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Toward intelligent goods: characteristics, architectures and applications
Malmö högskola, School of Technology (TS). Malmö högskola, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6019-1182
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the context of globalization, the requirements on transport logistics continuously rise. Often goods travel through many different countries, using several transport modes and involving a number of different actors. Implementing some level of intelligence on the goods, which provide them with the capabilities to assist in the logistical activities, is one of the instruments that can be used to improve control and efficiency in transports and goods-handling. The concept of intelligent goods both opens up for new types of services and may be used to improve currently available services. The research is mainly focused on the characteristics, possible architectures, and applications of intelligent goods systems. In this context, an intelligent goods system refers to a number of interacting components, e.g. on-board units, servers, and RFID tags, which together provide intelligent goods services. Intelligent goods refer to goods with a higher degree of intelligence than just providing the ID of the goods, and generally the concept involve information processing and/or storage on or close to the goods, acting on behalf of the goods throughout the whole transport. The purpose of the studies is to investigate how intelligent goods can be used to improve goods transports in terms of more efficient goods-handling as well as better control of the goods and the transportation process, but also in terms of more efficient information sharing, e.g. between different actors. This may in turn provide reduced costs, environmental impact and usage of infrastructure. The research is concentrated on the communication and processing of information before, during and after transport. Most of the research results are applicable to ii goods transport by any mode, whereas some of the research has an emphasis on road transport. A framework is presented which can be used to describe intelligent goods systems, including the capabilities of the goods, necessary information entities related to the goods, as well as a number of primitive services that can be used as building blocks when creating more advanced intelligent goods services. Furthermore, a new approach to service description is proposed, which can be used to, amongst others, define an intelligent goods service and to perform architecture analyses. By identifying architectures corresponding to different service solutions, intelligent goods can be compared with other types of solutions, for instance more centralized approaches. In particular, different situations and services put different requirements on a system and the benefits of using intelligent goods vary. In order to investigate how intelligent goods may be applied in practice, two services have been examined in more detail: a dynamic shelf- life prediction service, and a consignment-level emission allocation service. These studies involve field tests, interviews and simulations. Finally, an investigation of how intelligent goods systems can be modelled as multi-agent systems is also included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö Högskola, Teknik och samhälle , 2014.
Series
Studies in Computer Science ; 1
Keywords [en]
Intelligent goods, Transportation, Decentralized freight intelligence
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-7779Local ID: 17810ISBN: 9789171046079 (print)ISBN: 9789171046086 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-7779DiVA, id: diva2:1404720
Public defence
2014-11-21, Hörsalen, Ubåtshallen, Östra Varvsgatan 11A, Malmö, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Note

Note: The papers are not included in the fulltext online.

Paper IV and V in dissertation as manuscripts.

Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-03-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Analysis of transport services based on intelligent goods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of transport services based on intelligent goods
2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-36842 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network (NOFOMA)
Available from: 2020-11-16 Created: 2020-11-16 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved
2. A Framework for Agent-Based Modeling of Intelligent Goods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Agent-Based Modeling of Intelligent Goods
2011 (English)In: Agents in Principle, Agents in Practice 14th International Conference, PRIMA 2011, Wollongong, Australia, November 16-18, 2011. Proceedings, SpringerLink , 2011, p. 97-112Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for intelligent goods and illustrate how it can be applied when modeling intelligent goods as agents. It includes a specification of different levels of capability connected to the goods, which is based on a number of capability dimensions. Additionally, three specific intelligent goods services related to transport are presented. We show how these services can be modeled as agents and how they relate to the intelligent goods framework. A discussion of different physical locations of service information and processing is also included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SpringerLink, 2011
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 7047
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16835 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-25044-6_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-81855220918 (Scopus ID)12798 (Local ID)12798 (Archive number)12798 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference (PRIMA), Wollongong, Australia (2011)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
3. A metamodel for intelligent transport system services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A metamodel for intelligent transport system services
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-36843 (URN)
Available from: 2020-11-16 Created: 2020-11-16 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved
4. Consignment-level allocations of carbon emissions in road freight transport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consignment-level allocations of carbon emissions in road freight transport
2016 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 48, p. 298-315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents and evaluates a new method for how emissions from freight transport routes with single or several points of loading and unloading, can be allocated to individual consignments. The method, called Dedicated Distance Proportional Allocation (DDPA), has been developed based on a literature review, discussions with logistics providers, and analysis. DDPA is designed to have low data processing requirements and be easy to explain to actors involved. Furthermore, it supports several levels of information availability, and accounts for any set of vehicle-limiting factors, as well as prepositioning/repositioning. DDPA has been evaluated in simulations with different levels of information availability, together with three existent allocation methods: the Equal profit method (EPM), the CEN EN16258:2011 standard and the Greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol. The simulations show that the GHG protocol under-allocates the total amount of emissions, on average. EPM and DDPA achieve equal relative savings, whereas for CEN EN16258:2011 and the GHG protocol, relative savings vary, on average. When DDPA is used with low level of information availability, an error is introduced which can be reduced by applying compensation factors. Since DDPA accepts low information availability, the Intelligent Products concept can be applied for computing and storing emissions allocations, at the time of unloading. The results from this study can be used for further development and implementation of consignment allocation methods. Furthermore, by combining DDPA with other environmental load approaches for other parts of a product’s life cycle, a complete life cycle assessment of the product’s environmental impact can be obtained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Emission allocation, Transport, Intelligent Products, Simulation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-2636 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2016.08.001 (DOI)000384853700022 ()2-s2.0-84983750323 (Scopus ID)21626 (Local ID)21626 (Archive number)21626 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
5. Toward Dynamic Expiration Dates: An Architectural Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Dynamic Expiration Dates: An Architectural Study
2016 (English)In: Dynamics in Logistics: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference LDIC, 2014 Bremen, Germany;Part V, Springer, 2016, p. 587-597Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The durability of perishable food varies due to different storage and handling conditions during the supply chain as well as final consumer activities. If the durability of the individual products can be estimated, dynamic expiry dates may be developed and used to prevent food waste, ensure quality, and improve supply chain activities etc. Depending on the system architecture used for such a service, different qualities can be obtained in terms of usability, accuracy, security etc. This paper presents a novel approach for how to identify and select the most suitable system architectures of a dynamic expiry date service. The approach is illustrated by focusing on one of the potential user groups, the supply chain managers. The approach consists of three steps: (i) identify the potential architectures, (ii) filter out the least relevant candidates by applying a specified set of principles, and (iii) perform an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based on a set of quality attributes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Series
Lecture Notes in Logistics, ISSN 2194-8917
Keywords
Dynamic expiry date, Perishables, Architecture, AHP, Supply chain management
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-12704 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-23512-7_57 (DOI)000417243900057 ()2-s2.0-85101982586 (Scopus ID)20185 (Local ID)20185 (Archive number)20185 (OAI)
Conference
LogDynamics International Conference (LDIC), Bremen, Germany (2014)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
6. A Field Test Study on a Dynamic Shelf Life Service for Perishables
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Field Test Study on a Dynamic Shelf Life Service for Perishables
2014 (English)In: 26th Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network: NOFOMA 2014, Proceedings, 2014, p. 78-92Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate the possibilities, risks and requirements of a dynamic shelf life service – a technological innovation focusing on minimizing food waste in supply chains (SC). Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured, open-ended interviews with SC actors have been used to identify the requirements, possibilities and risks with a dynamic shelf life service. Field tests have been conducted to investigate practical implications and effects of small temperature variations on shelf life. The field tests involved sensors based on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Findings: The results show that a DSLP service holds great potentials. The field tests revealed that shelf life predictions are sensitive to small temperature differences along the cold chain. Results from the interviews confirm the importance of accuracy. The interviews also emphasize the importance of sharing costs among the involved actors. Research limitations/implications: Key aspects from 11 SC actors concerning dynamic shelf life prediction in cold chains are provided. The field tests involve a SC from production to household. Practical implications: Implementation of a dynamic shelf life service can increase visibility and information flow within SCs. The system can also be integrated with companies’ business systems creating new business opportunities and reducing manual work by automatically alerting quality fluctuations of food products. Original/value: Quantitative and qualitative data from 11 SC actors are provided. This information, together with the experiences reported from the field tests, have the potential to help replacing dysfunctional date labelling systems and reduce food waste.

Keywords
dynamic shelf life, best before date, food supply chain, cold chain, temperature monitoring
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-12436 (URN)18320 (Local ID)18320 (Archive number)18320 (OAI)
Conference
Nordic Logistics Research Network (NOFOMA), Copenhagen, Denmark (2014)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved

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