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  • 1.
    Dackert, Ingrid
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    The impact of team climate for innovation on well-being and stress in elderly care2010In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 302-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of team climate for innovation on well-being and stress in elderly care Aims To investigate the impact of team climate in providing support for innovation on well-being and stress and to explore whether well-being is a mediating variable between team climate and negative stress. Background The well-being of the nursing staff needs to be improved in elderly care as well as the quality of the care. Team work may be a way of addressing both needs. Method A questionnaire was completed by auxiliary nurses and nurses' aides (n = 329) within elderly care in Sweden. Structural equation modelling was used to test the relationships among team climate, well-being and stress. Results The perceived team climate has a significant positive correlation with well-being and a significant negative correlation with stress reactions. The structural equation modelling suggested that well-being is a mediating variable between team climate and stress. Conclusion A better team climate providing support for innovation may increase well-being and decrease stress reactions among nursing staff. Implications for nursing management: Interventions that improve the team climate and provide support for innovation may increase the possibilities for growth and self-actualization of the employees that, in turn, make them more qualified to deal with stress.

  • 2.
    Dackert, Ingrid
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Brenner, Sten-Olof
    Johansson, Curt R
    Team climate inventory with a merged organization2002In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 651-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the team climate for innovation in work teams within a newly merged organization. Four teams working at a regional head office of a Social Insurance organization answered the Team Climate Inventory. The results were compared to those of a study by Agrell and Gustafson of more stable teams. The comparison showed that participative safety and support for innovation were rated lower and that vision was rated higher in the newly merged teams. The 38-item original inventory was used and based on the results, a 1999 proposed shortened version of 14 items by Kivimäki and Elovainio was compared with the original one. Analysis indicated that the short version can be a valid alternative to the original version but that further testing of the short version is needed.

  • 3.
    Dackert, Ingrid
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Jackson, Paul R
    Identity and identification processes in mergers and joint ventures. Eds. Manfusa Shams, Paul Jackson2006In: Developments in work and organization psychology: implications for international business, Elsevier, 2006, p. 79-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Dackert, Ingrid
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Jackson, Paul R
    Brenner, Sten-Olof
    Johansson, Curt R
    Eliciting and analysing employees' expectations of a merger2003In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 705-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The merger of the head offices of two public service organizations in Sweden was used to examine differences in the meanings that employees attach to the organizations involved and their expectations of the new merged organization, nine months prior to the merger. A two-stage methodology was used, combining the repertory grid method with a survey questionnaire based on the elicited constructs. Predictions from a social constructivist perspective on culture and social identity theory were largely confirmed. The results showed that both groups expected one of them to be dominant after the merger. Members of this organization expected to change very little, while employees in the non-dominant group felt themselves to be threatened by the prospect of merger and this led them to emphasize their own distinctiveness. The findings suggest that the success of the integration process after a merger is critically dependent on how employees of merger partners perceive the culture of the organizations involved and the expectations they have of the new organization. The study has practical implications for how to manage the merger integration process.

  • 5.
    Dackert, Ingrid
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Lööv, Lars-Åke
    Mårtensson, Malin
    Leadership and climate for innovation in teams2004In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 301-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of teamworking is common in many organizations. More or less self-directed teams are organized, often with the aim to achieve continuous improvements at work beyond the daily activities. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between leader behaviour and team climate for innovation in teams. The Team Climate Inventory devised by Anderson and West and Ekvall and Arvonen’s leadership questionnaire were used to capture the leadership pattern and the team processes characterizing a team climate for innovation in 14 manufacturing teams (N1/4 98). The results indicate a positive relation between a leadership style that combines employee-and change-orientation and a team climate for innovation as a whole. However, innovative team processes such as participation and clarity of objectives were more associated with team membership than leadership in this setting.

