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  • 1.
    Amouzad Mahdiraji, Saeid
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Alshaban, Ala’a
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Mihailescu, Radu-Casian
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Petersson, Jesper
    Lund University; Region Skåne.
    Al Fatah, Jabir
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    A Framework for Constructing Discrete Event Simulation Models for Emergency Medical Service Policy Analysis2022Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 210, s. 133-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructing simulation models can be a complex and time-consuming task, in particular if the models are constructed from scratch or if a general-purpose simulation modeling tool is used. In this paper, we propose a model construction framework, which aims to simplify the process of constructing discrete event simulation models for emergency medical service (EMS) policy analysis. The main building blocks used in the framework are a set of general activities that can be used to represent different EMS care chains modeled as flowcharts. The framework allows to build models only by specifying input data, including demographic and statistical data, and providing a care chain of activities and decisions. In a case study, we evaluated the framework by using it to construct a model for the simulation of the EMS activities related to acute stroke. Our evaluation shows that the predefined activities included in the framework are sufficient to build a simulation model for the rather complex case of acute stroke.

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  • 2.
    Amouzad Mahdiraji, Saeid
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Mihailescu, Radu-Casian
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Petersson, Jesper
    Region Skåne; Lund University.
    A Micro-Level Simulation Model for Analyzing the Use of MSUs in Southern Sweden2022Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 198, s. 132-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile stroke unit (MSU) is a special type of ambulance, where stroke patients can be diagnosed and provided intravenous treatment, hence allowing to cut down the time to treatment for stroke patients. We present a discrete event simulation (DES) model to study the potential benefits of using MSUs in the southern health care region of Sweden (SHR). We included the activities and actions used in the SHR for stroke patient transportation as events in the DES model, and we generated a synthetic set of stroke patients as input for the simulation model. In a scenario study, we compared two scenarios, including three MSUs each, with the current situation, having only regular ambulances. We also performed a sensitivity analysis to further evaluate the presented DES model. For both MSU scenarios, our simulation results indicate that the average time to treatment is expected to decrease for the whole region and for each municipality of SHR. For example, the average time to treatment in the SHR is reduced from 1.31h in the baseline scenario to 1.20h and 1.23h for the two MSU scenarios. In addition, the share of stroke patients who are expected to receive treatment within one hour is increased by a factor of about 3 for both MSU scenarios.

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  • 3. Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    A data mining based method for route and freight estimation2015Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 52, s. 396-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method, which makes use of historical vehicle data and current vehicle observations in order to estimate 1) the route a vehicle has used and 2) the freight the vehicle carried along the estimated route. The method includes a learning phase and an estimation phase. In the learning phase, historical data about the movement of a vehicle and of the consignments allocated to the vehicle are used in order to build estimation models: one for route choice and one for freight allocation. In the estimation phase, the generated estimation models are used together with a sequence of observed positions for the vehicle as input in order to generate route and freight estimates. We have partly evaluated our method in an experimental study involving a medium-size Swedish transport operator. The results of the study indicate that supervised learning, in particular the algorithm Naive Bayes Multinomial Updatable, shows good route estimation performance even when significant amount of information about where the vehicle has traveled is missing. For the freight estimation, we used a method based on averaging the consignments on the historical known trips for the estimated route. We argue that the proposed method might contribute to building improved knowledge, e.g., in national road administrations, on the movement of trucks and freight.

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  • 4.
    Davidsson, Paul
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A Criteria-Based Approach to Evaluating Road User Charging Systems2018Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 130, s. 142-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of important criteria to consider when evaluating potential road user charging system (RUCS) are identified. These criteria are grouped into five categories: charging precision, system costs & societal benefits, flexibility & modifiability, operational aspects, and security & privacy. The criteria are then used in a comparative analysis of five RUCS candidates for heavy goods vehicles. Two solutions are position-based systems and one is based on tachographs. The two remaining solutions are based on fuel taxes. For each of the solutions we estimate how well it fulfils each of the criteria. One way of making general comparisons of the approaches is to give each of the criteria a specific weight corresponding to how important it is. We show that these weights heavily influence the outcome of the comparison. We conclude by pointing out a number of important issues needing attention in the process of developing RUCS.

