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  • 1.
    Aamodt Bentsen, Beint Magnus
    Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Intergroup Contact and Negative Attitudes Towards Immigrants Among Youth in Sweden: Individual and Contextual Factors2022In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 23, p. 243-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative attitudes towards out-groups have been of academic interest for many years — and even more so with the increased levels of migration to European countries in recent years. Building on insights from intergroup contact theory, this paper seeks to extend our knowledge of the association between contact and negative attitudes toward immigrants among youth in Sweden. Multiple regression analysis and fixed effects models are used to analyze a large, high-quality dataset on Swedish adolescents based on representative survey information, complemented with extensive registry data and official statistics. Our objective is to measure contact on different levels in order to better understand the importance of these different contact variables’ associations with negative attitudes. The results of the analysis indicate that high-quality contact in the form of friendship is associated with a reduction in negative attitudes among Swedish adolescents, even after controlling for background variables. Superficial forms of contact — measured on the school level — are, on the other hand, associated with an increase in negative attitudes.

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  • 2.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Voting participation of immigrants in Sweden: a Cohort Analysis of the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Elections2015In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 61-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three decades ago, Sweden extended municipal and provincial voting privileges to non-citizen residents on the grounds that this would increase political influence, interest and self-esteem among this group of immigrants. Three decades later, in the political and public debate, electoral participation on the part of immigrants is perceived as being substantially lower than for native-born citizens. As a result, questions have arisen regarding the degree to which this may be symptomatic of a larger integration issue. The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of voting in municipal elections for immigrants—both naturalised and non-citizens, in Sweden, by controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic and immigrant specific characteristics. More specifically, using cohort analysis, the idea is to study the impact of time spent in the country on the voting behaviour of immigrants, foreign citizens and naturalised over time. Two unique sets of data were used in the research. The 2002, 2006 and 2010 electoral surveys (participation study) all contain information about individual electoral participation in municipal elections. This information is matched to registry data from Statistics Sweden, which also contains information relating to every Swedish resident. From these two sources of information, a database is created that matches voting to individual characteristics. This study analyses 60 thousand immigrants of which 43 thousand are non-citizens. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the results show that the acquisition of citizenship makes a real difference in the voting odds. Immigrants who obtain citizenship are far more likely to vote than those who do not. Country of birth also makes a difference: Compared to immigrants from the Nordic countries, Europeans and North American immigrants are equal or less likely to vote, whereas immigrants from Asia, Africa and Latin America are more likely to vote. Finally, immigrants’ odds of voting increase as their length of stay in the country does.

  • 3.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Pendakur, Ravi
    Citizenship, co-ethnic populations and employment probabilities of immigrants in Sweden2012In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 203-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, Sweden has liberalized its citizenship policy by reducing the required number of years of residency to 5 years for foreign citizens and only 2 years for Nordic citizens. Dual citizenship has been allowed since 2001. During the same period, immigration patterns by country of birth changed substantially, with an increasing number of immigrants arriving from non-western countries. Furthermore, immigrants were settling in larger cities as opposed to smaller towns as was the case before. Interestingly, the employment integration of immigrants has declined gradually, and in 2006, the employment rate for foreign-born individuals is substantially lower compared with the native-born. The aim of this paper is to explore the link between citizenship and employment probabilities for immigrants in Sweden, controlling for a range of demographic, human capital, and municipal characteristics such as city and co-ethnic population size. The information we employ for this analysis consists of register data on the whole population of Sweden held by Statistics Sweden for the year 2006. The basic register, STATIV, includes demographic, socio-economic, and immigrant specific information. In this paper, we used instrumental variable regression to examine the “clean” impact of citizenship acquisition and the size of the co-immigrant population on the probability of being employed. In contrast to Scott (2008), we find that citizenship acquisition has a positive impact for a number of immigrant groups. This is particularly the case for non-EU/non-North American immigrants. In terms of intake class, refugees appear to experience substantial gains from citizenship acquisition (this is not, however, the case for immigrants entering as family class). We find that the impact of the co-immigrant population is particularly important for immigrants from Asia and Africa. These are also the countries that have the lowest employment rate.

  • 4.
    Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Pendakur, Ravi
    Pendakur, Krishna
    Are Residential and Workplace concentration correlated for Immigrants: Evidence for Sweden2016In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 687-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In immigrant-receiving countries, immigrants are often concentrated in residential neighbourhoods with high concentrations of immigrants. In addition, they are concentrated in workplaces with high concentrations of immigrants. Many researchers have assumed that these are two sides of the same coin, so that policy affecting residential segregation could be expected to influence workplace segregation. Using Swedish register data for 2007, we directly assess whether immigrants who live in residential neighbourhoods concentrated with immigrants also work in firms concentrated with immigrants. We find that there is very little correlation between residential and workplace segregation, suggesting that policy could profitably target both types of segregation separately.