  • 6. de Capretz, Albert
    Motivation till idrott och hälsa i en digital lärandemiljö2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att belysa svenska gymnasieelevers upplevelser av sin motivation till fjärr- och distansstudier i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Detta med utgångspunkt i motivationsteorin self-determination theory (SDT). Inledningsvis presenteras syftet och de frågeställningar som denna uppsats tar sin utgångspunkt i. För att svara på frågeställningarna har semistrukturerade intervjuer använts. Sammanlagt intervjuades 10 elever från 4 olika skolor. Det genomfördes 2 fokusgruppintervjuer, 1 parintervju och 2 individuella intervjuer.Den tidigare internationella forskningen visar på att det generellt sett går att tillgodose SDT’s grundläggande behov även om undervisningen sker genom fjärr- eller distansundervisning. Framför allt lyfts den höga graden av autonomi fram som något positivt. Svensk forskning visar däremot på en svårighet att tillgodose behovet av samhörighet. Resultatet visar på att eleverna har upplevt en i huvudsak externt reglerad motivation som är präglad av en kontroll från skolan där eleven behöver bevisa sin närvaro. Men i de fall eleverna inte blivit kontrollerade har det funnits utrymme att göra annat skolarbete vilket en del upplevt som positivt. Vidare har eleverna upplevt att undervisningen stundtals har saknat ett tydligt syfte vilket har lett till att eleverna inte upplevt undervisningen som meningsfull. Slutligen har eleverna upplevt en avsaknad av samvaro men att de vidmakthållit en kommunikation inom klassen med hjälp av kommunikationskanaler.

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    Albert de Capretz
  • 7.
    Duarte, Joana
    et al.
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA).
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    Malmö University, Centre for Work Life and Evaluation Studies (CTA). Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Owen, Mikaela
    Centre for Workplace Excellence, University of South Australia.
    Not All Emotional Demands Are the Same: Emotional Demands from Clients' or Co-Workers' Relations Have Different Associations with Well-Being in Service Workers.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 21, article id E7738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increased interest in the study of emotional demands (ED) at work and its impact on workers' well-being. However, ED have been conceptualized as a unitary concept, focused on interactions with clients, and excluding other potential sources of ED at work. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore the relation between ED from different relational sources (clients/patients/customers and colleagues, supervisors, and employees) and service workers' exhaustion and engagement. Cross-sectional data from a sample of 2742 service workers were analysed using structural equation modelling. Results showed that ED from both sources (clients and colleagues) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, particularly if dealing with clients was not an integrated part of the role. Further, ED from clients' relations were negatively associated with engagement for managers with staff responsibility, but positively for managers without staff responsibility. We also found moderating effects of psychosocial safety climate (PSC), whereby ED had the strongest effect on emotional exhaustion when PSC was low. This study suggests that different relational sources of ED at work have a different impact on employees' well-being. Strategies that promote a reduction of extra-role ED, and the development of a PSC in the organization, could therefore offer possible solutions to promote employees' psychological well-being and motivation.

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  • 8. Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Östman, Margareta
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Health and Welfare Studies (HV).
    Belonging and doing: important factors for satisfaction with sexual relations as perceived by people with persistent mental illness2010In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 336-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly acknowledged that satisfaction with sexual relations forms an important aspect of people's lives, but little is known of factors associated with this phenomenon among people with mental illness. AIM: This study aimed to investigate how demographic, social, clinical, and health-related factors were related to satisfaction with sexual relations. METHODS: Patients with persistent mental illness (N = 103), recruited from an outpatient unit, were assessed regarding the target variables. RESULTS: No clinical variable, and only one demographic factor, namely being a cohabitant, was found to be important to satisfaction with sexual relations. Several social factors, pertaining to how everyday occupations were valued and how the social network was perceived, were shown to be of importance. General quality of life, but not self-rated health or interviewer-assessed psychopathology, was also important for satisfaction with sexual relations. A multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor for satisfaction with sexual relations was how everyday activities were valued, and being a cohabitant explained some additional variation. CONCLUSION: Previous research indicates that the mental health care services largely neglect sexual problems among people with mental illness, and the findings may provide additional knowledge that may be used in the support of this target group.