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  • 5. Fredriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Optimal placement of charging stations for electric vehicles in large-scale transportation networks2019Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 160, s. 77-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new practical approach to optimally allocate charging stations in large-scale transportation networks for electric vehicles (EVs). The problem is of particular importance to meet the charging demand of the growing fleet of alternative fuel vehicles. Considering the limited driving range of EVs, there is need to supply EV owners with accessible charging stations to reduce their range anxiety. The aim of the Route Node Coverage (RNC) problem, which is considered in the current paper, is to find the minimum number of charging stations, and their locations in order to cover the most probable routes in a transportation network. We propose an iterative approximation technique for RNC, where the associated Integer Problem (IP) is solved by exploiting a probabilistic random walk route selection, and thereby taking advantage of the numerical stability and efficiency of the standard IP software packages. Furthermore, our iterative RNC optimization procedure is both pertinent and straightforward to implement in computer coding and the design technique is therefore highly applicable. The proposed optimization technique is applied on the Sioux-Falls test transportation network, and in a large-scale case study covering the southern part of Sweden, where the focus is on reaching the maximum coverage with a minimum number of charging stations. The results are promising and show that the flexibility, smart route selection, and numerical efficiency of the proposed design technique, can pick out strategic locations for charging stations from thousands of possible locations without numerical difficulties.

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  • 6.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, 37179 Sweden.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, 37179 Sweden.
    Lövström, Benny
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, 37179 Sweden.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, 37179 Sweden.
    Modeling of road traffic flows in the neighboring regions2022Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 198, s. 43-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic flows play a very important role in transportation engineering. In particular, link flows are a source of information about the traffic state, which is usually available from the authorities that manage road networks. Link flows are commonly used in both short-term and long-term planning models for operation and maintenance, and to forecast the future needs of transportation infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a model to study how traffic flow in one location can be expected to reflect the traffic flow in a nearby region. The statistical basis of the model is derived from link flows to find estimates of the distribution of traffic flows in junctions. The model is evaluated in a numerical study, which uses real link flow data from a transportation network in southern Sweden. The results indicate that the model may be useful for studying how large departing flows from a node reflect the link flows in a neighboring geographic region.

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  • 7.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, 37179, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Dahl, Mattias
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, 37179, Sweden.
    Lövström, Benny
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, 37179, Sweden.
    A Median-Based Misery Index for Travel Time Reliability2023Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 220, s. 162-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel time reliability is vital for both road agencies and road users. Expected travel time reliability can be used by road agencies to assess the state of a transportation system, and by road users, to schedule their trips. Road network deficiencies, such as insufficient traffic flow capacity of a road segment or poor road design, have a negative impact on the reliability of travel times. Thus, to maintain robust and reliable travel times, the detection of road network deficiencies is vital. By continuously analyzing travel times and using appropriate travel time reliability measurements, it is possible to detect existing deficiencies or deficiencies that may eventually occur unless necessary actions are taken. In many cases, indices and measurements of travel time reliability are related to the distribution of the travel times, specifically the skewness and width of the distribution. The current paper introduces a median-based misery index for travel time reliability. The index is robust and handles travel times that follow a skewed distribution well. The index measures the relative difference between the slow travel speeds and the free-flow travel speed. The index is inspired by the median absolute deviation, and its primary application is to detect routes or road segments with potential road network deficiencies. To demonstrate the applicability of the index, we conducted an empirical case study using real travel speed data from the European route E4 in Sweden. The results from the empirical case study indicate that the index is capable of detecting road segments with slow travel speeds regardless of the travel speed distribution.

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  • 8.
    Gkouskos, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Burgos, Jonathan
    I'm in! Towards participatory healthcare of elderly through IOT2017Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 113, nr Special issue : The 8th International Conference on Emerging Ubiquitous Systems and Pervasive Networks (EUSPN 2017) / The 7th International Conference on Current and Future Trends of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare (ICTH-2017) / Affiliated Workshops, s. 647-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People today are a capable of living longer, healthier lives than ever before, which results in a growing elderly population. The elderly face issues of reduced physical ability, having to manage multiple health issues over long periods of time, and being digital immigrants. These issues pose unique challenges that often lead to elderly feeling loss of agency due to not being actively involved in managing their own well-being. In this paper, we propose participatory design of IOT technologies to enact universal design in order to better include elderly in managing their health, and thus improving their quality of life. (c) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 9.
    Hajinasab, Banafsheh
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    A survey on the use of computational models for ex ante analysis of urban transport policy instruments2014Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, nr 32, s. 348-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an analysis of the use of computational models for predicting the effects of different policy instruments on urban transport systems. We define a framework for describing and comparing current approaches that takes into account (i) what policy instruments are studied, (ii) what type of effects are predicted, (iii) which factors are modeled, (iv) the type of model used, and (v) what data sources are used. The main conclusions of the analysis are: (i) despite the recognized potential of agent-based modeling to study behavioural change of a population, it rarely has been used for ex-ante analysis of policy instruments using real-world data, (ii) some factors that influence travellers’ decisions, such as comfort and departure time, have not been considered much in the modeling, (iii) ex-ante analysis of economic instruments constitute the majority of studies, but informative instruments have been recently considered due to the increasing use of information technology in transportation.

