Malmö University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things
Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Internet of Things and People (IOTAP).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8025-4734
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast-spreading technology that enables new types of services in several domains such as transportation, health, and building automation. To exploit the potential of the IoT effectively, several challenges have to be tackled, including the following ones that we study in this thesis. First, the proposed IoT visions provide a fragmented picture, leading to a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. To piece together the fragmented picture of IoT systems, we systematically identified their characteristics by analyzing existing taxonomies. More specifically, we identified seventeen characteristics of IoT systems, and grouped them into two categories, namely, elements and quality aspects of IoT systems. Moreover, we conducted a survey to identify the factors that drive the deployment decisions of IoT systems in practice. A second set of challenges concerns the environment of IoT systems that is often dynamic and uncertain. For instance, due to the mobility of users and things, the set of things available in users' environment might change suddenly. Similarly, the status of IoT systems’ deployment topologies (i.e., the deployment nodes and their interconnections) might change abruptly. Moreover, environmental conditions monitored and controlled through IoT devices, such as ambient temperature and oxygen levels, might fluctuate suddenly. The majority of existing approaches to engineer IoT systems rely on predefined processes to achieve users’ goals. Consequently, such systems have significant shortcomings in coping with dynamic and uncertain environments. To address these challenges, we used the concept of Emergent Configurations (ECs) to engineer goal-driven IoT systems. An EC is an IoT system that consists of a dynamic set of things that cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. To realize ECs, we proposed an abstract architectural approach, comprising an architecture and processes, as well as six novel approaches that refine the abstract approach. The developed approaches support users to achieve their goals seamlessly in arbitrary environments by enabling the dynamic formation, deployment, enactment, and self-adaptation of IoT systems. The approaches exploit different techniques and focus on different aspects of ECs. Moreover, to better support users in dynamic and uncertain environments, we investigated the automated configuration of those environments based on users' preferences. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2020. , p. 254
Series
Studies in Computer Science ; 12
Keywords [en]
Internet of Things, Emergent Configurations, Goal-driven IoT Systems, Automated Configuration of IoT environments, Software Architectures, Self-adaptive Systems.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-18508DOI: 10.24834/isbn.9789178771226ISBN: 978-91-7877-121-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7877-122-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mau-18508DiVA, id: diva2:1473424
Public defence
2020-12-18, Digitalt, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Emergent Configurations for IoT Systems – ECOS+Available from: 2020-10-06 Created: 2020-10-06 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Characterizing Internet of Things Systems through Taxonomies: A Systematic Mapping Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing Internet of Things Systems through Taxonomies: A Systematic Mapping Study
2019 (English)In: Internet of Things: Engineering Cyber Physical Human Systems, E-ISSN 2542-6605, Vol. 7, article id 100084Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the last decade, a large number of different definitions and taxonomies of Internet of Things (IoT) systems have been proposed. This has resulted in a fragmented picture and a lack of consensus about IoT systems and their constituents. To provide a better understanding of this issue and a way forward, we have conducted a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) of existing IoT System taxonomies. In addition, we propose a characterization of IoT systems synthesized from the existing taxonomies, which provides a more holistic view of IoT systems than previous taxonomies. It includes seventeen characteristics, divided into two groups: elements and quality aspects. Finally, by analyzing the results of the SMS, we draw future research directions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Internet of Things (IoT), Characterization of IoT systems, Systematic Mapping Study (SMS), Taxonomies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-1245 (URN)10.1016/j.iot.2019.100084 (DOI)000695693700007 ()2-s2.0-85081397939 (Scopus ID)29642 (Local ID)29642 (Archive number)29642 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
2. A Commitment-Based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Commitment-Based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things
2017 (English)In: Software Architecture Workshops (ICSAW), 2017 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2017, p. 88-91Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) involves intelligent, heterogeneous, autonomous and often distributed things which interact and collaborate to achieve common goals. A useful concept for supporting this effort is Emergent Configuration (EC), which consists of a dynamic set of things, with their functionalities and services, that cooperate temporarily to achieve a goal. In this paper we introduce a commitment-based approach that exploits the concept of commitments to realize ECs. More specifically, (i) we present a conceptual model for commitment-based ECs, (ii) we use the smart meeting room scenario to illustrate how ECs are realized via commitments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-12353 (URN)10.1109/ICSAW.2017.55 (DOI)000413089000017 ()2-s2.0-85025677705 (Scopus ID)24097 (Local ID)24097 (Archive number)24097 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Software Architecture (Workshops), Gothenburg, Sweden (April 5-7, 2017)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
