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  • 1.
    Alpkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS).
    Klapper, Isaac
    Description of mechanical response including detachment using a novel particle model of biofilm/flow interaction2007In: Water Science and Technology, Vol. 55, no 8-9, p. 265-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Engberg, Agnes
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Förbättrad art- och underartbestämning av Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus-komplexet med MALDI-TOF MS2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) includes seven species and subspecies of commensal and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria found in humans, domesticated livestock, and wild animals. The wide range of phenotypic expression within the complex has resulted in repeated name changes and reclassifications in the past hundred years. Infection with SBSEC is rare but associated with severe conditions such as bacteremia and endocarditis. There is an established association between infection with certain subspecies and colon cancer. Bruker MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper is used for bacterial species identification of clinical patient samples in Region Skåne. Identification of members of SBSEC is currently not available with high resolution to subspecies level, and with insufficient accuracy. There is a need for proper identification of SBSEC subspecies as it has clinical implications to the affected patients. New reference libraries that can replace or complement existing libraries from Bruker are evidently needed. A group of reference isolates, with previously determined species and subspecies through whole genome sequencing, were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and constituted a new library. Brukers library and the newly created library were evaluated and compared by a group of identified test isolates cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (n = 51).The results showed a significant improvement (p < 0.0001) in accurate species and subspecies identification with MALDI-TOF MS from 67% with Brukers library to 100% with the new library.

  • 3.
    Frühwald, Eva
    et al.
    Division of Structural Engineering , Lund University, Faculty of Engineering , Lund, Sweden.
    Li, Yujing
    Division of Building Materials , Lund University, Faculty of Engineering , Lund, Sweden.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Division of Building Materials , Lund University, Faculty of Engineering , Lund, Sweden.
    Image analysis study of mould susceptibility of spruce and larch wood dried or heat-treated at different temperatures2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, mould growth on wood was investigated by image analysis. The studied parameters were drying and heat-treatment temperatures (20–210°C), original and resawn surface and different wood species (spruce and larch). Small specimens—some of which were inoculated with a spore suspension—were stored under humid conditions and photographed once a week. Mould growth was assessed by image analysis. In general, results found in earlier studies regarding the influence of several parameters could be confirmed. Image analysis was found to be a useful method to quantify mould growth in an objective and reproducible way. 

  • 4. Johansson, Sanne
    et al.
    Li, Yujing
    Lund University.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University.
    Biological organisms on building facades2005In: 7 th Nordic Building Physics Symposium in Reykjavik, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Jönsson, Daniel
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Antimicrobial Peptides: Roles in Periodontal Health and Disease2017In: Pathogenesis of Periodontal Diseases: Biological Concepts for Clinicians / [ed] Nagihan Bostanci; Georgios N. Belibasakis, Springer, 2017, p. 97-110Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do cockroaches and rats survive in sewers and other extremely challenging conditions? The answer is that through evolution they have been equipped with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect them from microbiological insult. In the case of cockroaches and rats, the AMPs are very potent, allowing for these challenging environments [1–3]. AMPs are the most ancient and primitive arm of the human immune system and are expressed in mammals, insects, fungus, trees—virtually every multicellular organism that coexist with bacteria, including bacteria. AMPs cover the outer barriers of our body, such as epithelium and skin, enabling us to live in coexistence with what some consider a complex organ—the microbiome [4]. As we now, through the technological advancements in microbiology, start to comprehend the complexity of the microbiome, we can also appreciate the complexity of the AMP-profile. 

  • 6.
    Kossowska, Nicole
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Utvärdering av enterokockdiagnostik: Identifiering av vancomycin - variabla enterokocker2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Gram-positive bacteria Enterococci, belong to the normal intestinal flora in humans and in animals. In the following study, vancomycin-variable enterococci (VVE) are investigated. VVE is a vanA-positive bacteria, meaning that they are sensitive to vancomycin and can develop a resistance in vivo. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) consists of two different species of bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Furthermore, VVE consists of E. faecium and can be difficult to detect with a culture-based diagnostic andcan therefore lead to the bacterium being underdiagnosed. This in turn means that the bacteria can be quietly spread within the hospital. VVE has a unique ability, it can transition from vancomycin-variables to having vancomycin-resistant phenotypes. Therefore, this study investigates at what vancomycin concentration the VVE broths can be enriched in the broths before the qPCR. The results show that the vancomycin concentration is optimal at 2 mg/L. However, for the background flora this might be a too high concentration. 