  • 9.
    Finnman, Johannes
    et al.
    Mälardalens University.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    CHILD, Jönköpings University.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens University.
    Early Second Language Learners, Staff Responsiveness and Child Engagement in the Swedish Preschool Context in Relation to Child Behaviour Characteristics and Staffing2021In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 6, article id 627581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool staffs' responsiveness affects children’s behaviour, their difficulties, and engagement in the preschool context, but children’s behaviour and characteristics also affect staff responsiveness. Early second language learners (L2-learners) have been shown to have more problems with behaviour and emotions and lower engagement in preschool. Being engaged in preschool activities predicts future academic performance, attitude towards school and well-being in the short and long term, and can be promoted by the preschool staff. Knowledge of which factors support engagement in preschool for L2-learners can help prevent, in the early years, negative pathways based on low engagement and problems with behaviour and emotions. This cross-sectional study used data from a longitudinal study to investigate the relationship between child engagement and staff responsiveness as well as how child age, child problems with behaviour and emotions, child group size, and the child:staff ratio impact child engagement and staff responsiveness. The study also investigated whether these relations differ between L2-learners and children learning Swedish as their first language (L1-learners). Preschool staff (N = 611) reported through questionnaires on engagement, age, problems with behaviour and emotions and emotional symptoms of 832 children aged 13–71 months, as well as on staffing and staff responsiveness. With a path analysis extended by multi-group analysis, we found two models suggesting that age, problems with behaviour and emotions and preschool staff responsiveness influence child engagement, irrespective of background. The study also found that child engagement significantly influenced staff responsiveness. The multi-group analysis only weakly supported the hypothesis that the child’s age affects staff responsiveness more strongly for L2-learners. The results indicate that individual children and child groups themselves can affect the responsiveness of their staff, and that children with low engagement risk being neglected. L2-learners are at increased risk since they tend to display lower engagement and more behaviour problems in preschool in general. If not attended to early, the lower engagement already apparent among L2-learners in preschool can create stable patterns of low engagement and problems with behaviour and emotions that extend beyond the preschool years and having negative effects on the children’s later well-being and school performance.

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  • 10. Gunnarsson, Anna Birgitta
    et al.
    Peterson, Kerstin
    Leufstadius, Christel
    Jansson, Jan-Åke
    Eklund, Mona
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Client perceptions of the Tree Theme Method™: a structured intervention based on storytelling and creative activit2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tree Theme Method (TTM) is an intervention based on sessions involving creative activities and life storytelling/story-making, in which the client paints trees representing various periods of his/her life. The aim of this study was to investigate clients' experiences of participating in a TTM intervention and their perceptions of the therapeutic relationship. Thematic interviews were undertaken. Twenty clients attending general outpatient mental healthcare units were recruited after having participated in the intervention. A qualitative content analysis resulted in six categories: “From feeling a pressure to perform to becoming focused and expressive”, “Expressing oneself and one's life situation led to awakening of memories and feelings”, “New perspectives of self-image, everyday life and relations to others”, “Story-making led to shaping and reconstructing one's life story”, “Interaction was of importance when reconstructing one's life story” and, finally, “The attitude of the occupational therapist was of importance for the development of the therapeutic relationship”. There seemed to be a close association between the intervention and the therapeutic relationship in starting a process of opening up new perspectives on everyday life, but there is a need for further studies including therapists' experience of using the TTM and their perception of the client–therapist relationship.

  • 11.
    Johnsson, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Perception, Imagery, Memory and Consciousness2022In: Filozofia i Nauka, E-ISSN 2545-1936, Vol. Zeszyt specjalny, no 10, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I propose and discuss some principles that I believe are substantial for percep- tion, various kinds of memory, expectations and the capacity for imagination in the mammal brain, as well as for the design of a biologically inspired artificial cognitive architecture. I also suggest why these same principles could explain our ability to represent novel concepts and imagine non-existing and perhaps impossible objects, while there are still limits to what we can imagine and think about. Some ideas re- garding how these principles could be relevant for an autonomous agent to become functionally conscious are discussed as well.

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  • 12.
    Johnsson, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT).
    Perceptions, Imagery, Memory, and Consciousness in Man and Machine2022In: The 2021 Summit of the International Society for the Study of Information, MDPI, 2022, Vol. 81(1)Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I propose a number of principles that I believe are substantial for various faculties of the mammalian brain, such as perception, expectations, imagery, and memory. The same principles are also of interest when designing an artificial but biologically inspired cognitive architecture. Moreover, I discuss how the same principles may lie behind the ability to represent new concepts and to imagine fictitious and impossible objects, while also giving us reasons to believe that there are limits to our imagination and to what it is possible for us to think about. Some ideas regarding how these principles could be relevant for an autonomous agent to become functionally conscious are discussed as well.

