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Adolfsson, C. (2024). 'We don't use the word race': Boundaries of in-group membership in Sweden. (Doctoral dissertation). Malmö: Malmö University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'We don't use the word race': Boundaries of in-group membership in Sweden
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation explores the connections between the group construction of Swedishness, whiteness, and belongingness, exploring how these dynamics shape individuals' experiences of belongingness and non-belongingness. Employing a social-psychological lens, the research investigates the interplay between race and ingroup construction, shedding light on the complexities of Swedish identity within the broader global context. The dissertation comprises of a introduction (Kappa) and three stand alone articles, each contributing to the academic discourse while intersecting in their themes.

The first article utilizes quantitative data to examine the feelings of belongingness among individuals from different ethnic backgrounds in Sweden. Results indicate a positive correlation between national and ethnic identifications, allowing for concurrent membership in various groups without contradiction, yet also suggests an empirical link between being appraised as Swedish and being white. The second article presents qualitative data, revealing that 'Swedishness' is closely tied to whiteness, particularly among white participants who also espoused hesitancy and adversion to the concept of ‘race’. In contrast, non-white participants display a more nuanced perspective on race and racialization. The third article investigates whether majority ethnic in-group and non-majority out-group members perceive and agree upon broad and specific representations of 'Swedishness' through a classic social categorization experiment. Results suggest a prevalence of associating 'Swedishness' with white individuals, despite efforts towards multicultural representation.

Through these investigations, the dissertation provides valuable insights into the construction of Swedish group identity and its implications for both in-group and out-group members. By addressing research gaps and employing diverse methodologies, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of intergroup relations and identity dynamics in contemporary Swedish society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö University Press, 2024. p. 86
Series
Malmö Studies in International Migration and Ethnic Relations, ISSN 1652-3997, E-ISSN 2004- 9285
Keywords
Ethnicity, Identity, Social Psychology, Group membership, Ethnic Relations, International Migration and Ethnic Relations, Race, Racialization, Belongingness, Sweden, Swedishness, Swedish Identity
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-66411 (URN)10.24834/isbn.9789178774623 (DOI)978-91-7877-461-6 (ISBN)978-91-7877-462-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-05-03, NI:C0E11, Malmö University, Niagara, Malmö, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Paper III in dissertation as manuscript. 