3. Enacting Emergent Configurations in the IoT Through Domain Objects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enacting Emergent Configurations in the IoT Through Domain Objects
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of ICSOC 2018: Service-Oriented Computing, Springer, 2018, p. 279-294Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) pervades more and more aspects of our lives and often involves many types of smart connected objects and devices. User’s IoT environment changes dynamically, e.g., due to the mobility of the user and devices. Users can fully benefit from the IoT only when they can effortlessly interact with it. To accomplish this in a dynamic and heterogenous environment, we make use of Emergent Configurations (ECs), which consist of a set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily through their functionalities, applications, and services, to achieve a user goal. In this paper, we: (i) present the IoT-FED architectural approach to enable the automated formation and enactment of ECs. IoT-FED exploits heterogeneous and independently developed things, IoT services, and applications which are modeled as Domain Objects (DOs), a service-based formalism. Additionally, we (ii) discuss the prototype we developed and the experiments run in our IoT lab, for validation purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11236
Keywords
Emergent Configurations, Internet of Things, Software Architectures
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16769 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-03596-9_19 (DOI)000714575300019 ()2-s2.0-85056828649 (Scopus ID)27342 (Local ID)27342 (Archive number)27342 (OAI)
Conference
The 16th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing, Zhejiang, China (November 12-15, 2018)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
4. ECo-IoT: An Architectural Approach for Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ECo-IoT: An Architectural Approach for Realizing Emergent Configurations in the Internet of Things
2018 (English)In: Software Architecture: Proceeding of 12th European Conference on Software Architecture, ECSA 2018, Springer, 2018, p. 86-102Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The rapid proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way we live our everyday life and the society in general. New devices get connected to the Internet every day and, similarly, new IoT services and applications exploiting them are developed across a wide range of domains. The IoT environment typically is very dynamic, devices might suddenly become unavailable and new ones might appear. Similarly, users enter and/or leave the IoT environment while being interested in fulfilling their individual needs. These key aspects must be considered while designing and realizing IoT systems. In this paper we propose ECo-IoT, an architectural approach to enable the automated formation and adaptation of Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is formed by a set of things, with their services, functionalities, and applications, to realize a user goal. ECs are adapted in response to (un)foreseen context changes e.g., changes in available things or due to changing or evolving user goals. In the paper, we describe: (i) an architecture and a process for realizing ECs; and (ii) a prototype we implemented for (iii) the validation of ECo-IoT through an IoT scenario that we use throughout the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11048
Keywords
Emergent Configurations, Internet of Things, Software Architectures, Self Adaptive Systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-12446 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-00761-4_6 (DOI)000476935800006 ()2-s2.0-85056856371 (Scopus ID)27352 (Local ID)27352 (Archive number)27352 (OAI)
Conference
The 12th European Conference on Software Architecture, Madrid, Spain (Septemper 24-28, 2018)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
5. On the Deployment of IoT Systems: An Industrial Survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Deployment of IoT Systems: An Industrial Survey
Show others...
2020 (English)In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT) systems are complex and multifaceted, and the design of their architectures needs to consider many aspects at a time. Design decisions concern, for instance, the modeling of software components and their interconnections, as well as where to deploy the components within the available hardware infrastructure in the Edge-Cloud continuum. A relevant and challenging task, in this context, is to identify optimal deployment models due to all the different aspects involved, such as extra-functional requirements of the system, heterogeneity of the hardware resources concerning their processing and storage capabilities, and constraints like legal issues and operational cost limits. To gain insights about the deployment decisions concerning IoT systems in practice, and the factors that influence those decisions, we report about an industrial survey we conducted with 66 IoT architects from 18 countries across the world. Each participant filled in a questionnaire that comprises 15 questions. By analyzing the collected data, we have two main findings: (i) architects rely on the Cloud more than the Edge for deploying the software components of IoT systems, in the majority of the IoT application domains; and (ii) the main factors driving deployment decisions are four: reliability, performance, security, and cost.