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  • 13.
    Klüft, Izabella
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Sexual Healing: Upplevelser av läkande sexuella möten efter negativa sexuella erfarenheter2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the phenomenon: experiences of healing sexual encounters after negative sexual ordeals. The purpose is to investigate how people with previous negative sexual experiences can experience sexual encounters with others as healing and how it can promote sexual health. The focus is on how sexual encounters with others can be experienced, described and understood as healing. An underlying purpose is to convey hope to those who may have lost hope of enjoyable sexual encounters with others. Knowledge about this may also contribute to the development of health-promoting work regarding sexual health in people with negative sexual experiences. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used as a qualitative method and five interviews with people who experienced healing sexual encounters were conducted. All of them identified as women of which three as bisexual, one as heterosexual and one as heterosexual but attracted to humans. Theories to understand the phenomenon were Existential Perspective, Social Baseline Theory and Theories of reshaping body memories. Previous relevant research was within areas of Sexual Healing After Trauma, Social Pain and Healing and Other Paths to Experiences of Healing Sexual Encounters. The main themes that emerged was No pressure! - the first step to healing, From no desire to desire, Experiences of healing sexual encounters and The difference between then and now. In summary the interviewees reported that they were able to heal from previous negative sexual experiences with the help of sexual encounters with others. Through trusting relationships, they dared to take on sexual challenges that promoted their sexual health and ability to enjoy sex. In the sexual encounters, the other helped them to regulate and deal with the emotions that arose. They could then reshape negative body memories in a deeply contradictory way and achieve experiences of healing. The conclusion is that more research on the phenomenon experiences of healing sexual encounters is needed. It is possible that what some have injured may require others to heal.

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  • 14.
    Lundberg, Chris
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Kataja, Fredrik
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Socialpsykiatrins tillblivelse och fortlevnad: Att lära av historien kring vårdbemötande2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Prior to the undertaking of radical changes in Swedish psychiatry, various psychological theories permeated mental healthcare that would subsequently become essential components at the very heart of the “care-cultural revolution.” This subsequently resulted in the creation of Swedish social psychiatry through which trial establishments’ well-functioning praxis and knowledge have, so it seems, been forgotten over the years.

    Method. How, when and why has it gone from the fact that the caregiver/client-relationship has previously been considered as “good” to in these days feel as though it has become “dehumanized”? How was this relationship in the past, how is it as of today, and how can it be made better for the future? In order to answer this, a closer look, through manifest qualitative content analysis with conventional (inductive) approach, is taken on Swedish health care throughout the 1960s–1980s as well as an elaborate deep dive down into the “new psychiatry” of the 1970s and social psychiatric trial establishments.

    Result. The paths to the formation of a care-ensuring relationship between caregiver and client are found within caregivers’ attitude and approach towards their clients. What is required is a trusting atmosphere and that both parties maintain continuous contact (Gustafsson, 2010) wherein time provides good conditions in the formation of functional and developing alliances (Topor & Denhov, 2012). In order for user influence to function during preventive work, in line with addressing clients’ problems as much as possible, a crisis psychotherapeutic approach and knowledge of mental crisis is required through which genuine presence is achi-eved (Cullberg, 1974). Research also clearly shows that what is needed during care meetings is genuine presence, compassionate understanding, and straightforward communication: not only to see the person, but also to understand what this particular crisis means for this particular individual as well as that his or her behavior in itself and what is not being expressed says so much more than words can ever describe.

    Conclusion. Empirical data suggests that current research remarks on what works well and less well, if not at all, in relation to care treatment is certainly good. But what about the pioneers of Nordic social psychiatry like Berggren, Cullberg, and Haugsgjerd? Current research refers to neither and their legacies seem to have been forgotten. So, what about all the know-ledge and insight that was acquired and incorporated in previous experimental activities such as Cullberg's crisis theory and crisis psychotherapy? Current research refers, likewise, to neither and everything seems to have gone down the drain. What is clear, however, is that their visions were applied with very good results in, amongst other things, the Nacka Project as well as that said theory and psychotherapy seem to have faded away following the trial establishment’s closure. Psychology and psychiatry, ultimately, move in a borderland between science and the humanities wherein they, in conjunction with the code of ethics that all treatment is to be based on “science and proven experience,” coexist in line with fumble attempts to capture life’s complexities. But where exactly should the line be drawn between “scientific professionalism” and “personal insight” when meeting someone with mental ill-health, a fellow human being in a mental crisis?