Paper III  is not included in the fulltext online

Available from: 2024-04-16 Created: 2024-04-12 Last updated: 2024-05-14Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, C. (2023). Afro-Sweden : becoming Black in a color-blind country: by RyanThomas Skinner, foreword by Jason Timbuktu Diakité, Minneapolis,University of Minnesota Press, 2022 [Review]. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1-2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Afro-Sweden : becoming Black in a color-blind country: by RyanThomas Skinner, foreword by Jason Timbuktu Diakité, Minneapolis,University of Minnesota Press, 2022
2023 (English)In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, p. 1-2Article, book review (Other academic) Epub ahead of print
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-58723 (URN)10.1080/01419870.2023.2176336 (DOI)000936557100001 ()
Available from: 2023-03-22 Created: 2023-03-22 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, C. (2023). 'It feels made up': Post racialism and colorblind ideology within individual constructions of self identity. Ethnicities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'It feels made up': Post racialism and colorblind ideology within individual constructions of self identity
2023 (English)In: Ethnicities, ISSN 1468-7968, E-ISSN 1741-2706Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article aims to explore the interrelation between post racialism, colorblind ideology, and the perception of Swedishness. Through 40 interviews and surveys conducted in Malmo, Sweden, participants were asked to reflect on race, ethnicity, and Swedishness. Multiple meanings were present in the participants' responses, half of whom were white and half non-white. For white participants, boundaries around the in-group construction of 'Swedishness' were based in whiteness, yet these participants held overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards the use of words race or racialization. On the other hand, non-white participants viewed race and racialization with less negative connotations, yet they also endorsed the need to be white in order to be perceived as being Swedish. The results support the notion that abandonment of the word race does not always equate to an abandonment of whiteness. This article builds upon and expands previous findings in the U.S. context while contributing to an emerging body of literature on race and racialization in Sweden. Additionally, it seeks to challenge dominant narratives and assumptions of 'Swedishness' and its connection to whiteness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
Race, racialization, post racial, colorblind, Sweden, racial identity, group identity, self identification, whiteness
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62590 (URN)10.1177/14687968231191751 (DOI)001044732800001 ()2-s2.0-85167434965 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2024-04-12Bibliographically approved
Jernsand, E. M., Kraff, H., Osanami Törngren, S., Adolfsson, C., Björner, E., Omondi, L., . . . Ulver, S. (2023). Tourism memories: a collaborative reflection on inclusion and exclusion. Tourism Recreation Resarch, 48(6), 820-830
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism memories: a collaborative reflection on inclusion and exclusion
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2023 (English)In: Tourism Recreation Resarch, ISSN 0250-8281, E-ISSN 2320-0308, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 820-830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to explore how people’s differentiated privileged and marginalised positions in society create instances of inclusion and exclusion in tourism. Eight authors utilised their diverse disciplinary and theoretical bases to engage in individual autoethnography and collaborative reflections of their personal experiences of being tourists and hosts. Through our Western and non-Western, White and non-White experiences, we reveal experiences from a multitude of perspectives, and problematise the dominant White racial frame. The methodology illustrates unquestioned privileges and feelings of discomfort when personally faced with exclusionary practices and creates an understanding of how individuals have different experiences of enchantment and the tourist gaze. The experience of marginalisation is serial and dialectical, which illustrates the complexity of tourism. The paper contributes to an enhanced and multifaceted understanding of tourism experiences and proposes measures to reveal issues of exclusion. Also, the use of autoethnography and collaborative reflection as methodological tools provide opportunities for researchers and practitioners to engage in reflexive conversation on discriminatory practices, and how they hinder certain individuals and groups from enjoying tourism products and services. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-59625 (URN)10.1080/02508281.2023.2207153 (DOI)000987121000001 ()2-s2.0-85159351598 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2023-05-17 Created: 2023-05-17 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, C. (2021). 'I'm Not Swedish Swedish': Self-Appraised National and Ethnic Identification among Migrant-Descendants in Sweden. Genealogy, 5(2), Article ID 56.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'I'm Not Swedish Swedish': Self-Appraised National and Ethnic Identification among Migrant-Descendants in Sweden
2021 (English)In: Genealogy, E-ISSN 2313-5778, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a country of high migration, Sweden presents an interesting case for the study of belongingness. For the children of migrants, ethnic and national identification, as well as ascriptive identity, can pose challenges to feelings of belongingness, which is an essential element for positive mental health. In this article, survey data were collected from 626 Swedes whose parents were born in the following countries: Somalia, Poland, Vietnam, and Turkey. The results show that Poles significantly felt they received more reflective appraisals of ascription than any other group. However, despite not feeling as if they were being ascribed as Swedish, most group members (regardless of ethnic origin) had high feelings of belongingness to Sweden. Overall, individuals who felt that being Swedish was important for their identity indicated the highest feelings of belongingness. Further, individuals across groups showed a positive correlation between their national identification and ethnic identification, indicating a feeling of membership to both. These results mirror previous research in Sweden where individuals' ethnic and national identities were positively correlated. The ability to inhabit multiple identities as a member of different groups is the choice of an individual within a pluralistic society. Multiple memberships between groups need not be contradictory but rather an expression of different spheres of inhabitance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