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  • 10.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Aspegren, Sebastian
    Dahlström, Jonas
    Prediction of bicycle counter data using regression2017Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 113, s. 502-507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study, where we used regression in order to predict the number of bicycles registered by a bicycle counter (located in Malmö, Sweden). In particular, we compared two regression problems, differing only in their target variables (one using the absolute number of bicycles as target variable and the other one using the deviation from a long-term trend estimate of the expected number of bicycles as target variable). Our results show that using the trend curve deviation as target variable has potential to improve the prediction accuracy (compared to using the absolute number of bicycles as target variable). The results also show that support vector regression (using 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial kernels) and regression trees perform best for our problem.

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  • 11.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Dahl, Mattias
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS).
    Agent-based Simulation of Freight Transport between Geographical Zones2013Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 19, s. 829-834Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present TAPAS-Z, which is an agent-based freight transport analysis model for simulation of decision-making and transport activities. TAPAS-Z is a further development of a simulation model called TAPAS, and it has improved support for simulation of transport in large geographical regions. It is based on the principles that shipments are simulated for chosen supplier-consumer relations in a geographic region, and that the geographic locations of suppliers and consumers are randomly varied for each shipment. In TAPAS-Z, one supplier represents all real-world suppliers in a geographic zone, and one consumer represents all real-world consumers in a zone. In that way, TAPAS-Z is able to capture some of the diversity in freight transport that is caused by the varying geographic locations of senders and receivers, and which is important when assessing the impact of transport policy and infrastructural measures.

  • 12.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Traffic data collection using active mobile and stationary devices2020Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 177, s. 49-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the complementary characteristics of stationary and mobile devices for traffic data collection. Since stationary devices continuously collect traffic data at fixed locations in a network, they can give insight of the traffic at particular locations over a longer period of time. Mobile devices have wider range and are able to collect traffic data over a larger geographic region. Thus, we argue that both types of technology should be considered to obtain high-quality information about vehicle movements. We present a traffic simulation model, which we use to study the share of successfully identified vehicles when considering both stationary and mobile technologies with varying identification rate. The results of our study, where we focus on freight transport in southern Sweden, confirms that it is possible to identify the majority of vehicles, even when the identification rate is low, and that the share of identified vehicles can be increased by using both stationary and mobile measurement devices.

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  • 13.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmo Univ, Internet Things & People Res Ctr, S-20506 Malmo, Sweden.;Malmo Univ, Dept Comp Sci & Media Technol, S-20506 Malmo, Sweden..
    Knapen, Luk
    Olsson, Viktor
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Masud, Alexander Persson
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    On the use of clustering analysis for identification of unsafe places in an urban traffic network2020Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 170, s. 187-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As an alternative to the car, the bicycle is considered important for obtaining more sustainable urban transport. The bicycle has many positive effects; however, bicyclists are more vulnerable than users of other transport modes, and the number of bicycle related injuries and fatalities are too high. We present a clustering analysis aiming to support the identification of the locations of bicyclists' perceived unsafety in an urban traffic network, so-called bicycle impediments. In particular, we used an iterative k-means clustering approach, which is a contribution of the current paper, and DBSCAN. In contrast to standard k-means clustering, our iterative k-means clustering approach enables to remove outliers from the data set. In our study, we used data collected by bicyclists travelling in the city of Lund, Sweden, where each data point defines a location and time of a bicyclist's perceived unsafety. The results of our study show that 1) clustering is a useful approach in order to support the identification of perceived unsafe locations for bicyclists in an urban traffic network and 2) it might be beneficial to combine different types of clustering to support the identification process. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 14.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Centrum för tillämpad arbetslivsforskning och utvärdering (CTA).
    Ramstedt, Linda
    An extended TAPAS-Z model and a case study of the transport of forest products2017Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 109, s. 343-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We contribute an extension of the agent-based freight transport analysis model TAPAS-Z, whose aim is to simulate decision- making and other activities in transport chains. TAPAS-Z is a further development of the TAPAS model, and it enables stochastic variation, based on statistical distributions, of the locations of senders and receivers of freight, hence providing improved support for simulation of transport between larger regions. The model extension presented in this paper enables stochastic sampling of sender and receiver locations from historically known data, which we argue is beneficial in those situations where such data exist. We also contribute a case study where we used our extended TAPAS-Z model to simulate transport of timber from forest felling places to a Swedish paper mill. The case study illustrates how we recommend conducting a case study using the extended TAPAS-Z model. The aim of the study was to assess the possible implications of a structural change from a time-based to a distance-based Eurovignette system for heavy freight trucks in Sweden, which will lead to increased costs for most road users. As a mitigation action for the increased costs, we studied the possibility to use heavier trucks than the currently allowed 60 tonne trucks. The simulation results suggest that an introduction of a distance-based Eurovignette is expected to cause a small modal shift from road to rail for the studied type of transport. Furthermore, an introduction of larger freight trucks is expected to lead to a complete shift to road transport.