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  • 15.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Feeling double locked-in at work: Implications for health and job satisfaction among municipal employees2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 199-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the double locked-in phenomenon at work (i.e., being in a non-preferred occupation and non-preferred work place), and its associations to psychological health, physical health and job satisfaction. Methods: A total of 136 municipal employees who visited a career coaching center (response rate 59%) participated in the questionnaire study. Results: The results showed that 61% of the participants were double locked-in and half of them perceived rather much or very much stress. Multiple regression analyses showed that a feeling of being double locked-in predicted psychological health (GHQ-12) and job satisfaction, even after optimism and perceived stress were controlled for, whereas double locked-in did not predict physical health. Conclusions: This study suggests that the locked-in phenomenon and its underlying causes and consequences need to be studied further in future research. To counteract the negative effects of the double locked-in phenomenon it is important to facilitate employees’ mobility in different ways. Key words: Locked-in at work, health, job satisfaction, optimism, municipal employees

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  • 16.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Kvinnors karriärutveckling i ett longitudinellt perspektiv2010In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, no 1, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De förväntningar som fanns på 1990-talet om att andelen kvinnor i beslutande positioner skulle öka kraftigt har inte gått i uppfyllelse. Det varnas dessutom för en kommande chefsbrist när 40-talisterna pensionerar sig samtidigt som många kvinnor lämnar chefspositioner. I den här uppföljningsstudien analyseras med hjälp av begreppen glastak, glasstup och inlåsning varför kvinnor bytt respektive inte bytt arbetsplats och befattning.

  • 17.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Collective and individualistic coping with stress at work2008In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 450-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, coping was viewed as both an individualistic and a collective phenomenon, and the investigation assessed how use of collective and individualistic coping strategies was related to sex of respondent and organizational level. These strategies were measured by responses to Swedish versions of the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale and the COPE Inventory. Data were collected by means of an Internet-based questionnaire completed by 950 female (n = 502) and male (n = 448) employees at both the managerial (n = 171) and nonmanagerial (n = 764) levels, working in customer service in a Swedish telecom company. The mean age of the participants was 47 yr. (SD = 9.7). Analysis showed women more often used collective strategies, but so also did both women and men managers. Men did not use problem-focused individualistic coping strategies more often than women. No interactions between sex and organizational level were found. Separate analyses for women and men indicated that coping was more related to organizational level than to sex.

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  • 18.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Exploring Stress and Coping at Work: Critical Incidents among Women and Men in Equivalent Positions2006In: Lund psychological reports, ISSN 1404-8035, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore stress and coping among women and men working in similar positions and with equivalent jobs. Interviews, based on the Critical Incident Technique, were conducted with 40 employees in a Swedish telecom company. The following seven dimensions of stress were found: organizational change and downsizing, leadership, obstacles at work, achieving goals, workload, organizational structure, and work-family/leisure conflict. Organizational change and downsizing were the major sources of stress for both women and men irrespective of the organizational level. Some gender differences were found concerning the other stressors, e.g. female managers more frequently reported heavy workload and work-family/leisure conflict. The participants, both women and men, used a wide range of strategies, e.g. active strategies, seeking instrumental and emotional social support, acceptance, and resignation to cope with the demands at work. Managers mentioned active strategies more often than non-managers, while acceptance and resignation were more prevalent strategies among the non-managers. Men, unlike women, did not report using denial or seeking emotional support as coping strategies. The implications of the findings and their consequences for future studies in organizational contexts are discussed.

  • 19.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Kortversioner av frågeformulär inom arbets- och hälsopsykologi: om att mäta coping och optimism2005In: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 288-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to reduce the “response burden” in applied psychological research is to create short versions of inventories. The present study reports the reliability of the Swedish versions of two short inventories; Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) and LOT-R (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994). Brief COPE consists of 14 coping scales comprising 2 items per scale. LOT-R contains six items assessing generalized optimism. Altogether 332 undergraduate students participated in the study. The reliability coefficients indicated that a majority of the Brief COPE scales, as well as LOT-R possessed adequate reliabilities. Overall, the results of the study support the use of the Swedish versions of Brief COPE and LOT-R.

  • 20.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Stress at work and optimism: Implications for health2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on pessimism and optimism in organizations have mainly focused on productivity and performance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of optimism in the relationship between stress at work and health. An Internet-based questionnaire was sent to 1345 female and male employees at both managerial and non-managerial level working in a Swedish telecom company. Altogether 950 employees (71%) participated in the study. The dimensions of work stress examined were quantitative demands, job insecurity, work and family conflict and lack of control. The results of the regression analyses showed that a low level of optimism had a direct effect on health problems. Optimism moderated the relationship between work insecurity and health symptoms. However, optimism did not act as a moderator between the quantitative demands, work and family conflict, lack of control and health. Future research about work stress and health should address personality factors such as optimism.