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  • 7.
    Li, Yujing
    Lund University.
    Activities of Indoor Mould as a Function of Temperature and Relative Humidities2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Li, Yujing
    Lund University.
    System Modelling of Mould on Wood2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Li, Yujing
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University.
    Fungal activities of indoor moulds on wood as a function of relative humidity during desorption and adsorption processes2013In: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 528-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activities of moulds from domestic dwellings are normally classified into three groupsprimary, secondary, and tertiary colonizersaccording to the minimum relative humidity they require to colonize a substrate. With the help of isothermal calorimetry it is possible to directly measure the thermal activity from moulds as a function of climatic parameters. This makes it possible to provide more precise and detailed information of the growth behavior of these types of moulds under different temperature and relative humidity level than traditional methods. From this study, it is found that the optimal relative humidities and the recovery from drying are different for these three different colonizers. The fungal activities during desorption process are higher than during adsorption processes under the same relative humidity level for all of the samples. Such information makes it possible to model mould behavior indoors and can be used to access the risk for mould growth in the buildings.

  • 10.
    Li, Yujing
    et al.
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Simultaneous measurements of colony size and heat production rate of a mould (Penicillium brevicompactum) growing on agar2011In: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Li, Yujing
    et al.
    Division of Building Materials,Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Division of Building Materials,Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lennart
    Medical Microbiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Impact of temperature on growth and metabolic efficiency of Penicillium roqueforti: correlations between produced heat, ergosterol content and biomass2009In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, Vol. 106, no 5, p. 1494-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of temperature on the growth of the mould Penicillium roqueforti growing on malt extract agar was studied by correlating the produced heat (measured by isothermal calorimetry), ergosterol content (quantified by GC-MS/MS) and biomass of the mould at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. The results were analysed with a simple metabolic model from which the metabolic efficiency was calculated. The results show that the impact of temperature on growth rate and metabolic efficiency are different: although the mould fungus had the highest growth rate (in terms of thermal power, which was continuously measured) at 25 degrees C, the substrate carbon conversion efficiency (biomass production divided by substrate consumption, both counted as moles carbon) was the highest at 20 degrees C. The temperature of the most rapid growth did not therefore equal the temperature of the most efficient growth.Similar articles

  • 12.
    Li, Yujing
    et al.
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lennart
    Microbial growth in stored dust samples as a function of the relative humidity2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Li, Yujing
    et al.
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lennart
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Bjurman, Jonny
    Department of Conservation, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Correlating two methods of quantifying fungal activity: Heat production by isothermal calorimetry and ergosterol amount by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry2007In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, Vol. 458, no 1-2, p. 77-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methods of quantifying fungal activity have been compared and correlated: isothermal calorimetry for measuring heat production and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) for measuring ergosterol, a proxy for biomass. The measurements were made on four different fungi: Penicillium roqueforti, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Neopetromyces muricatus and the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. The results showed linear correlations between ergosterol production and total heat production for these four fungal species during the initial fast growing stage. At the later stages heat was produced but ergosterol amount was constant. The heat produced per ergosterol amount varied from species to species and between different temperatures. This might be due to the different metabolic efficiencies of different species or the same species at different temperatures. Isothermal calorimetry can be used in fungal studies on its own or in combination with other techniques for a more complete understanding of fungal physiology.

  • 14.
    Mohsin, Dima
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS).
    Regulation of Lactate Dehydrogenase pathway in Limosilactobacillus Reuteri Dsm 179382021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Limosilactobacillus reuteri is a Gram-positive, heterofermentative and facultative anaerobic bacterium. It belongs to the Lactobacillus genus and is a part of the flora in the gastrointestinal tract. Limosilactobacillus reuteri belongs to lactic acid bacteria that has 2 metabolic routs in the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and Phosphoketolase pathway. The bacteria have an initial high Embden-Meyerhof activity but expresses a highly active Phosphoketolase throughout a fermentation process. The aim of this project was to study the effect of various organic compounds which are part of the two pathways on the flux of lactate dehydrogenase. The enzyme has an important role in the production of lactate. The investigation was initiated by bacterial fermentation in MRS broth. The bacteria were harvested at the late exponential phase, lysed and mixed with organic compounds in Triethanolamine buffer. The enzyme reaction was analysed spectrophotometrically. Michaelis-Menten principles were applied for obtaining the disassociation constant. The results show significant inhibition by adenosine diphosphate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and xylulose-5-phosphate concluding that regulation of lactate dehydrogenase activity follows a different mechanism when compared to Lactococcus lactis. This primary study requires further optimisation where studies with varying concentrations of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide should be done to observe the enzyme regulation underynamic conditions. It would also benefit to find the potential activators of this enzyme.

