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Jevinger, Å., Zhao, C., Persson, J. A. & Davidsson, P. (2024). Artificial intelligence for improving public transport: a mapping study. Public Transport, 16(1), 99-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artificial intelligence for improving public transport: a mapping study
2024 (English)In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 99-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to provide a better understanding of the potential of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to improve Public Transport (PT), by reviewing research literature. The selection process resulted in 87 scientific publications constituting a sample of how AI has been applied to improve PT. The review shows that the primary aims of using AI are to improve the service quality or to better understand traveller behaviour. Train and bus are the dominant modes of transport investigated. Furthermore, AI is mainly used for three tasks; the most frequent one is prediction, followed by an estimation of the current state, and resource allocation, including planning and scheduling. Only two studies concern automation; all the others provide different kinds of decision support for travellers, PT operators, PT planners, or municipalities. Most of the reviewed AI solutions require significant amounts of data related to the travellers and the PT system. Machine learning is the most frequently used AI technology, with some studies applying reasoning or heuristic search techniques. We conclude that there still remains a great potential of using AI to improve PT waiting to be explored, but that there are also some challenges that need to be considered. They are often related to data, e.g., that large datasets of high quality are needed, that substantial resources and time are needed to pre-process the data, or that the data compromise personal privacy. Further research is needed about how to handle these issues efficiently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Artifcial intelligence · Machine learning · Public transit · Mass transit · Public transport · Literature review
National Category
Computer Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transportation studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64419 (URN)10.1007/s12469-023-00334-7 (DOI)001104065400001 ()2-s2.0-85177171423 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AI and public transport: potential and hindrances
Funder
Vinnova, VINNOVA
Note

Ytterligare finansiär: K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport

Available from: 2023-12-14 Created: 2023-12-14 Last updated: 2024-04-11Bibliographically approved
Jevinger, Å. & Svensson, H. (2024). Stated opinions and potential travel with DRT – a survey covering three different age groups. Transportation planning and technology (Print), 1-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stated opinions and potential travel with DRT – a survey covering three different age groups
2024 (English)In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous  research  shows  that  well-grounded  knowledge  of  the intended  travellers  is  essential  for  achieving  successful  DRT services.  However,  there  is  a  lack  of  understanding  of  the potential  travels  in  different  age  groups,  and  the  acceptance  of design  alternatives  that  may  affect  these.  Based  on  surveys conducted  in  Sweden,  this  paper  investigates  these  factors  in  a hypothetical DRT service, in the age groups 6–17, 18–69 and over 70  years.  A  total  of  1241  people  answered  the  questionnaires. The  results  show  that  the  age  groups  have  similar  acceptance regarding  delays  and  departure time  intervals.  Older adults  have lower  acceptance  of  digital  solutions,  and  children  and  older adults  have  stronger  requirements  for  value-added  services. About  85–90%  of  the  respondents  claim  they  would  use  the service,  at  least  occasionally.  The  results  also  show  how  a  DRT system should be configured to allow room for system efficiency gains, while still being accepted by most travellers.

