evolutionary and engineering strategies to increase the pH optimum of a chloride-tolerant, high redox potential laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada. The laccase was subjected to two rounds of directed evolution and the clones screened for increased stability and activity at pH 6.5. Beneficial mutation sites were investigated by semi-rational and combinatorial mutagenesis. Fourteen variants were characterised in detail to evaluate changes of the kinetic constants. Mutations increasing thermostability were distributed over the entire structure. Among them, T383I showed a 2.6-fold increased half-life by preventing the loss of the T2 copper through unfolding of a loop. Mutations affecting the pH-dependence cluster around the T1 copper and categorise in three types of altered pH profiles: pH-type I changes the monotonic decreasing pH profile into a bell-shaped profile, pH-type II describes increased specific activity below pH 6.5, and pH-type III increased specific activity above pH 6.5. Specific activities of the best variants were up to 5-fold higher (13 U mg(-1)) than BaL WT at pH 7.5.

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  • 34. Sonesson, Andreas
    et al.
    Przybyszewska, Kornelia
    Eriksson, Sigrid
    Mörgelin, Matthias
    Kjellström, Sven
    Davies, Julia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Potempa, Jan
    Schmidtchen, Artur
    Identification of bacterial biofilm and the Staphylococcus aureus derived protease, staphopain, on the skin surface of patients with atopic dermatitis2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 8689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an impaired epidermal barrier, dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and a high susceptibility to bacterial colonization and infection. In the present study, bacterial biofilm was visualized by electron microscopy at the surface of AD skin. Correspondingly, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from lesional skin of patients with AD, produced a substantial amount of biofilm in vitro. S. aureus biofilms showed less susceptibility to killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 when compared with results obtained using planktonic cells. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that LL-37 binds to the S. aureus biofilms. Immuno-gold staining of S. aureus biofilm of AD skin detected the S. aureus derived protease staphopain adjacent to the bacteria. In vitro, staphopain B degraded LL-37 into shorter peptide fragments. Further, LL-37 significantly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation, but no such effects were observed for the degradation products. The data presented here provide novel information on staphopains present in S. aureus biofilms in vivo, and illustrate the complex interplay between biofilm and LL-37 in skin of AD patients, possibly leading to a disturbed host defense, which facilitates bacterial persistence.

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  • 35.
    Soto-Leon, Vanesa
    et al.
    Hosp Nacl Paraplej, SESCAM, FENNSI Grp, Finca La Peraleda S-N, Toledo 45071, Spain..
    Torres-Llacsa, Mabel
    Hosp Nacl Paraplej, SESCAM, FENNSI Grp, Finca La Peraleda S-N, Toledo 45071, Spain..
    Mordillo-Mateos, Laura
    Hosp Nacl Paraplej, SESCAM, FENNSI Grp, Finca La Peraleda S-N, Toledo 45071, Spain.;Univ Castilla la Mancha, Toledo, Spain..
    Carrasco-Lopez, Carmen
    Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Hosp Nacl Paraplej, SESCAM, FENNSI Grp, Finca La Peraleda S-N, Toledo 45071, Spain..
    Pineda-Pardo, Jose A.
    HM Hosp, Hosp Univ HM Puerta Sur, HM CINAC Ctr Integral Neurociencias Abarca Campal, Madrid, Spain..
    Velasco, Ana, I
    Univ Alfonso X El Sabio, Madrid, Spain..
    Abad-Toribio, Laura
    Univ Alfonso X El Sabio, Madrid, Spain..
    Tornero, Jesus
    Hosp Los Madronos, Madrid, Spain..
    Foffani, Guglielmo
    HM Hosp, Hosp Univ HM Puerta Sur, HM CINAC Ctr Integral Neurociencias Abarca Campal, Madrid, Spain.;Hosp Nacl Paraplej, SESCAM, Neural Bioengn Grp, Toledo, Spain..
    Strange, Bryan A.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Ctr Biomed Technol, Lab Clin Neurosci, Madrid, Spain..
    Oliviero, Antonio
    Hosp Nacl Paraplej, SESCAM, FENNSI Grp, Finca La Peraleda S-N, Toledo 45071, Spain.;Hosp Los Madronos, Madrid, Spain..
    Static magnetic field stimulation over motor cortex modulates resting functional connectivity in humans2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 7834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focal application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) over the human motor cortex induces local changes in cortical excitability. Whether tSMS can also induce distant network effects, and how these local and distant effects may vary over time, is currently unknown. In this study, we applied 10 min tSMS over the left motor cortex of healthy subjects using a real/sham parallel design. To measure tSMS effects at the sensori-motor network level, we used resting-state fMRI. Real tSMS, but not sham, reduced functional connectivity within the stimulated sensori-motor network. This effect of tSMS showed time-dependency, returning to sham levels after the first 5 min of fMRI scanning. With 10 min real tSMS over the motor cortex we did not observe effects in other functional networks examined (default mode and visual system networks). In conclusion, 10 min of tSMS over a location within the sensori-motor network reduces functional connectivity within the same functional network.

