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  • 1. Al-Harthy, Mohammad
    et al.
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Pain related temporomandibular disorders in adult Saudi arabians referred for specialized dental treatment2007In: Pain related temporomandibular disorders in adult Saudi arabians reffered for specialized dental treatment.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the frequencies of pain-related symptoms of TMD in patients in the age of 20-40 years referred for specialized dental treatments in Makkah, Saudi Arabia by using Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Three hundred and twenty-five consecutive Saudi patients in the age of 20-40 years: 135 males and 190 females were interviewed according to the RDC/TMD history questionnaire. The results revealed that pain related TMD and orofacial pain were found among 58 (18%) patients. All other patients formed the non-pain group (267,82%). In the pain group, there were 79% females compared to 21% males (P<0.01). Both genders in the pain group reported high frequencies of both migraines in the last six months and headache moderately to extremely in the last month showing significant difference in comparison with the non-pain group (P<0.01). Symptoms of TMD were significantly more prevalent in the pain group than in the non-pain group. The most common pain related TMD symptoms were TMJ clicking, TMJ crepitation, TMJ locking, stiff jaw, tinnitus, bruxism and uncomfortable bite. Regarding Graded Chronic Pain severity in the pain group, most patients reported their pain to be grade I and II. Jaw disability checklist according to RDC/TMD showed that four or more disturbed jaw activities were found in 31 patients (53%) while 13 patients (22%) had not affected mandibular functions. In conclusion, the findings of the present study showed high frequencies of pain related TMD in this Saudi arabian patient population.

  • 2. de Boever, Jan A
    et al.
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Orthlieb, Jean-Daniel
    Steenks, Michel
    Recommendations by the EACD for examination, diagnosis, and management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain by the general dental practitioner2008In: Journal of Orofacial Pain, ISSN 1064-6655, E-ISSN 1945-3396, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 268-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Council fo the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders charged the Educational Committee with the task of establishing Guidelines and Recommendations for the examination, diagnosis, and management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain by the general dental practitioner. It was not their purpose to present a thorough and critical review of the vast amount of literature avaliable but to summarize the at-present generally accepted clinical approach. These recommendations are based as much as possible on scientific evidence and on sound clinical judgement in cases where only partial evidence or contradictory data were found.

  • 3.
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Doepel, M
    Le Bell, Y
    The effectiveness of a prefabricated occlusal appliance in a long-term perspective (Finland)2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Doepel, M
    Söderling, E
    Selovuo, K
    Le Bell, Y
    Salivary cortisol and lgA levels in myofascial pain patients treated with occlusal appliances in a short term perspective (Naantali)2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Visscher, CM
    Lobbezoo, F
    de Laat, A
    Michelotti, A
    Farella, M
    Naeije, M
    A multicenter study to the concurrent validity of diagnostic TMD tests in TMD-pain patients, dental pain patients and pain-free subjects2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Elhajj, Leila
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Föreligger det skillnad i tåtrycksindex före och efter uppvärmning?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Distal tryckmätning är en non-invasiv undersökning som används för att undersöka, diagnostisera och kvantifiera kärlsjukdomar i de perifera extremiteterna. Metoden används för att särskilja olika sjukdomstillstånd i benen. Metoden mäter det systoliska blodtrycket i benens olika nivåer samt i armen. Studien baseras på att placera blodtrycksmanschetter runt höger arm på alla deltagare och runt båda stortårnas innerfalang tillsammans med fotoceller som fästes med dubbelhäftande på tårnas ytterfalang och på tummen. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om skillnad i tåtrycksindex föreligger före och efter uppvärmning av fötterna. Tåtrycksindexet mättes innan uppvärmning och efter uppvärmning, därpå utfördes en till mätning för att undersöka om skillnad erhålls avseende tåtrycksindex. Studien utfördes på avdelningen för Klinisk fysiologi och nuklearmedicin Skånes Universitetssjukhus i Malmö, och den omfattade 20 deltagare, 17 kvinnor och 3 män, utan några exklusionskriterier. Utifrån Q-Q plotvisades rådatan vara normalfördelad. Parat testet indikerade på ett P-värde större än signifikantnivån 0,05, det tyder på ingen skillnad i tåtryck förelåg före och efter uppvärmning. Slutligen för signifikanta skillnader före och efter uppvärmning behöver studien utvecklas genom att i kommande studier inkludera även sjuka patienter.