  • 21.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    The role of gender and job level in coping with occupational stress2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between coping and health problems in the context of gender and level in the organization. Questionnaire data were collected from 279 women and men (100 managers and 179 non-managers) at a sales department in a Swedish telecom company in which men and women worked at similar tasks. It was hypothesized that, if gender and level in the organization were controlled for, the use of problem-focused strategies would be associated with fewer health problems and the use of emotion-focused strategies with greater health problems. It was also predicted that men and women at a similar organizational level would not differ in their use of problem-focused coping strategies. The results showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that when level and gender were controlled for, no relation between problem-focused strategies and health was obtained. Instead the emotion-focused strategy of Seeking emotional support was associated with fewer health problems, whereas Focus on emotions and Alcohol/drug disengagement were associated with more symptoms. Coping was at least partly related to level. At a managerial level the men and the women used basically the same strategies whereas at a non-managerial level traditionally-conceived coping patterns were evident.

  • 22.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Work locus of control and its relationship to health and job satisfaction from a gender perspective2004In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With its focus on gender, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of work locus of control (WLC) for job satisfaction and health in the context of occupational stress. Data were collected from 281 women and men at both managerial and non-managerial level in a Swedish telecom company. As hypothesized, external WLC was positively related to stressors and symptoms of ill-health, whereas it was negatively related to job satisfaction. These results applied for both women and men. Even though ANOVAs did not show a gender difference in WLC, the results of the hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that WLC was a significant predictor of both symptoms of ill-health and job satisfaction, but only for women. Besides these main effects WLC also acted as a moderator in the stress-health relationship for women. This indicates that separate analyses for women and men are needed in order to investigate potential gender differences that might otherwise go unnoticed.

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  • 23.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    Peiró, José Maria
    Constructions of work stress and coping in a female- and a male-dominated department2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study the nature of stress and coping was investigated and considered as socially constructed. Thirty small group interviews were performed using the Critical Incident Technique in one female- and one male-dominated customer service department of a telecom company. The main themes about stress among both women and men were often expressed as collective phenomena and were connected to the organizational change and downsizing process, problems when carrying out the work and lack of autonomy. However, a striking difference between female and male interviews was found in the way that women to a greater extent expressed lack of autonomy and their working situation was described as strictly regulated. The findings illustrate that a traditional gender difference regarding autonomy could be found when comparing a female- and a male-dominated department even though they were performing the same type of job. Both women and men portrayed coping as a mixture of collective and individual strategies. They often mentioned collective acceptance, resignation and hardening. There is a need for further research about women and men at work, taking into consideration the interpersonal context and the collective nature of stress and coping.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Torstensson Levander, Marie
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Criminology (KR).
    Adolescents ' Perceptions, Neighbourhood Characteristics and Parental Monitoring -Are they Related, and Do they Interact in the Explanation of Adolescent Offending?2021In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 14, p. 1075-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children are nested in families, and families are nested within communities (e.g. neighbourhoods). This implies that the behaviour of both children and their parents is influenced by external and contextual factors. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between parental monitoring and neighbourhood disorder and collective efficacy from the perspective of the adolescent and to investigate how perceived monitoring and neighbourhood characteristics were related to and interact in predicting adolescent offending. The characteristics of the adolescent's neighbourhoods were assessed using two different data sources: adolescents' own perceptions and an independent, aggregated measure from a community survey. The analyses showed that the adolescents' perceptions of neighbourhood level of disorder and collective efficacy were associated with both adolescent-perceived parental monitoring and adolescent offending, while the corresponding measures from the community survey were not. As regards the prediction of offending, adolescent-perceived parental monitoring is the most important predictor. Neither collective efficacy nor disorder appear to interact with parental monitoring in explaining adolescent offending. Future research would contribute to the field by examining the effect and interaction between the study variables in a sample with younger adolescents as well as by including parents' perceptions. As to practical implications, our results indicate that families living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods may benefit from targeted support aimed at handling negative neighbourhood influences.