National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-36983 (URN)10.1109/ICSA-C50368.2020.00012 (DOI)000587897600006 ()2-s2.0-85085747272 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-7415-0 (ISBN)978-1-7281-7416-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), 16-20 March 2020, Salvador, Brazil
Available from: 2020-11-26 Created: 2020-11-26 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
6. A Goal driven Approach for Deploying Self-adaptive IoT Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Goal driven Approach for Deploying Self-adaptive IoT Systems
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Proceedings: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), Salvador, Brazil, 16-20 March 2020 / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, 2020, p. 146-156Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Engineering Internet of Things (IoT) systems is a challenging task partly due to the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including the involvement of the human in the loop. Users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in different environments, and IoT systems should be able to cope with dynamic changes. Several approaches have been proposed to enable the automated formation, enactment, and self-adaptation of goal-driven IoT systems. However, they do not address deployment issues. In this paper, we propose a goal-driven approach for deploying self-adaptive IoT systems in the Edge-Cloud continuum. Our approach supports the systems to cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of the environment including changes in their deployment topologies, i.e., the deployment nodes and their interconnections. We describe the architecture and processes of the approach and the simulations that we conducted to validate its feasibility. The results of the simulations show that the approach scales well when generating and adapting the deployment topologies of goal-driven IoT systems in smart homes and smart buildings.

National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-36984 (URN)10.1109/ICSA47634.2020.00022 (DOI)000584237000014 ()2-s2.0-85085928360 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-4659-1 (ISBN)978-1-7281-4660-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), Salvador, Brazil, 16-20 March 2020
Available from: 2020-11-26 Created: 2020-11-26 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
7. An Agent-based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurationsin the Internet of Things
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Agent-based Approach to Realize Emergent Configurationsin the Internet of Things
2020 (English)In: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 1347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled physical objects and devices, often referred to as things, to connect and communicate. This has opened up for the development of novel types of services that improve the quality of our daily lives. The dynamicity and uncertainty of IoT environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available things and services. Further, users should be able to achieve their goals seamlessly in arbitrary environments. To address these challenges, we exploit Artificial Intelligence (AI) to engineer smart IoT systems that can achieve user goals and cope with the dynamicity and uncertainty of their environments. More specifically, the main contribution of this paper is an approach that leverages the notion of Belief-Desire-Intention agents and Machine Learning (ML) techniques to realize Emergent Configurations (ECs) in the IoT. An EC is an IoT system composed of a dynamic set of things that connect and cooperate temporarily to achieve a user goal. The approach enables the distributed formation, enactment, adaptation of ECs, and conflict resolution among them. We present a conceptual model of the entities of the approach, its underlying processes, and the guidelines for using it. Moreover, we report about the simulations conducted to validate the feasibility of the approach and evaluate its scalability. View Full-Text

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
emergent configurations; artificial intelligence; self-adaptive IoT systems
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-36985 (URN)10.3390/electronics9091347 (DOI)000580061200001 ()2-s2.0-85089677698 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-26 Created: 2020-11-26 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
8. Activity Recognition and User Preference Learning for Automated Configuration of IoT Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activity Recognition and User Preference Learning for Automated Configuration of IoT Environments
2020 (English)In: IoT '20: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020, p. 1-8, article id 3Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT) environments encompass different types of devices and objects that offer a wide range of services. The dynamicity and uncertainty of those environments, including the mobility of users and devices, make it hard to foresee at design time available devices, objects, and services. For the users to benefit from such environments, they should be proposed services that are relevant to the specific context and can be provided by available things. Moreover, environments should be configured automatically based on users' preferences. To address these challenges, we propose an approach that leverages Artificial Intelligence techniques to recognize users' activities and provides relevant services to support users to perform their activities. Moreover, our approach learns users' preferences and configures their environments accordingly by dynamically forming, enacting, and adapting goal-driven IoT systems. In this paper, we present a conceptual model, a multi-tier architecture, and processes of our approach. Moreover, we report about how we validated the feasibility and evaluated the scalability of the approach through a prototype that we developed and used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, United States: ACM Digital Library, 2020
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-36986 (URN)10.1145/3410992.3411003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85123041965 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-8758-3 (ISBN)
Conference
IoT '20: 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, Malmö Sweden 6-9 October, 2020
Available from: 2020-11-26 Created: 2020-11-26 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(6654 kB)652 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 6654 kBChecksum SHA-512
5bbb43a89c453fc811d4f2bc29e62dce4981ae911afcf597ff24be2d7ea35ed89d1996c1d1c5b5ee3df4499774754820da28c55626383cbaf0ec74d6c1456174
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records

Alkhabbas, Fahed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Alkhabbas, Fahed
By organisation
Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT)Internet of Things and People (IOTAP)
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 653 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1988 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf