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Bacteria-Infected Artificial Urine Characterization Based on a Combined Approach Using an Electronic Tongue Complemented with 1H-NMR and Flow Cytometry
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5654-4339
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9098-0097
Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Biomedical Science (BMV). Malmö University, Biofilms Research Center for Biointerfaces.
2023 (English)In: Biosensors, E-ISSN 2079-6374, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 916-916Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The prevailing form of bacterial infection is within the urinary tract, encompassing a wide array of bacteria that harness the urinary metabolome for their growth. Through their metabolic actions, the chemical composition of the growth medium undergoes modifications as the bacteria metabolize urine compounds, leading to the subsequent release of metabolites. These changes can indirectly indicate the existence and proliferation of bacterial organisms. Here, we investigate the use of an electronic tongue, a powerful analytical instrument based on a combination of non-selective chemical sensors with a partial specificity for data gathering combined with principal component analysis, to distinguish between infected and non-infected artificial urine samples. Three prevalent bacteria found in urinary tract infections were investigated, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. Furthermore, the electronic tongue analysis was supplemented with 1H NMR spectroscopy and flow cytometry. Bacteria-specific changes in compound consumption allowed for a qualitative differentiation between artificial urine medium and bacterial growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023. Vol. 13, no 10, p. 916-916
Keywords [en]
electronic tongue, bacterial detection, artificial urine, urinary tract infection, 1H-NMR, flow cytometry
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63142DOI: 10.3390/bios13100916ISI: 001096540000001PubMedID: 37887109Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85175044453OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-63142DiVA, id: diva2:1804689
Available from: 2023-10-13 Created: 2023-10-13 Last updated: 2024-04-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Electrochemical (bio-)sensors operating in human physiological fluids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical (bio-)sensors operating in human physiological fluids
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is focused on developing electrochemical (bio-)sensors specifically designed to detect biomolecules and bacteria in human physiological fluids. A more comprehensive understanding of their performance can be obtained by exposing the sensors to real human physiological fluids. Thus, four biosensors were designed and tested in saliva, plasma, blood, and urine. Specifically, a voltammetric electronic tongue, integrating six different electrode materials, was developed to qualitatively assess SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples using principal component analysis. A tubular enzyme-based sensor utilizing incorporated cellobiose dehydrogenase in an Os(bpy)PVI redox polymer was employed for continuous glucose sensing in human plasma and undiluted whole blood under homeostatic conditions. Two different sensing concepts were developed for the label-free detection of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in artificial urine and human urine based on metabolic activity due to bacterial growth. The first sensor enabled continuous bacterial detection by reducing Prussian Blue deposited on screen-printed electrodes with wireless data transfer. The second bacterial-sensitive sensor utilized electrochemical characterization to identify three bacteria types based on artificial urine metabolic changes. For a qualitative investigation of the metabolic changes, nuclear magnetic resonance was utilized, and flow cytometry was used to quantify and correlate bacterial growth with electrochemistry. Multivariate statistical data analysis was applied to distinguish bacteria-free and bacteria-infected artificial urine. Finally, an overview of the recent advances in the field of non-invasive electrochemical biosensors operating in secreted human physiological fluids, viz., tears, sweat, saliva, and urine, was given.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling är inriktad på utveckling av elektrokemiska (bio-)sensorer som är särskilt utformade för detektering av biomolekyler och bakterier i mänskliga fysiologiska vätskor. Genom att undersöka sensorerna i verkliga mänskliga fysiologiska vätskor, kan man få en mer omfattande förståelse för deras prestanda. Fyra olika biosensorer har utformats och testats i saliv, plasma, blod och urin. En voltammetrisk elektronisk tunga, som integrerar sex olika elektrodmaterial, utvecklades för kvalitativ bedömning av SARS-CoV-2 i salivprover med hjälp av principalkomponentanalys. En rörformad enzymbaserad sensor som använder inkorporerat Cellobiose Dehydrogenase i en Os(bpy)PVI redoxpolymer användes för kontinuerlig glukosmätning i humant plasma och outspätt helblod under homeostatiska förhållanden. Dessutom utvecklades två olika sensorkoncept för märkningsfri detektion av bakterier (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis och Klebsiella pneumoniae) i artificiell urin och humanurin baserat på metabolisk aktivitet till följd av bakterietillväxt. Den första sensorn möjliggjorde kontinuerlig bakteriedetektion genom reduktion av preussiskt blått elektroder med trådlös dataöverföring. Den andra bakteriekänsliga sensorn använde elektrokemisk karakterisering för att identifiera tre typer av bakterier baserat på metaboliska förändringar i artificiell urin. För en kvalitativ undersökning av de metaboliska förändringarna användes dessutom nukleär magnetisk resonans och flödescytometri för att kvantifiera och korrelera bakterietillväxt med elektrokemi. Multivariat statistisk dataanalys användes för att skilja mellan bakteriefri och bakterieinfekterad (artificiell) urin. Slutligen gavs en översikt över de senaste framstegen inom området för icke-invasiva elektrokemiska biosensorer som arbetar i utsöndrade mänskliga fysiologiska vätskor, dvs. tårar, svett, saliv och urin.