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  • 15.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Ramstedt, Linda
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Edwards, Henrik
    Persson, Jan A.
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Combining Macro-level and Agent-based Modeling for Improved Freight Transport Analysis2014Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 32, s. 380-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Macro-level models is the dominating type of freight transport analysis models for supporting the decision-making in public authorities. Recently, also agent-based models have been used for this purpose. These two model types have complementing characteristics: macro-level models enable to study large geographic regions in low level of detail, whereas agent-based models enable to study entities in high level of detail, but typically in smaller regions. In this paper, we suggest and discuss three approaches for combining macro-level and agent-based modeling: exchanging data between models, conducting supplementary sub-studies, and integrating macro-level and agent-based modeling. We partly evaluate these approaches using two case studies and by elaborating on existing freight transport analysis approaches based on executing models in sequence.

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  • 16. Knapen, Luk
    et al.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP). Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT).
    Identifying bicycle trip impediments by data fusion2020Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 170, s. 195-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of GPS traces for bicyclists and a set of notifications by bicyclists of problematic situations (spots identified by GPS records) had been collected independently. The data collection periods did not coincide but overlapped and none was contained in the other one. The aim is to use both datasets to determine an optimal action plan for problem solving given a limited budget. First, problematic locations are clustered. Each cluster corresponds to an impediment. Impediments are then associated with trips using a distance function. The aim is to find out which impediments to solve under a given budget constraint in order to maximize the number of impediment free trips. Thereto the trip set is partitioned by matching each trip with the largest set of its affecting impediments. Solving all impediments in such set induces a cost and makes the associated part of trips impediment free. An optimizer is presented and evaluated. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 17.
    Marin, Javier
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Blanco, Teresa
    Marin, Jose J.
    Research Lines to Improve Access to Health Instrumentation Design2017Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 113, nr Special issue : The 8th International Conference on Emerging Ubiquitous Systems and Pervasive Networks (EUSPN 2017) / The 7th International Conference on Current and Future Trends of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare (ICTH-2017) / Affiliated Workshops, s. 641-646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This document seeks new areas of research in musculoskeletal health instrumentation development, under the current context of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the design needs of achieving more efficient, profitable, and better user experience in healthcare-related products and services. Three health measurement instrumentation case studies are presented, which show latent barriers and needs as well as possible methods of solving these situations. The cases deal with instrumentation related to motion capture (MoCap), balance control measurement, and muscle strength measured by dynamometry. Using the cases, a scheme that includes the key elements involved in a health instrumentation system is proposed. The scheme is ideated to facilitate the creation of health development tools (HDT) that are intermediate tools that designers, developers, or researchers can use to implement health products and services in a more efficient, and accessible way. (c) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 18.
    Nigussie, Ethiopia
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Olwal, Thomas O.
    Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Lemma, Atli
    Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
    Mekuria, Fisseha
    Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Peterson, Bo
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle (TS), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DVMT). Malmö universitet, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    IoT Architecture for Enhancing Rural Societal Services in Sub-Saharan Africa2020Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 177, s. 338-344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of IoT in contributing towards sustainable economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through digital transformation and effective service delivery is widely accepted. However, the unreliability/unavailability of connectivity and power grid infrastructure as well as the unaffordability of the overall system hinders the implementation of a multi-layered IoT architecture for rural societal services in SSA. In this work, affordable IoT architecture that operates without reliance on broadband connectivity and power grid is developed. The architecture employs energy harvesting system and performs data processing, actuation decisions and network management locally by integrating a customized low- cost computationally capable device with the gateway. The sharing of this device among the water resource and quality management, healthcare and agriculture applications further reduces the overall system cost. The evaluation of LPWAN technologies reveals that LoRaWAN has lower cost with added benefits of adaptive data rate and largest community support while providing comparable performance and communication range with the other technologies. The relevant results of the analysis is communicated to end-users’ mobile device via 2G/3G GPRS. Hence, the proposed IoT architecture enables the implementation of IoT systems for improving efficiency in three key application areas at low cost.

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