Keywords
Public transport; demand-responsive transport; survey; system configuration; potential travellers
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Information Systems
Research subject
Transportation studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-66777 (URN)10.1080/03081060.2024.2337059 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-04-17 Created: 2024-04-17 Last updated: 2024-04-17
Jevinger, Å., Johansson, E., Persson, J. A. & Holmberg, J. (2023). Context-Aware Travel Support During Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances. In: Alexey Vinel, Jeroen Ploeg, Karsten Berns, Oleg Gisikhin (Ed.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems: . Paper presented at VEHITS 2023 - 9th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, April 26-28, 2023, Prague, Czech Republic (pp. 160-170). Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 1, Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context-Aware Travel Support During Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems / [ed] Alexey Vinel, Jeroen Ploeg, Karsten Berns, Oleg Gisikhin, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2023, Vol. 1, p. 160-170, article id 19Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the possibilities and challenges of realizing a context-aware travel planner with bidirectional information exchange between the actor and the traveller during unplanned traffic disturbances. A prototype app is implemented and tested to identify potential benefits. The app uses data from open APIs, and beacons to detect the traveller context (which train or train platform the traveller is currently on). Alternative travel paths are presented to the user, and each alternative is associated with a certainty factor reflecting the reliability of the travel time prognoses. The paper also presents an interview study that investigates PT actors’ views on the potential use for actors and travellers of new information about certainty factors and travellers’ contexts, during unplanned traffic disturbances. The results show that this type of travel planner can be realized and that it enables travellers to find ways to reach their destination, in situations where the public t ravel planner only suggests infeasible travel paths. The value for the traveller of the certainty factors are also illustrated. Additionally, the results show that providing actors with information about traveller context and certainty factors opens up for the possibility of more advanced support for both the PT actor and the traveller.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2023
Series
VEHITS, ISSN 2184-495X
Keywords
Public Transport, Travel Planner, Context Aware, Prognoses, kontextmedveten, reseplanerare, resestöd, kollektivtrafiken, störningar
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transportation studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-59392 (URN)10.5220/0011761000003479 (DOI)001090857700016 ()2-s2.0-85160775089 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-652-1 (ISBN)
Conference
VEHITS 2023 - 9th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, April 26-28, 2023, Prague, Czech Republic
Projects
Kontextmedvetet resestöd vid störningar i kollektivtrafiken
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2021/40633
Available from: 2023-05-03 Created: 2023-05-03 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Engström, J., Jevinger, Å., Olsson, C. M. & Persson, J. A. (2023). Some Design Considerations in Passive Indoor Positioning Systems. Sensors, 23(12), Article ID 5684.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Some Design Considerations in Passive Indoor Positioning Systems
2023 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 12, article id 5684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

User location is becoming an increasingly common and important feature for a wide range of services. Smartphone owners increasingly use location-based services, as service providers add context-enhanced functionality such as car-driving routes, COVID-19 tracking, crowdedness indicators, and suggestions for nearby points of interest. However, positioning a user indoors is still problematic due to the fading of the radio signal caused by multipath and shadowing, where both have complex dependencies on the indoor environment. Location fingerprinting is a common positioning method where Radio Signal Strength (RSS) measurements are compared to a reference database of previously stored RSS values. Due to the size of the reference databases, these are often stored in the cloud. However, server-side positioning computations make preserving the user's privacy problematic. Given the assumption that a user does not want to communicate his/her location, we pose the question of whether a passive system with client-side computations can substitute fingerprinting-based systems, which commonly use active communication with a server. We compared two passive indoor location systems based on multilateration and sensor fusion using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) with fingerprinting and show how these may provide accurate indoor positioning without compromising the user's privacy in a busy office environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
BLE, fingerprinting, indoor positioning, multilateration, RSSI, privacy
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-61951 (URN)10.3390/s23125684 (DOI)001017806900001 ()37420850 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85163999180 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-17 Created: 2023-08-17 Last updated: 2023-10-03Bibliographically approved
Jevinger, Å., Johansson, E., Persson, J. A. & Holmberg, J. (2022). Kontextmedvetet resestöd vid störningar i kollektivtrafiken (juli 2021-oktober 2022): Slutrapport forskningsprojekt TRV 2021/40633. Malmö universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kontextmedvetet resestöd vid störningar i kollektivtrafiken (juli 2021-oktober 2022): Slutrapport forskningsprojekt TRV 2021/40633
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö universitet, 2022. p. 33
Keywords
kontextmedveten, reseplanerare, resestöd, kollektivtrafiken, störningar
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-55703 (URN)
Projects
Kontextmedvetet resestöd vid störningar i kollektivtrafiken
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2021/40633
Available from: 2022-11-08 Created: 2022-11-08 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved
Jevinger, Å. (2021). En komparativ studie av traditionell salstentamen och online-tentamen med fokus på medium och innehåll. Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL), 2(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>En komparativ studie av traditionell salstentamen och online-tentamen med fokus på medium och innehåll
2021 (Swedish)In: Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (JoTL), E-ISSN 2004-4097, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Den här studien undersöker effekterna av att ersätta en traditionell salstentamen med en open book online-tentamen innehållande frågor av mer fördjupande diskussions- och problemlösningskaraktär. Den nya tentamensformen innebär således både att ett nytt medium för frågor och svar tillämpas, och att strukturen på frågorna i tentamen förändras. Studien fokuserar dels på vad som testas  i relation till lärandemålen (baserat på tentamensfrågor, svar och resultat) och dels studenternas attityder till de olika tentamensformerna (baserat på enkätsvar). Resultaten visar som väntat att den traditionella salstentamen i större utsträckning avslöjar studenternas faktakunskaper medan en djupare förståelse är mer central i den nya tentamensformen. Faktakunskaper kan dock i viss utsträckning även testas i den nya tentamensformen. Studenternas tentamensresultat visar att studenterna har klarat övergången mellan de båda tentamensformerna på ett bra sätt, medan resultaten från enkäterna visar att studenterna är övervägande positiva till den nya tentamensformen men att frågorna upplevdes som svåra och tentamenstiden alltför knapp. Den här typen av frågor introducerar därmed en ny typ av svårighet för studenterna. Studien pekar även på viss problematik med rättssäkerheten i den nya tentamensformen.