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  • 7. Engfalk, Paul
    et al.
    Pigg, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    List, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Influence of intra- and extraoral sites and size of stimulation area on thermal detection and pain threholds. A methodological study2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study compared cool detection thresholds, warm detection thresholds and heat pain thresholds at intra- and extraoral locations and measured the influence of spatial summation. Material and Methods: Thirty healthy individuals (15 females and 15 males), mean age 24.9 years, range 20-31 years) participated in the study. Thresholds for warm detection (WDT), cool detection (CDT) and heat pain threshold (HPT) were measured using a thermotester (MSA–Modular sensory Analyzer, Somedic). The intraoral thermode was custom-made with a 9x9mm square surface. The average of three measurements was recorded. Four intraoral sites (gingival regions 24 and 34, tip of the tongue, lower lip) and two extraoral sites (infraorbitalis, thenar) were measured in each participant. To measure spatial summation, five acrylic covers (tip areas: 0.81 cm2, 0.50 cm2, 0.28cm2, 0.125cm2, 0 cm2) were made to fit the thermode. Five measurements on the tip of the tongue were averaged for each acrylic cover. Results: Of the extraoral sites, the cold detection threshold was significantly higher and the heat pain threshold was significantly lower at the infraorbitalis than at the thenar. Of the intraoral sites, the cold detection threshold was significantly lower at the tongue than at any of the other intraoral locations; the heat pain threshold was significantly lower on the tip of the tongue than on the lower lip. Warm detection and heat pain thresholds rose slightly with increasing thermode size, and this association was more pronounced than for cold detection thresholds. Conclusion: Temperature thresholds differed significantly between several anatomic sites, and the association between size of stimulation area and temperature thresholds was weak.

  • 8.
    Götrick, Bengt
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Giglio, Daniel
    Tobin, Gunnar
    Effects of amphetamine on salivary secretion2009In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amphetamine induces xerogenic effects, but its mechanism of action and xerogenic potency are unknown. In the current in vivo study on the rat parotid gland, the effects of amphetamine on reflex-evoked and acetylcholine-evoked salivation were examined in the absence and presence of adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists. Under anaesthesia, amphetamine increased the secretion of salivary fluid and the amount of protein therein in response to acetylcholine. Phentolamine abolished the increase in salivary flow and had no effect on the salivary protein concentration, whereas propranolol only reduced the salivary protein concentration. Reflex activation of the secretion evoked a well-maintained level of secretion that was reduced by amphetamine [50% inhibitory dose (ID50) 1.9 ± 0.1 mg kg−1 intravenously); the salivary protein concentration was increased in the presence of amphetamine. Phentolamine and haloperidol reduced the amphetamine-inhibitory effect on the reflex-evoked fluid response, whereas propranolol had no effect on the fluid response. The xerogenic effect of amphetamine is mainly exerted by central mechanisms involving α-adrenoceptors, while, indirectly, amphetamine causes secretion of protein by inducing the release of noradrenaline from glandular nerve terminals.