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  • 36.
    Sotres, Javier
    et al.
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Boyd, Hannah
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan F
    Department of Applied Physics, Technical University of Cartagena, 30202, Cartagena, Spain.
    Locating critical events in AFM force measurements by means of one-dimensional convolutional neural networks.2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 12995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) force measurements are a powerful tool for the nano-scale characterization of surface properties. However, the analysis of force measurements requires several processing steps. One is locating different type of events e.g., contact point, adhesions and indentations. At present, there is a lack of algorithms that can automate this process in a reliable way for different types of samples. Moreover, because of their stochastic nature, the acquisition and analysis of a high number of force measurements is typically required. This can result in these experiments becoming an overwhelming task if their analysis is not automated. Here, we propose a Machine Learning approach, the use of one-dimensional convolutional neural networks, to locate specific events within AFM force measurements. Specifically, we focus on locating the contact point, a critical step for the accurate quantification of mechanical properties as well as long-range interactions. We validate this approach on force measurements obtained both on hard and soft surfaces. This approach, which could be easily used to also locate other events e.g., indentations and adhesions, has the potential to significantly facilitate and automate the analysis of AFM force measurements and, therefore, the use of this technique by a wider community.

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  • 37.
    Sotres, Javier
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Jankovskaja, Skaidre
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Wannerberger, Kristin
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Ex-Vivo Force Spectroscopy of Intestinal Mucosa Reveals the Mechanical Properties of Mucus Blankets2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 7270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mucus is the viscous gel that protects mucosal surfaces. It also plays a crucial role in several diseases as well as in mucosal drug delivery. Because of technical limitations, mucus properties have mainly been addressed by in-vitro studies. However, this approach can lead to artifacts as mucus collection can alter its structure. Here we show that by using an implemented atomic force microscope it is possible to measure the interactions between micro-particles and mucus blankets ex-vivo i.e., on fresh excised mucus-covered tissues. By applying this method to study the small intestine, we were able to quantify the stiffness and adhesiveness of its mucus blanket at different pH values. We also demonstrate the ability of mucus blankets to bind and attract particles hundreds of µm away from their surface, and to trap and bury them even if their size is as big as 15 µm.

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  • 38. Sulc, Robert
    et al.
    Szekely, Gyorgy
    Shinde, Sudhirkumar
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Wierzbicka, Celina
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Vilela, Filipe
    Bauer, David
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Sellergren, Börje
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö högskola, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers - the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production.

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  • 39.
    Vorobiev, Alexei
    et al.
    Uppsala University; Institute Laue-Langevin, France.
    Paracini, Nicolò
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Cárdenas, Marité
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Wolff, Max
    Uppsala University.
    Π-GISANS: probing lateral structures with a fan shaped beam.2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 17786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed grazing incidence neutron small angle scattering using a fan shaped incident beam focused along one dimension. This allows significantly reduced counting times for measurements of lateral correlations parallel to an interface or in a thin film where limited depth resolution is required. We resolve the structure factor of iron inclusions in aluminium oxide and show that the ordering of silica particles deposited on a silicon substrate depends on their size. We report hexagonal packing for 50 nm but not for 200 nm silica spheres deposited by a modified Langmuir-Schaefer method on a silicon substrate. For the 200 nm particles we extract the particles shape from the form factor. Moreover, we report dense packing of the particles spread on a free water surface. We name this method π-GISANS to highlight that it differs from GISANS as it gives lateral information while averaging the in-depth structure.

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  • 40.
    Waldie, Sarah
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Moulin, Martine
    Porcar, Lionel
    Pichler, Harald
    Strohmeier, Gernot A
    Skoda, Maximilian
    Forsyth, V Trevor
    Haertlein, Michael
    Maric, Selma
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Cárdenas, Marité
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    The Production of Matchout-Deuterated Cholesterol and the Study of Bilayer-Cholesterol Interactions2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 5118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deuteration of biomolecules provides advanced opportunities for neutron scattering studies. For low resolution studies using techniques such as small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflection, the level of deuteration of a sample can be varied to match the scattering length density of a specific DO/HO solvent mixture. This can be of major value in structural studies where specific regions of a complex system can be highlighted, and others rendered invisible. This is especially useful in analyses of the structure and dynamics of membrane components. In mammalian membranes, the presence of cholesterol is crucial in modulating the properties of lipids and in their interaction with proteins. Here, a protocol is described for the production of partially deuterated cholesterol which has a neutron scattering length density that matches that of 100% DO solvent (hereby named matchout cholesterol). The level of deuteration was determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The cholesterol match-point was verified experimentally using small angle neutron scattering. The matchout cholesterol was used to investigate the incorporation of cholesterol in various phosphatidylcholine supported lipid bilayers by neutron reflectometry. The study included both saturated and unsaturated lipids, as well as lipids with varying chain lengths. It was found that cholesterol is distributed asymmetrically within the bilayer, positioned closer to the headgroups of the lipids than to the middle of the tail core, regardless of the phosphatidylcholine species.

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