Abstract [en]

This study examines the effects of replacing a traditional on-campus exam with an open book online exam containing questions of a more in-depth discussion and problem-solving nature. The new form of examination thereby includes both a new medium for questions and answers, and a changed structure of the questions in the exam. The study focuses partly on what is tested in relation to the learning objectives (based on exam questions, answers and results) and partly on the students' attitudes to the different examination forms (based on questionnaire answers). The results show, as expected, that the traditional on-campus exam to a greater extent reveals the students' factual knowledge, while a deeper understanding is more central in the new form of examination. However, factual knowledge can to a certain extent also be tested in the new examination form. The students' exam results show that the students have managed the transition between the two examination forms in a good way, while the results from the surveys show that the students are predominantly positive about the new examination form but that the questions were perceived as difficult and that time was too short. This type of question thus introduces a new type of difficulty for the students. The study also points to some problems with legal certainty in the new form of examination. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2021
Keywords
Online examination, Open book, Corona, Digital examination
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-46813 (URN)10.24834/jotl.2.1.631 (DOI)
Projects
Pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt vid TS
Funder
Malmö University
Available from: 2021-11-11 Created: 2021-11-11 Last updated: 2023-08-30Bibliographically approved
Jevinger, Å. & Olsson, C. M. (2021). Introducing an Intelligent Goods Service Framework. Logistics, 5(3), Article ID 54.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing an Intelligent Goods Service Framework
2021 (English)In: Logistics, ISSN 2305-6290, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the increasing diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, the transportation of goods sector is in a position to adopt novel intelligent services that cut across the otherwise highly fragmented and heterogeneous market, which today consists of a myriad of actors. Legacy systems that rely upon direct integration between all actors involved in the transportation ecosystem face considerable challenges for information sharing. Meanwhile, IoT based services, which are designed as devices that follow goods and communicate directly to cloud-based backend systems, may provide services that previously were not available. For the purposes of this paper, we present a theoretical framework for classification of such intelligent goods systems based on a literature study. The framework, labelled as the Intelligent Goods Service (IGS) framework, aims at increasing the understanding of the actors, agents, and services involved in an intelligent goods system, and to facilitate system comparisons and the development of new innovative solutions. As an illustration of how the IGS framework can be used and contribute to research in this area, we provide an example from a direct industry-academia collaboration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
intelligent goods services, Internet of Things, system classification, theoretical framework
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-46252 (URN)10.3390/logistics5030054 (DOI)000702839900001 ()2-s2.0-85124940271 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-12 Created: 2021-10-12 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Jevinger, Å. & Persson A., J. (2019). Disturbance Management and Information Availability in Public Transport, with Focus on Scania County, Sweden (ed.). In: (Ed.), Urban and Transit Planning: . Paper presented at Urban Transit and Sustainable Networks (UTSN), Palermo, Italy (25-27 October 2017) (pp. 305-311). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disturbance Management and Information Availability in Public Transport, with Focus on Scania County, Sweden
2019 (English)In: Urban and Transit Planning, Springer, 2019, p. 305-311Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order for people to choose public transport over private car usage, public transport systems must be both reliable and accessible, which is not always the case today. Based on interviews with public transport actors, this paper investigates the missing information and communication flows during unplanned disturbances in the public transport system of southern Sweden. Two potential solution approaches to supply the missing information are also identified: an information system common for all public transport actors in the region, and a traveler check-in system, providing traveler specific information to the actors. The information requirements of both systems, and their potential benefits, are presented. The primary objective of the study is to improve the possibilities for both actors and travelers to act during unplanned disturbances by more efficient information sharing and better traveler information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Series
Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation, ISSN 2522-8714, E-ISSN 2522-8722
Keywords
Public transport, Information systems, Information flow, Traveler information
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-12567 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-17308-1_29 (DOI)2-s2.0-85097999221 (Scopus ID)29743 (Local ID)29743 (Archive number)29743 (OAI)
Conference
Urban Transit and Sustainable Networks (UTSN), Palermo, Italy (25-27 October 2017)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Jevinger, Å. & Persson, J. A. (2019). Exploring the potential of using real-time traveler data in public transport disturbance management (ed.). Public Transport, 11(2), 413-441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the potential of using real-time traveler data in public transport disturbance management
2019 (English)In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 413-441Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