  • 9. Johansson, Ann-Katrin
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders
    Unell, Lennart
    Ekbäck, Gunnar
    Ordell, Sven
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Carlsson, Gunnar E
    A 15-yr longitudinal study of xerostomia in a Swedish population of 50-yr-old subjects2009In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in prevalence of xerostomia in subjects from 50 to 65 yr of age. Questionnaires were sent to all subjects who were born in 1942 and were living in two Swedish counties in 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. The analyses focused on those who answered the questionnaires both in 1992 and in 2007. The response rate was 71.4% (n = 6,346) in 1992 and 73.1% (n = 6,078) in 2007. Of those who answered the questionnaire in 1992, 74.3% (n = 4,714) also responded in 2007. There was an almost linear increase in the prevalence of xerostomia at the four study time-points (i.e. when the subjects were 50, 55, 60, and 65 yr of age). Xerostomia was more prevalent at night than during the day. The pooled prevalence of night-time and daytime xerostomia was 6% at 50 yr of age and 15% at 65 yr of age, and it was higher in women than in men on both occasions. Logistic regression analyses showed that impaired health and smoking were significantly associated with daytime xerostomia but not with night-time xerostomia. Despite the increase in prevalence of xerostomia from 50 to 65 yr of age, there was considerable variation during the observation period. The incidence rate was 13% (507/4,015) and the disappearance rate was 42% (104/250) (dichotomized answers).

  • 10.
    List, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Leijon, Göran
    Svensson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia: A case-control study2008In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 333-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Somatosensory function in patients with persistent idiopathic types of orofacial pain like atypical odontalgia (AO) is not well described. This study tested the hypothesis that AO patients have significantly more somatosensory abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-six AO patients and 35 controls participated. Inclusion criteria for AO were pain in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, persistent pain >6 months, and lack of clinical and radiological findings. The examination included qualitative tests and a battery of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST). Most AO patients (85%) had qualitative somatosensory abnormality compared with few controls (14%). The most common qualitative abnormalities in AO patients were found with pin-prick 67.4%, cold 47.8%, and touch 46.5% compared with 11.4%, 8.6%, and 2.9%, respectively, in the control group (P<0.001). Between-group differences were seen for many intraoral QST: mechanical detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold (pinprick), dynamic mechanical allodynia (brush), dynamic mechanical allodynia (vibration), wind-up ratio, and pressure pain threshold (P<0.01). In the trigeminal area, between-group differences in thermal thresholds were nonsignificant while differences in cold detection at the thenar eminence were significant. Individual somatosensory profiles revealed complex patterns with hyper- and hyposensitivity to intraoral QST. Between-group differences in pressure pain thresholds (P<0.02) were observed at the thenar eminence. In conclusion, significant abnormalities in intraoral somatosensory function were observed in AO, which may reflect peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal pathways. More generalized sensitization of the nociceptive system may also be part of AO pathophysiology.

  • 11.
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Profylaktisk bettslipning - dags för diskussion? Ingen accepterad behandlingsform.2007In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, no 4, p. 54-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nilner, Maria
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Doepel, M
    Le Bell, Y
    Andersson, J
    Selovuo, K
    The effectiveness of a prefabricated occlusal appliance in patients with myofascial pain (Naantali)2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13. Nilsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    List, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Drangsholt, Mark
    Incidence of temporomandibular disorders and pain among adolescents in a Swedish county2007In: Journal of Orofacial Pain, ISSN 1064-6655, E-ISSN 1945-3396, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 127-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To estimate the incidence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain among Swedish adolescents by age and gender and to describe the temporal patterns of TMD pain. METHODS: This 3-year longitudinal study was carried out at all Public Dental Service clinics in a Swedish county from 2000 to 2003. All individuals aged 12 to 19 years in the county who visited the clinics for annual examinations were eligible for the study. RESULTS: Overall, the incidence of TMD pain among all adolescents was 2.9% annually among 2,255 participating adolescents. Incidence among girls was significantly higher than in boys, 4.5% versus 1.3%, respectively. Incidence increased with age in girls and boys, although less so in boys (3.0% to 6.9% versus 1.7% to 2.6%). These adolescents were re-examined annually for 3 years, and a fluctuating pattern of TMD pain was common. Overall, 11.4% of all subjects reported TMD pain on at least 1 occasion; 88.6% of the cohort remained pain-free. Of those reporting TMD pain, 4.7% could be defined as intermittent cases, 3.1% were single-incident cases, 0.9% were recurrent cases, and 0.9% had continuing pain for 1 or 2 years. CONCLUSION: The incidence of self-reported TMD pain among Swedish adolescents aged 12 to 19 years increased with age, particularly among girls. The pattern of pain in most adolescents fluctuated over time. Less than 1% of the cohort had continued pain over each year, and the majority of these subjects were girls.