  • 15.
    Nafaa, Fatima
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society (NMS).
    Klinisk mikrobiologi i digitala och tryckta läromedel för årskurs 7-92023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en läromedelsanalys som är kliniskt mikrobiologiskt inriktad. Syftet var att undersöka hur klinisk mikrobiologi beskrivs i läromedel efter läroplanen för grundskolan (Lgr 22), i jämförelse med läromedel som är skrivna före ( Lgr 11). Samtidigt undersöktes om alla läromedel täcker det som (Lgr 22) kräver mikrobiologiskt. Läromedlen har även jämförts innehållsmässigt med hjälp av en kvantitativ samt kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Den kvantitativa analysen redovisas i två tabeller ( Tabell 1 och Tabell 2). I tabellerna redovisas i vilka kapitel klinisk mikrobiologi framträder samt begrepp/ fenomen som förekommer i de olika läromedlen. Den kvalitativa analysen är en innehållsanalys där fenomen/begrepp/ biologiska processer i de olika läromedlen analyseras på en djupgående nivå. Studien omfattade en analys av fyra läromedel, två digitala samt två trycka. Ett av läromedlen är utformad 2015 (Gleerups i trycktform), medan de andra tre är skrivna 2022 (Gleerups, Liber och NE). Resultatet som åstadkoms visar att alla läromedel täckte kraven för mikrobiologi i LGR 22. Studien visar att synen på klinisk mikrobiologi inte har ändrats efter pandemin, vilket kunde observeras vid jämförelse av böckerna som skrevs 2022, med boken från 2015.Däremot finns en signifikant skillnad mellan Gleerups (2015) samt Gleerups (2022) läromedlet.

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  • 16.
    Psotta, Carolin
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Nilsson, Emelie J.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Sjöberg, Thomas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, and Biofilms Research Center, Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö, Sweden.
    Falk, Magnus
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, and Biofilms Research Center, Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö, Sweden.
    Bacteria-Infected Artificial Urine Characterization Based on a Combined Approach Using an Electronic Tongue Complemented with 1H-NMR and Flow Cytometry2023In: Biosensors, E-ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 916-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing form of bacterial infection is within the urinary tract, encompassing a wide array of bacteria that harness the urinary metabolome for their growth. Through their metabolic actions, the chemical composition of the growth medium undergoes modifications as the bacteria metabolize urine compounds, leading to the subsequent release of metabolites. These changes can indirectly indicate the existence and proliferation of bacterial organisms. Here, we investigate the use of an electronic tongue, a powerful analytical instrument based on a combination of non-selective chemical sensors with a partial specificity for data gathering combined with principal component analysis, to distinguish between infected and non-infected artificial urine samples. Three prevalent bacteria found in urinary tract infections were investigated, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. Furthermore, the electronic tongue analysis was supplemented with 1H NMR spectroscopy and flow cytometry. Bacteria-specific changes in compound consumption allowed for a qualitative differentiation between artificial urine medium and bacterial growth.

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  • 17.
    Robertsson, Carolina
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
    Responses to External Cues in Oral Bacteria2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates responses to external cues in oral bacteria on a molecular level. Paper I maps Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylated proteins in relation to the general proteome in an oral commensal streptococcus (Streptococcus gordonii DL1). The identified phosphoproteins were involved in various bacterial processes, several associated to dysbiosis and development of biofilm-induced disease. Comparison against phosphoproteomes of other bacteria showed many similarities. This is of interest for the identification of shared phosphorylation profiles. 

    Paper II studies differences between the S. gordonii DL1 general proteomes in planktonic and biofilm growth phases, and the regulatory effects of salivary mucin MUC5B on protein expression in the biofilm cells. Regulations in protein expression between the different growth conditions provides insights in bacterial mechanisms for adaptation to the biofilm lifestyle. 

    Paper III examines the regulatory roles of salivary MUC5B on biofilm attachment and metabolic output in two clinical isolates of oral commensals, S. gordonii CW and Actinomyces naeslundii CW. S. gordonii facilitated adhesion of A. naeslundii to MUC5B during early attachment. Both bacteria were also able to utilize MUC5B as a sole nutrient source during early biofilm formation, individually and synergistically in a dual species biofilm. The specific responses elicited by MUC5B in paper II-III seem to promote commensal colonization while down-regulating dysbiosis-related biofilm activities. 

    Microbiological studies are often focused on dysbiosis and development of disease. However, mechanisms that promote eubiosis are equally important to understand how health can be maintained. Findings associated with responses to external cues in oral bacteria may contribute to future development of novel preventative strategies and identification of predictive biomarkers for oral health. 