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  • 25.
    Pfeiffer, Erika
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    CAN NON-VERBAL CUES ATTRACT VICTIMIZATION? A REVIEW OF PSYCHOPATHY AND VULNERBILITY CUES2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Current research links psychopathic traits in males to a heightened perception of physical vulnerability cues to victimization in other males of the same race. Consequently, there is a correlation between psychopathy and the ability to detect nonverbal vulnerability cues. This thesis aims to examine this correlation by synthesizing key themes from empirical studies that have explored how nonverbal cues exhibited by victims may be related to victimization by a perpetrator with psychopathy. Therefore, this thesis will address the following research questions: (1) How does vulnerable body language attract victimization? (2) How do psychopaths detect vulnerabilities? A thematic analysis approach was used, which resulted in the categorization of the data into two themes that correspond with the research questions. The first main finding suggested that body postures and nonverbal cues that are perceived as vulnerable, in theory, can make one more susceptible to victimization by a perpetrator high in psychopathy. The second main finding indicated that the lack of empathy in psychopaths, paired with the intent to cause harm and seek rewards that serve a utilitarian purpose, might comprise the underlying desire to detect an easy target to victimize. The findings from this thesis may inform the development of interventions to reduce the risk of victimization by individuals high in psychopathy and to improve the personal safety of victims. Additionally, the findings may provide a greater understanding of how psychopaths perceive nonverbal cues and use it to victimize others, pointing to areas of future empirical research. 

  • 26. Rasulzada, Farida
    et al.
    Dackert, Ingrid
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Organizational creativity and innovation in relation to psychological well-being and organizational factors2009In: Creativity Research Journal, ISSN 1040-0419, E-ISSN 1532-6934, Vol. 21, no 2-3, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two objectives of the research reported in this article were to investigate the relationship between organizational creativity and innovation and psychological well-being of employees, as well as the relationship between organizational factors and organizational creativity and innovation. Ninety-five employees working in a high-tech field of industry participated in the study. The relationships were tested in a LISREL model and the result showed a significant relationship between perceived organizational creativity and innovation and individual psychological well-being. Of the organizational factors included in the model, organizational climate and work resources were found to be significantly related to perceived creativity and innovation in the organization. Taken together, the results suggest that enhancing the conditions for creativity and innovation is beneficial for the individual in terms of better psychological well-being.

  • 27.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Det ömsesidiga samspelet i mötet med barn i behov av särskilt stöd2023In: Förskolan som lärandemiljö: För barn i behov av särskilt stöd / [ed] Sjöman, Madeleine och Björck, Eva, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken handlar om förskolan som lärmiljö för alla barn och i synnerhet för barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Syftet är att belysa vikten av att upptäcka barn som behöver stöd tidigt, och hur olika insatser kan planeras och organiseras för att gynna delaktighet, engagemang och lärande för alla barn i förskolan. Den bygger på svensk och internationell forskning och fyller ett tomrum avseende kunskap kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd i förskolan och deras aktiva engagemang i förskolans vardag. Boken är indelad i tre delar: 

    • Förutsättningar för barns delaktighet och engagemang i förskolan.

    • Att skapa en inkluderande lärmiljö i förskolan.

    • Tidig intervention och samverkan runt barn i behov av särskilt stöd.

    Förskollärare och annan personal i förskolan, specialpedagoger och andra som arbetar med tidigt stöd till barn i förskolan har nytta av boken i sitt arbete liksom lärare och studenter i förskollärarutbildningen. Den är också av intresse för skoladministratörer, politiker och andra som är intresserade av förskolan som lärmiljö för alla barn. 

  • 28.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of School Development and Leadership (SOL).
    Förskolan som lärandemiljö: För barn i behov av särskilt stöd2023Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken handlar om förskolan som lärmiljö för alla barn och i synnerhet för barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Syftet är att belysa vikten av att upptäcka barn som behöver stöd tidigt, och hur olika insatser kan planeras och organiseras för att gynna delaktighet, engagemang och lärande för alla barn i förskolan. Den bygger på svensk och internationell forskning och fyller ett tomrum avseende kunskap kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd i förskolan och deras aktiva engagemang i förskolans vardag. Boken är indelad i tre delar: 

    • Förutsättningar för barns delaktighet och engagemang i förskolan.

    • Att skapa en inkluderande lärmiljö i förskolan.

    • Tidig intervention och samverkan runt barn i behov av särskilt stöd.

    Förskollärare och annan personal i förskolan, specialpedagoger och andra som arbetar med tidigt stöd till barn i förskolan har nytta av boken i sitt arbete liksom lärare och studenter i förskollärarutbildningen. Den är också av intresse för skoladministratörer, politiker och andra som är intresserade av förskolan som lärmiljö för alla barn. 