  • 14.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Hall, Anna
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, SUS, Region Skane, Malmö, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Hanne
    Department of Clinical Pathology, SUS, Region Skane, Malmö, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Ravi
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Lavant, Eva
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Ljunggren, Lennart
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Increased level of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA due to a single bout of strenuous physical exercise2020In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 120, p. 897-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Physical exercise is reported to affect the immune response in various ways. Thus, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the abundance of circulating leukocytes are changed. In this study, the occurence of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cfmtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was investigated in connection with a single bout of strenuous physical exercise. Methods Healthy volunteers performed a controlled ergo-spirometry cycle test and venous blood samples were taken at different time-points to analyze the concentration of blood components before, during and after the test. The number of circulating leukocytes was measured, as well as secretion of the soluble urokinase activator receptor (suPAR). Results Cf-mtDNA significantly increased during exercise, compared to baseline values and after 30 and 90 min of rest. Circulating leukocytes increased during exercise, but returned to baseline levels afterwards. Surface expression of the urokinase plasminogen activating receptor (uPAR) on neutrophils decreased significantly during exercise. The concentration of suPAR tended to increase during exercise but only significantly after 90 min of rest. Conclusion Increased concentration of cf-mtDNA indicates that cell damage takes place during high intensity training. Hypoxia and tissue damage are likely causes of cf-mtDNA from muscle cells. The levels of cf-mtDNA remain high during the initial rest, due to the decreasing numbers of leukocytes normally clearing the plasma from cf-mtDNA. The increased levels of suPAR further emphasize that strenuous physical exercise causes a reaction similar to inflammation. Further studies are needed to detect the source of increased cf-mtDNA and the corresponding increase of suPAR liberation.

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  • 15.
    Ohrbach, Richard
    et al.
    SUNY Buffalo, Dept Oral Diagnost Sci, Buffalo, NY 14214 USA.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Specialist Ctr Oral Rehabil, Linköping, Sweden.
    List, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    The Jaw Functional Limitation Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity of 8-Item and 20-Item Versions2008In: Journal of Orofacial Pain, ISSN 1064-6655, E-ISSN 1945-3396, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 219-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To develop the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS), comprising 3 constructs and a global scale, based on a preliminary instrument, and to investigate content validity of the overall functional limitation construct, reliability, and generalizability. A temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patient group, compared to other diagnostic groups, was hypothesized to report futher limitation in each of the 3 new proposed constructs. Methods: One hundred thirty-two consecutive patients from 5 diagnostic groups (TDM, primary Sjögren syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, skeletal malocclusion, and healthy controls) participated in a known-groups validity design. Fifty-two jaw functional limitation items were identified by an expert panel for content validity. Rasch methodology was used for item reduction and assessment of model fit. The instrument was retested 1 to 2 weeks later. Results: Three constructs (mastication, vertical jaw mobility, and emotional and verbal expression) comprising a total of 20 items were identified along with a global scale (the JFLS-20), and each exhibited excellent psychometric properties with respect to modeled variance, item fit, reliability, and internal consistency. The psychometric properties of each construct remained satisfactory when analyzed separately among the 5 diagnostic groups. Temporal stability was satisfactory. A shorter 8-item form (JFLS-8) also proved useful for assessing global functional jaw limitation. Conclusion: The JFLS-20 is an organ-specific instrument comprising 3 constructs for assessing functional status of the masticatory system; the 3 scales exhibit properties that are ideal for both research and patient evaluation in patient groups with a range of functional limitations of the jaw. The JFLS-8 emerged as a short form for measuring global functional limitation of the jaw.

