Malmö University Publications
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  • 1.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Mera, David
    Centro Singular de Investigación en Tecnoloxías da Información (CiTIUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Fernandez-Delgado, Manuel
    Centro Singular de Investigación en Tecnoloxías da Información (CiTIUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Olsson, Carl Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).
    A comparison of machine learning algorithms for forecasting indoor temperature in smart buildings2020In: Energy Systems, Springer Verlag, ISSN 1868-3967, E-ISSN 1868-3975, Vol. 13, p. 689-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The international community has largely recognized that the Earth's climate is changing. Mitigating its global effects requires international actions. The European Union (EU) is leading several initiatives focused on reducing the problems. Specifically, the Climate Action tries to both decrease EU greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy efficiency by reducing the amount of primary energy consumed, and it has pointed to the development of efficient building energy management systems as key. In traditional buildings, households are responsible for continuously monitoring and controlling the installed Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Unnecessary energy consumption might occur due to, for example, forgetting devices turned on, which overwhelms users due to the need to tune the devices manually. Nowadays, smart buildings are automating this process by automatically tuning HVAC systems according to user preferences in order to improve user satisfaction and optimize energy consumption. Towards achieving this goal, in this paper, we compare 36 Machine Learning algorithms that could be used to forecast indoor temperature in a smart building. More specifically, we run experiments using real data to compare their accuracy in terms of R-coefficient and Root Mean Squared Error and their performance in terms of Friedman rank. The results reveal that the ExtraTrees regressor has obtained the highest average accuracy (0.97%) and performance (0,058%) over all horizons.

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  • 2.
    Benson, Michael
    et al.
    College of Interdisciplinary Studies, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC V9B 5Y2, Canada.
    Boda, Chad
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Das, Runa R.
    College of Interdisciplinary Studies, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC V9B 5Y2, Canada.
    King, Leslie
    School of Environment and Sustainability, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC V9B 5Y2, Canada.
    Park, Chad
    The Co-Operators Group Limited, Guelph, ON N1H 6P8, Canada.
    Illuminating practitioner challenges in energy transitions2023In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 12, p. e22624-e22624, article id e22624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) is a concept that can be used to address complex challenges, including energy transitions. SD offers diverse strategies that provide useful direction in navigating tensions, trade-offs and synergies in energy transitions. The purpose of this research was to identify the challenges that energy practitioners are faced with in energy transitions and explore potential solutions. To achieve this purpose, we identified and explored the challenges faced by energy practitioners in Canada. Specifically, we conducted a survey of 34 energy practitioners from across Canada, as well as in-depth interviews with the Energy Futures Lab design team (which is a civil society initiative actively working on the energy transition in Canada).

    We identified the following challenges faced by energy practitioners in Canada: there is no simple, single solution for energy transitions; energy transitions have potentially conflicting considerations; energy systems have potentially conflicting goals; energy practitioners have different levels of trust and competencies in key actors; energy practitioners need to work across the political spectrum; and the costs and benefits of energy transitions are unevenly distributed. We discuss how the three strategies of SD (i.e., economic choice, political choice, social choice) could be applied to manage the intended and unintended tensions and trade-offs inherent in energy transitions. We conclude that the three SD strategies are not always equally valued by energy practitioners, but they have the potential to be useful in different energy transitions scenarios.

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  • 3. Cholewa, Tomasz
    et al.
    Siggelsten, Simon
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Materials Science and Applied Mathematics (MTM).
    Balen, Igor
    Ficco, Giorgio
    Heat cost allocation in buildings: Possibilities, problems and solutions2020In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 31, p. 1-12, article id 101349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual heat cost allocation is one of the recent topics which is well-known not only for the possibility of increasing the energy efficiency but also for the related problems. However, there is no comprehensive work where the main problems are shown and adequate solutions are proposed. This article presents the main aspects which are important in the area of heat cost allocation. Firstly, the policy issues were underlined and the recommendations for the introduction of general rules for heating costs allocation at the level of a given country were provided. Secondly, the main possibilities, problems and solutions connected to the devices and methods for heat cost allocation were introduced. Then, the energy savings obtained using heat cost allocation were shown on the example of long term field research (8 heating seasons) carried out for six residential buildings, where heat cost allocators were uninstalled. Lastly, comprehensive recommendations were provided, the introduction of which will allow to minimizing the problems connected with heat cost allocation and maximizing the energy savings while maintaining the thermal comfort in the heated rooms.