Abstract [de]

Diese Arbeit fokussiert sich auf die Entwicklung elektrochemischer (Bio-)Sensoren, die speziell für den Nachweis von Biomolekülen und Bakterien inmenschlichen physiologischen Flüssigkeiten konzipiert sind. Indem die Sensorenhumanen, physiologischen Flüssigkeiten ausgesetzt werden, kann einumfassenderes Verständnis ihrer Funktionalität gewonnen werden. Im Einzelnenwurden vier verschiedene Biosensoren entwickelt und in Speichel, Plasma, Blutund Urin getestet. Für die qualitative Bewertung von SARS-CoV-2 inSpeichelproben unter Verwendung der Hauptkomponentenanalyse wurde einevoltammetrische „elektronische Zunge“, die sechs verschiedeneElektrodenmaterialien integriert, entwickelt. Zur kontinuierlichenGlukosemessung in menschlichem Plasma und unverdünntem Vollblut unterhomöostatischen Bedingungen wurden tubuläre enzymbasierte Sensorenverwendet, die die eingebaute Cellobiose-Dehydrogenase in einem Os (bpy) -PVI-Redoxpolymer verwenden. Darüber hinaus wurden zwei verschiedeneSensorkonzepte für den Nachweis von Bakterien (Escherichia coli, Enterococcusfaecalis und Klebsiella pneumoniae) in synthetischem und menschlichem Urinentwickelt, basierend auf der Stoffwechselaktivität während bakteriellemWachstum. Der erste Sensor ermöglichte einen kontinuierlichen Nachweis vonBakterien durch die Reduktion von „Prussian Blue“-Elektroden mit drahtloserDatenübertragung. Der zweite Sensor nutzte eine voltammetrische „elektronischeZunge“ zur Identifizierung von drei Bakterientypen aufgrund von spezifischen,metabolischen Veränderungen in synthetischem Urin. Zur qualitativenUntersuchung dieser Veränderungen wurde die Kernspinresonanz eingesetzt. DieDurchflusszytometrie diente zur Quantifizierung und Korrelation desBakterienwachstums mit der Elektrochemie, wobei multivariate statistischeDatenanalysen zur Unterscheidung von bakterienfreiem und bakterieninfiziertem(synthetischen) Urin eingesetzt wurden. Abschließend wurde ein Überblick überdie aktuellen Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der nicht-invasiven elektrochemischenBiosensoren gegeben, die mit den physiologischen Flüssigkeiten des Menschen,d. h. in Tränen, Schweiß, Speichel und Urin, arbeiten. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö university Press, 2023. p. 74
Series
Malmö University Health and Society Dissertations, ISSN 1653-5383, E-ISSN 2004-9277 ; 2023:3
Keywords
biosensor, bacteria, enzyme, sensor, physiological fluid
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63045 (URN)10.24834/isbn.9789178773992 (DOI)978-91-7877-398-5 (ISBN)978-91-7877-399-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-09-22, Aulan, Jan Waldenströms gata 25, 14:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

Paper V in dissertation as Manuscript with title "Electrochemical characterization of bacteria-infected artificial urine using an electronic tongue approach"

Available from: 2023-10-10 Created: 2023-10-09 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved

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Psotta, CarolinNilsson, Emelie J.Sjöberg, ThomasFalk, Magnus

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