  • 16.
    Tegelberg, Åke
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wenneberg, Bengt
    List, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    General practice dentists' knowledge of temporomandibular disorders in children and adolescents2007In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 216-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to map general practice dentists' (GPDs) knowledge of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was mailed to 286 Swedish dentists in the Public Dental Service and 17 TMD specialists with documented research experience. The questionnaire contained 37 statements on aetiology, diagnostics, classification, chronic pain and pain behaviour, treatment, and prognosis. Each statement was judged on a 0-10 point scale with the endpoint definitions agree or disagree. Results: The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 87%. In 28 of all 37 statements, the TMD specialists endorsed a consensus, i.e. >75% of the specialists had the same opinion about the statement. TMD specialists differed most in opinion in the domain diagnostics and classification. In 65% of the statements, differences in knowledge between GPDs and TMD specialists were non-significant. The greatest number of significant between-group differences was found in the domain treatment and prognosis. Most of these statements were related to morphological factors. Conclusion: There is a high degree of consensus in TMD knowledge amongst the TMD specialists and a high degree of agreement in knowledge between GPDs and TMD specialists. In some areas, however, TMD specialists still need to reach a consensus which is founded on evidence-based TMD knowledge in children and adolescents and that can be used in undergraduate teaching. It is therefore important to develop and strengthen the undergraduate dental teaching in TMD and orofacial pain.

  • 17.
    Wiese, Mie
    et al.
    Univ Aarhus, Dept Oral Radiol, Sch Dent, Fac Hlth Sci, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Svensson, Peter
    Univ Aarhus, Sch Dent, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin Oral Physiol, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Bakke, Merete
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Oral Med Clin Oral Physiol Oral Pathol & Ana, Sch Dent, Fac Hlth Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    List, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hintze, Hanne
    Univ Aarhus, Dept Oral Radiol, Sch Dent, Fac Hlth Sci, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Petersson, Arne
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Knutsson, Kerstin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Wenzel, Ann
    Univ Aarhus, Dept Oral Radiol, Sch Dent, Fac Hlth Sci, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Association Between Temporomandibular Joint Symptoms, Signs, and Clinical Diagnosis Using the RDC/TMD and Radiographic Findings in Temporomandibular Joint Tomograms2008In: Journal of Orofacial Pain, ISSN 1064-6655, E-ISSN 1945-3396, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To identify associations between clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders and radiographic findings. Methods: Two hundred four adult patients (156 women, 48 men, mean age 40 years) with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain/sounds or changes in mandibular motion were examined according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Bilateral sagittal corrected TMJ tomograms in closed and open positions were assessed fo the presence of flattening, erosion, osteophytes, and sclerosis in the joint components and the range of mandibular motion. Logistic regression analyses were performed with the radiographic findings as the dependent variables and the following clinical variables as independent variables: opening pattern, maximal jaw opening, TMJ sounds, number of painful muscle/TMJ sites, duration of pain, presence of arthritic disease, depression and somatisation scores, graded chronic pain, and age and gender. Resluts: Coarse crepitus on opening/closing (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 3.12), on lateral excursions (odds ratio ≥ 4.06), and on protrusion (OR ≥ 5.30) was associated with increased risk of degenerative findings in tomograms. A clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis increased the risk of radiographic findings (OR ≥ 2.95) and so did increasing age (OR ≥ 1.03 per year) and the female gendera (OR ≥ 2.36). Maximal assisted opening and maximal opening without pain (< 40 mm) was associated with a posterior condyle-to-articular tubercle position (OR ≥ 2.60). No other significant associations were observed. Conclusion: Age, gender, and coarse crepitus, but no pain-related variables, were associated with increased risk of degenerative findings in TMJ tomograms. Maximal opening < 40 mm was associated with at posterior condyle-to-articular tubercle relation on opening.

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