  • 5.
    Dahlstedt, Inge
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Occupational Match: Over- and Undereducation Among Immigrants in the Swedish Labor Market2011In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 12, p. 349-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to study the differences in the match/mismatch of education and job level as well as the differences between the native and immigrant population in the occupational match. A distinction is made between educational levels and general and vocational education. A sample consisting of native Swedes and nine immigrant groups, based on register data, was selected for analysis. Descriptive statistics are presented and analyzed as well as logistic regression analysis controlling for basic human capital and immigrant specific variables. The main conclusions of the article are that there are considerable differences between vocational and general education in the match/mismatch, as well as differences between natives and immigrants. The vocationally educated population shows a higher match compared to the generally educated, but the generally educated population shows a higher proportion of undereducated individuals compared to the vocationally educated population. Although there are considerable differences between the studied immigrant groups, the general conclusion is that the immigrated population shows a lower match between educational level and skills level of the job as well as a higher level of overeducation compared to the native population.

  • 6.
    Ekström, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV). Jönköping University.
    Börjesson, Ulrika
    Jönköping University; Social Services, Jönköping Municipality.
    "I've Got Many Stories You Know": Problematizing Silence Among Unaccompanied Migrant Girls2022In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 23, p. 797-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on inhabited silence among unaccompanied female minors in Sweden. Silence among unaccompanied minors has often been explained by experienced trauma. Conversely, research also explains silence as a natural way of establishing autonomy during adolescence. By analyzing the narratives of 11 unaccompanied female minors, we aim to problematize and broaden the understanding of silence as a lack of communication. By using Bourdieu's concept of linguistic capital, we analyze how hegemonic narratives on migration and integration influence how the girls in this study use silence in their everyday interactions. Our findings suggest that silence can be understood as both a rejection of these narratives and a strategy to preserve the girls' integrity. We also demonstrate how these girls negotiate their linguistic capital in relation to embodiment and othering, thereby pushing boundaries of identity and what it means to be seen as Swedish. The paper concludes that silence itself speaks and shows that what is often perceived as a lack of communication can also be understood as a failure to listen.

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  • 7.
    Emilsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Öberg, Klara
    Halmstad University.
    Housing for Refugees in Sweden: Top-Down Governance and its Local Reactions2022In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 23, p. 613-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate local level reactions to the top-down state steering for the housing of refugees in Sweden. We especially reflect on events after the increased refugee reception in Sweden in 2015 and the introduction of a Settlement Act in 2016 which made it mandatory for municipalities to receive a specific number of refugees and organise accommodation. This has resulted in a wide array of housing situations for refugees concerning standard, costs and temporary solutions. A multi-level governance framework from on central government steering perspective is applied. We argue that the modified legislation can be understood as a change in governance throughout the years - from persuasion to economic incentives and, finally, to coercive methods. Sweden is a country that has distinguished itself as one refraining from particularity and continuing to work towards equality between newcomers and citizens. In relation to recent legal and political developments, we identify a change - a paradoxical change, as governance for the more-equal reception of refugees in Sweden seems to lead to increased inequalities for refugees on the local level.

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  • 8.
    Fernández, Christian
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Patriots in the Making? Migrants, Citizens and Demos Building in the European Union2012In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 147-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost 20 years ago, Jürgen Habermas launched the idea of constitutional patriotism as a proposed solution to the tension between citizenship and national identity in the European Union. Since then, constitutional patriotism has remained a key concept in debates on European Union (EU) citizenship and democracy. This article, as so many before it, scrutinizes the meaning and viability of the concept. Unlike most others, however, it focuses less on the content of the concept and more on the subjects to which it is assumed/supposed to apply. I argue, firstly, that constitutional patriotism is not a viable or even desirable ideal for the European demos in its totality. The potential patriots of the EU are not the large majority of European Union citizens who live in their home country but migrants from other member states and nonmember states who are foreigners in their host countries. Secondly and accordingly, I argue that advancing constitutional patriotism means improving the status of foreign nationals in general and third-country nationals in particular. Connecting the acquisition of EU citizenship to domicile as opposed to member state nationality is one venue for such improvement. I discuss what this could imply and defend it as a means of building a truly European demos.