New and emerging technologies, such as connected sensors, smartphones and smart cards, offer new possibilities to collect rich real-time information about travelers. Moreover, smartphones also enable travelers to actively share information, for instance, about their intended travel plans. This type of information can be used to improve public transport disturbance management. In this paper, the potential gain of collecting different types of information about travelers is explored to support action decisions made by public transport actors, during unplanned disturbances. Based on interviews and workshops, the paper provides a mapping between different information types and possible action decisions that can be supported. Furthermore, based on a literature review focused on current and potential technical solutions, a guidance to which solutions support which type of action decisions, is also provided. Amongst others, the results show that automated fare collection, which is one of the most commonly implemented systems providing real-time information about the traveler, can support a large number of action decisions relevant in unplanned disturbance scenarios. The technical solution providing the most extensive information, and thereby providing the best support for the action decisions, involves smartphone apps delivering user-generated information. The drawback with this solution is that it might violate privacy, and that it typically relies on the travelers providing relevant information voluntarily.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Public transport system, Disturbance management, Disruption management, Traveler information, Automated fare collection, Automatic passenger counting
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-2646 (URN)10.1007/s12469-019-00209-w (DOI)000486933900007 ()2-s2.0-85070198469 (Scopus ID)30031 (Local ID)30031 (Archive number)30031 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Jevinger, Å. & Persson, J. A. (2019). Potentials of Context-Aware Travel Support during Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances (ed.). Sustainability, 11(6), Article ID 1649.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potentials of Context-Aware Travel Support during Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1649Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Travel support for public transport today usually takes no or little account of the traveler’s personal needs and current context. Thereby, travelers are often suggested irrelevant travel plans, which may force them to search for information from other sources. In particular, this is a problem during unplanned disturbances. By incorporating the traveler’s context information into the travel support, travelers could be provided with individually tailored information. This would especially benefit travelers who find it more difficult than others to navigate the public transport system. Furthermore, it might raise the accessibility and general attractiveness of public transport. This paper contributes with an understanding of how information about the traveler’s context can enhance the support provided by travel planners, in the case of disturbances in public transport. In particular, the paper includes a high-level analysis of how and in which situations context information can be useful. The analysis shows how information about the traveler’s context can improve travel planners, as well as highlights some risks in relation to some identified scenarios. Several technologies for retrieving information about the physical context of the traveler are also identified. The study is based on a literature review, a workshop, and interviews with domain experts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
public transport, disturbances, travel support, travel planner, sustainability, context awareness
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-2704 (URN)10.3390/su11061649 (DOI)000465613000104 ()2-s2.0-85063472756 (Scopus ID)29775 (Local ID)29775 (Archive number)29775 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
Towards integrated and adaptive public transport; Publications
Jevinger, Å. & Svensson, H. (2024). Stated opinions and potential travel with DRT – a survey covering three different age groups. Transportation planning and technology (Print), 1-28Dytckov, S., Davidsson, P. & Persson, J. A. (2023). Integrate, not compete! On Potential Integration of Demand Responsive Transport Into Public Transport Network. In: : . Paper presented at 26th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems ITSC 2023. Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Internet of Things Master's Program; Malmö UniversityContext-aware travel support in public transport disturbances
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6019-1182

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