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  • 18.
    Shafaat, Atefeh
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Francisco Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan
    Polytechnic University of Cartagena: Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Department of Applied Physics, SPAIN.
    O Silva, Wanderson
    HES-SO Valais Wallis, Institute of system engineering, SWITZERLAND.
    Lesch, Andreas
    University of Bologna Department of Industrial Chemistry Toso Montanari: Universita degli Studi di Bologna Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale Toso Montanari, Department of Industrial Chemistry, ITALY.
    Nagar, Bhawna
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, laboratory of physical and analytical electrochemistry, SWITZERLAND.
    Lopes da Silva, Zita
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Neilands, Jessica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sotres, Javier
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Björklund, Sebastian
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Girault, Hubert
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, laboratory of physical and analytical electrochemistry, SWITZERLAND.
    Ruzgas, Tautgirdas
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    A Rapidly Responsive Sensor for Wireless Detection of Early and Mature Microbial Biofilms.2023In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 62, no 40, article id e202308181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilm-associated infections, which are able to resist antibiotics, pose a significant challenge in clinical treatments. Such infections have been linked to various medical conditions, including chronic wounds and implant-associated infections, making them a major public-health concern. Early-detection of biofilm formation offers significant advantages in mitigating adverse effects caused by biofilms. In this work, we aim to explore the feasibility of employing a novel wireless sensor for tracking both early-stage and matured-biofilms formed by the medically relevant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensor utilizes electrochemical reduction of an AgCl layer bridging two silver legs made by inkjet-printing, forming a part of near-field-communication tag antenna. The antenna is interfaced with a carbon cloth designed to promote the growth of microorganisms, thereby serving as an electron source for reduction of the resistive AgCl into a highly-conductive Ag bridge. The AgCl-Ag transformation significantly alters the impedance of the antenna, facilitating wireless identification of an endpoint caused by microbial growth. To the best of our knowledge, this study for the first time presents the evidence showcasing that electrons released through the actions of bacteria can be harnessed to convert AgCl to Ag, thus enabling the wireless, battery-less, and chip-less early-detection of biofilm formation.

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  • 19.
    Thirabowonkitphithan, Pannawich
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Graduate Program in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.
    Žalnėravičius, Rokas
    Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Department of Electrochemical Material Science, Sauletekio av. 3, LT-10257, Vilnius, Lithuania; Institute of Biochemistry, Life Sciences Centre, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 7, LT-10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Shafaat, Atefeh
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Jakubauskas, Dainius
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Neilands, Jessica
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida
    Centre of Excellence for Biosensors and Bioengineering (CEBB), Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.
    Ruzgas, Tautgirdas
    Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces. Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV).
    Electrogenicity of microbial biofilms of medically relevant microorganisms: potentiometric, amperometric and wireless detection.2024In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 246, article id 115892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the progression of biofilm formation is related to the success of infection treatment, detecting microbial biofilms is of great interest. Biofilms of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus gordonii bacteria, Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria, and Candida albicans yeast were examined using potentiometric, amperometric, and wireless readout modes in this study. As a biofilm formed, the open circuit potential (OCP) of biofilm hosting electrode (bioanode) became increasingly negative. Depending on the microorganism, the OCP ranged from −70 to −250 mV. The co-culture generated the most negative OCP (−300 mV vs Ag/AgCl), while the single-species biofilm formed by E. coli developed the least negative (−70 mV). The OCP of a fungal biofilm formed by C. albicans was −100 mV. The difference in electrode currents generated by biofilms was more pronounced. The current density of the S. aureus biofilm was 0.9‧10−7 A cm−2, while the value of the P. aeruginosa biofilm was 1.3‧10−6 A cm−2. Importantly, a biofilm formed by a co-culture of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa had a slightly higher negative OCP value and current density than the most electrogenic P. aeruginosa single-species biofilm. We present evidence that bacteria can share redox mediators found in multi-species biofilms. This synergy, enabling higher current and OCP values of multi-species biofilm hosting electrodes, could be beneficial for electrochemical detection of infectious biofilms in clinics. We demonstrate that the electrogenic biofilm can provide basis to construct novel wireless, chip-free, and battery-free biofilm detection method.

  • 20.
    Wadsö, Lars
    et al.
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Li, Yujing
    Division of Building Materials, Lund University, Sweden.
    Bjurman, Jonny
    Applied Environmental Science and Conservation, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Measurements on two mould fungi with a calorespirometric method2004In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, Vol. 422, no 1-2, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from dynamic calorespirometric measurements on the two mould fungi Penicillium roqueforti and P. camemberti growing on agar. The measurements were made with two isothermal heat conduction calorimeters connected by a tube. In one of the calorimeters, the sample was placed and the other contained a carbon dioxide absorbent. Pressure sensors were connected to both the ampoules. The equipment also contained a valve on the tube that was opened and closed at regular intervals. Measurements were started at normal atmospheric pressure and gas composition, and continued after oxygen was consumed. The response of the fungi to the changing gas composition was followed and gas exchange ratios and metabolic enthalpies were calculated by approximate methods.

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