  • 29.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Alexithymia as Related to Facial Imitation, Mentalization, Empathy, and Internal Working Models-of-Self and -Others2009In: Neuropsychoanalysis, ISSN 1529-4145, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 111-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated alexithymia in relation to facial imitation, empathy, attachment (models-of-self and -others), and reported emotional contagion and the degree of correspondence between facial responses (somatic affect) and reported emotional contagion (mentalization of affects). Pictures of angry, happy, and sad faces were presented to 102 participants at exposure times from subliminal (17–23 ms) to clearly supraliminal (2,500 ms). Electromyographic (EMG) activity from the corrugator and zygomaticus muscles was measured, and emotional contagion was reported after exposures. Self-report questionnaires measured alexithymia (TAS-20), attachment (RSQ), and empathy (IRI). Alexithymia correlated negatively with models-of-self (p < .01) and models-of-others (p < .0001), with a marginally significant correlation with empathy (p = .06). An interaction (p < .05) was found between alexithymia and facial expression with corrugator response as dependent measure, indicating corrugator imitation only for the low-alexithymia participants. The low-alexithymia group’s facial responses corresponded with their verbal reports, when exposed to both negative and positive faces at the longest exposure. The high-alexithymia participants showed correspondences when exposed to happy facial expressions at shorter exposures.

  • 30.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Jönsson, Peter
    Svensson, Owe
    Gender Differences in Facial Imitation and Verbally Reported Emotional Contagion from Spontaneous to Emotionally Regulated Processing Levels2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on gender differences in facial imitation and verbally reported emotional contagion have investigated emotional responses to pictures of facial expressions at supraliminal exposure times. The aim of the present study was to investigate how gender differences are related to different exposure times, representing information processing levels from subliminal (spontaneous) to supraliminal (emotionally regulated). Further, the study aimed at exploring correlations between verbally reported emotional contagion and facial responses for men and women. Masked pictures of angry, happy and sad facial expressions were presented to 102 participants (51 men) at exposure times from subliminal (23 ms) to clearly supraliminal (2500 ms). Myoelectric activity (EMG) from the corrugator and the zygomaticus was measured and the participants reported their hedonic tone (verbally reported emotional contagion) after stimulus exposures. The results showed an effect of exposure time on gender differences in facial responses as well as in verbally reported emotional contagion. Women amplified imitative responses towards happy vs. angry faces and verbally reported emotional contagion with prolonged exposure times, whereas men did not. No gender differences were detected at the subliminal or borderliminal exposure times, but at the supraliminal exposure gender differences were found in imitation as well as in verbally reported emotional contagion. Women showed correspondence between their facial responses and their verbally reported emotional contagion to a greater extent than men. The results were interpreted in terms of gender differences in emotion regulation, rather than as differences in biologically prepared emotional reactivity.

  • 31.
    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Jönsson, Peter
    Svensson, Owe
    Imitative responses and verbally reported emotional contagion from spontaneous, unconscious to emotionally regulated, conscious information-processing levels2008In: Neuro-Psychoanalysis, ISSN 1529-4145, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the study was to investigate whether facial imitative responses and subjective experiences of emotional contagion (self-reported hedonic tone) can be evoked as a result of unconscious information processing or whether these responses rely on conscious, interpretative processing. As a second aim, the correspondence between the participants’ self-reported hedonic tone and the magnitude of their facial responses was investigated. The third aim was to explore how increased involvement of conscious processing (longer exposure times) influenced facial imitative responses, self-reported hedonic tone, and the correspondence between these responses. Information-processing levels from unconscious (17–23 ms) to conscious (2,500 ms) levels were induced by successively prolonged presentations of facial stimuli. The 102 participants were exposed to masked pictures of happy, angry, and sad facial expressions. Facial responses (EMG) and self-reports of hedonic tone were measured after facial stimuli exposures. Verbally reported emotional contagion and zygomaticus imitative responses were observed at the subliminal exposure level, as well as correlations between these responses. These results were interpreted as being in line with a spontaneous, unconscious process involved in imitation and the subjective experiences of emotional contagion. Correlations between the participants’ magnitude of facial responses and their degree of emotional contagion were found at all exposure levels, from subliminal to clearly supraliminal levels of exposure. At the supraliminal exposure, 26 of the participants responded with inverted zygomaticus responses (“smiles”) toward angry expressions, a response that may be interpreted as a defensive response.

1 - 31 of 31
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