  • 4.
    El Gohary, Fouad
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Civil & Ind Engn, Box 169, S-75104 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nystrom, Sofie
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn SEED, Tekn Ringen 10 B, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reitsma, Lizette
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Civil & Ind Engn, Box 169, S-75104 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Identifying Challenges in Engaging Users to Increase Self-Consumption of Electricity in Microgrids2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A microgrid's self-consumption rate reflects its ability to retain its own energy and decrease its reliance on the synchronous grid. This paper investigates the empirical case of a microgrid equipped with photovoltaic (PV) panels and identifies challenges in engaging the microgrid's users to increase their self-consumption. Accordingly, we explored both the physical and social dimensions of the microgrid. The former involved mapping the electricity consumption and production through an exploratory data analysis, and evaluating the associated price signals, while the latter involved the use of design interventions to explore users' perceptions of the system. We highlight the problem of price signal impedance, the need for cost reflective pricing and the challenge in designing and extending internal price models in settings with various actors. We address the limitations of price signals, alongside alternative unidimensional signals, and emphasize the need for an integrated approach to a user engagement strategy as well as the challenges that this approach entails. Our results shed light on the complexity of energy communities such as microgrids, and why their implementation can introduce multidimensional challenges that demand cross-disciplinary approaches.

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  • 5.
    Ferm, Victor
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Henrik, Hillvik
    Klimatoptimering av ett småhus med massiv trästomme2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate crisis is becoming more prominent in everyday life and the construction industry plays a significant role. The study aims to optimize the climate of a fictional house with exterior walls made of wood. By investigating the climate impact of a building with a solid wooden frame depending on the heating system. The study will focus on two different frame systems, one of which is made of cross-glued wood and one of IsoTimber. The questions are what climate impact a solid wood building does have. What dimension of cross-glued wood is required to meet BBR's requirements? Which combination of frame system and heating system is the most optimal for Malmö and Stockholm? How many years does it take for the heating to have a greater climate impact than the manufacture of the building? How much climate impact will the most optimized building have after 50 years? In the VIP-Energy program, energy calculations have been performed. Quantity and energy calculations have then been translated into carbon dioxide equivalents in the BM program to calculate the climate impact for the buildings with associated heating systems. 

    The results show that cross-glued wood has a lower general climate impact than the frame of IsoTimber. The dimension for meeting BBR's energy requirements with a cross-glued wood frame is 330 mm. The most optimized combination of frame system and heating from a climate point of view is IsoTimber 300 mm with district heating for Malmö and Stockholm. The results show that energy consumption from heating will have a greater climate impact than production for the most optimized alternative only after 22 years for Malmö and 44 years for Stockholm. The building with the least climate impact after 50 years is IsoTimber 300 mm with district heating where the climate impact is 57,7 ton CO2e in Malmö and 43,7 ton CO2e in Stockholm. The study shows that reliable conversion factors are required to translate components and heating systems into carbon dioxide equivalents. The current conversion factor for heating when district heating is used differs between the climate zones, which means that the result is widely distributed. The best optimized alternative, 300 mm IsoTimber with district heating is a good alternative with a low climate impact that still maintains a high level of comfort for the user.

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  • 6.
    Jeansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Öggesjö, Marcus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS).
    Nulägesrapport i Sverige av grön vätgas som energilagring i byggnader2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's goal for 2040 is to only produce electricity by renewable energy. A part of the solution is to store green hydrogen, green means that the hydrogen is produced from a renewable energy source. The energy storage could be used to balance the electrical grid if there is a power shortage and it could provide the opportunity for a building to become energy self-sufficient. This study aims to map the use of green hydrogen as energy storage in Swedish buildings for heating and electricity use. It also addresses opportunities and challenges for green hydrogen as energy storage regarding some technical, economic, and legal aspects. To answer these questions, a literature study was conducted in combination with interviews. Research has shown the possibility of being energy self-sufficient, by using a combination of a hydrogen and battery storage for long- respectively short-term storage. The system consists of an electrolyzer that splits water to produce hydrogen. Thereafter, the hydrogen is stored until there is a need for energy, through a fuel cell electricity is generated with heat and water as waste products. The study reveals there is currently two Swedish buildings that uses green hydrogen as energy storage. Another two buildings are under production and are expected to be ready for operation during 2021. Two more projects are planned. This study shows that it is technically feasible to store hydrogen although the technology is young and faces challenges. The investment cost is considered high, but the results shows that profitability is possible, which differs from previous research. Additionally, there is a lack of Swedish standards that describes the handling of hydrogen which causes problems for both suppliers and customers. A conclusion is that the usage of green hydrogen as energy storage will probably increase for Swedish buildings in the future.

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  • 7.
    Klinghammer, Sofia
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Carlsson, Anna
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS).
    Individuell mätning och debitering av värme och tappvarmvatten i flerbostadshus: Fastighetsföretags inställning och strategi2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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1 - 7 of 7
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