  • 9.
    Grosa, Daina
    et al.
    Univ Latvia, Inst Philosophy & Sociol, Riga, Latvia.;Univ Sussex, Sch Global Studies, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    King, Russell
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The Challenges of Educational Reintegration and the Psychosocial Wellbeing of Returnee Children: Evidence from Latvia2023In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 24, no S2, p. 407-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When emigrant families return-migrate to their homeland, what happens to their school-age children? What challenges do these children face when they switch to a different school system and language? This paper addresses these questions in the context of family return migration to Latvia, based on 40 in-depth interviews with children, their parents and key informants - teachers, school support staff and return-migration coordinators. We find that imaginings of a smooth reintegration into a parental homeland of extended family and friends may not be realised; instead, many children, particularly those of secondary and upper primary-school age, experience the move as a rupture in their lives. School may be fraught with unrealistic expectations on all sides, not helped by poor communication between parents, teachers and support staff. The lack of fluency in the Latvian language is seen by teachers as an obstacle, rather than something to be accepted and worked with. Most teachers are unfamiliar with children from different backgrounds and origins and need training in diversity, tolerance and differentiated learning. This will become increasingly necessary in a country like Latvia, with its ongoing high rates of international migration and return. Our findings show that the educational system and children's experiences of schooling play a crucial role in returnee families' overall reintegration. This raises the importance of return preparedness for the children, including language preparation and awareness of pedagogical and curriculum differences.

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  • 10.
    Hellström, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS). Malmö högskola, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Hervik, Peter
    Centre for the Study of Migration and Diversity (CoMID), Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Feeding the beast: nourishing nativist appeals in Sweden and in Denmark2014In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 15, p. 449-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Denmark share a similar socio-political structure, yet these two countries demonstrate two distinct discourses on immigration. This article focuses on the tone of the debate in Denmark and Sweden concerning immigration and national identity. If the tone of debate is shaped by a language of fear, we argue, this predisposes people to vote for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis highlights the position of anti-immigration parties; hence, the Sweden Democrats (SD) in Sweden and the Danish People’s Party (DPP) in Denmark. We use frame analysis to detect recurrent frames in the media debate concerning the SD and the DPP in the political competition over votes. Our material concentrates on the run-up to the European Parliamentary (EP) elections of 2004 and 2009, in total 573 articles in ten major Danish and Swedish newspapers. We show that the harsh tone of the debate and the negative dialogue risks leading to the construction of beasts that are impossible to negotiate with. In the Swedish political debate, the SD is highly stigmatized as the beast (the extreme other) in Swedish politics and this stigma is used by the SD in the mobilization of votes. In Denmark the religion of Islam as such plays a similar role and provides the DPP with an identity. We conclude that we are confronted with a two-faced beast that feeds on perceptions of the people as ultimately afraid of what are not recognized as native goods.

  • 11.
    Hemmaty, Mona
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Society, Culture and Identity (SKI).
    Lind, Jacob
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Hansen, Christina
    School of Business, Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Khoury, Nadeen
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    “We Never Say We Are Integrating People!” Interpretative Repertoires of Integration Among Local Stakeholders in Sweden2024In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how local stakeholders in Scania, the southernmost county of Sweden, talk about integration. Drawing on 28 qualitative interviews, we use the theoretical concept of interpretative repertoires to analyze perceptions and conceptualizations among those who work closely with migrant integration. We identify two interpretative repertoires that stakeholders draw upon to make sense of the concept on the ground: the separation and de-migranticization repertoires. The repertoires display a shared understanding among the stakeholders of integration as a failure, although they do not agree on the extent or cause of the perceived failures of integration, or even how the problems should be defined or tackled locally. Within the separation repertoire, integration is failing in terms of processes where primarily migrants are seen as accountable and responsible for their (in)ability to adapt to the Swedish society. Within the de-migranticization repertoire, integration is differently perceived as something that is plagued with misdirected or even false boundaries between groups (in this case “migrants” and “non-migrants”), and authorities are held accountable for problems beyond migrants and migration, such as inequality, racism, and discrimination. The findings reflect the contested field of integration on the ground and contribute to ongoing critical debates on the concept of integration within migration research, by providing snapshots from a bottom-up perspective of local stakeholders’ acceptance of, or resistance to, present-day integration discourses. 

  • 12.
    Suter, Brigitte
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Jandl, Michael
    Train and Retain: National and Regional Policies to Promote the Settlement of Foreign Graduates in Knowledge Economies2008In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 401-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, a rapid internationalization of higher education has taken place, while simultaneously many countries have started to promote immigration of the highly skilled to their economies. Increasingly, these two developments have become linked as foreign students are widely seen as the ideal highly skilled immigration candidates to retain. This paper provides a comparative analysis of admission and retention policies towards foreign students in selected industrialized countries, with a specific focus on the regional level, where such policies have only recently evolved. Finally, we ask the question to what extent countries and regions have been successful in retaining foreign graduates for their labor markets and where they have encountered problems.

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