belongingness, ethnic identity, Sweden, ascribed identity
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44948 (URN)10.3390/genealogy5020056 (DOI)000667154800001 ()
Available from: 2021-08-19 Created: 2021-08-19 Last updated: 2024-04-12Bibliographically approved
Osanami Törngren, S., Moriuchi, E., Adolfsson, C., Nyström, M. & Ulver, S. (2020). Comparing Preferences towards Multiracial Advertising in Sweden and the US-Exploration through Eye-Tracking. Genealogy, 4(4), Article ID 109.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing Preferences towards Multiracial Advertising in Sweden and the US-Exploration through Eye-Tracking
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2020 (English)In: Genealogy, ISSN 2313-5778, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examined and compared the US-born and Swedish-born college students' preferences towards monoracial or multiracial advertisement. We showed four fashion advertisements, tracked their eye movements with a stationary eye-tracker, and asked questions through survey and debriefing to understand how students see and perceive advertisements with and without racial diversity. We found that both Swedish and American students exhibited higher preference in monoracial advertisements. We also found that Swedish and American students' preferences towards advertisements were quite similar, but there were some variations in the reported level of attractiveness of the advertisements, reaction times, and dwell time between the Swedish and American students. Even though we did not find any statistically significant results from the eye-tracking data due to the limited sample size, the results point to interesting trends and tendencies that need to be addressed in further studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-41094 (URN)10.3390/genealogy4040109 (DOI)000617496600014 ()
Available from: 2021-03-09 Created: 2021-03-09 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Emilsson, H. & Adolfsson, C. (2019). Dreaming of Sweden as a Space of Well-Being: Lifestyle Migration Among Young Latvians and Romanians (ed.). Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 9(2), 201-219
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dreaming of Sweden as a Space of Well-Being: Lifestyle Migration Among Young Latvians and Romanians
2019 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on 41 semi-structured interviews with young Latvians and Romanians in Malmö, Sweden, this article explores why Europeans from new European Union (EU) member states want to move to, and stay in, Sweden despite economic difficulties and underemployment. Six main factors for explaining mobility patterns are highlighted: free university education, romantic relationships, cosmopolitan lifestyle, presence of English language, idealisation of Sweden and work–life balance. We read these factors as ideas and aspirations of well-being in the ‘imagined space’ of Sweden. The findings illustrate that many young migrants do not chose to move to Sweden for short-term economic opportunities, but rather to experience a different lifestyle. In most cases, these expectations are met, although over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Open, 2019
Keywords
Youth mobility, lifestyle migration, EU mobility, Sweden
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-1436 (URN)10.2478/njmr-2019-0017 (DOI)000475856900004 ()2-s2.0-85104782722 (Scopus ID)29790 (Local ID)29790 (Archive number)29790 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, C.Who fits frame?: Ethnic or nationalistic mental representation within superordinate identity associations.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who fits frame?: Ethnic or nationalistic mental representation within superordinate identity associations
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the understanding of the superordinate identity of 'Swedishness' among ethnic majority in-group members and minority out-group members in Sweden. Utilizing the Ingroup Projection Model (IPM) and theories related to mental representations, it was hypothesized and confirmed that both in-group and out-group members associate 'Swedishness' predominantly with white individuals, encompassing both broad and specific mental representations. Furthermore, all group members were also observed to hold an ethnically characterized specific mental representation of 'Swedishness,' reaffirming the saliency of white individuals as prototypical exemplars, suggesting an ethnic understanding of this superordinate identity. Yet interestingly, the broad mental representations relating to both groups picture of Sweden as a nation, reflected an increasingly diverse and multicultural outlook highlighting the evolving nature of this identity construct. These findings contribute to the understanding of the Ingroup Projection Model, particularly in contexts where the superordinate identity can connotate either a national or ethnic identity. The implications of these findings are significant for addressing issues related to intergroup dynamics, identity, and multiculturalism in contemporary societies. 

Keywords
Ingroup Projection Model, whiteness, mental representations, identity, intergroup dynamics
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-66759 (URN)
Available from: 2024-04-16 Created: 2024-04-16 Last updated: 2024-04-16Bibliographically approved
Projects
Step Out Malmö - explore tomorrow’s sustainable and innovative working life – outdoors; Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US)
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4377-0772

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