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Niedenthal, S., Fredborg, W., Lunden, P., Ehrndal, M. & Olofsson, J. K. (2023). A graspable olfactory display for virtual reality. International journal of human-computer studies, 169, Article ID 102928.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A graspable olfactory display for virtual reality
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2023 (English)In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 169, article id 102928Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The sense of smell, olfaction, is seldom engaged in digital interactive systems, but, supported by the proper technology, olfaction might open up new interaction domains. Human olfactory experience involves active exploration, directed sniffing and nuanced judgements about odour identity, concentrations, and blends, yet to date most compact olfactory displays do not directly support these experiences. We describe the development and validation of a compact, low-cost olfactory display fitted to the hand controller of the HTC Vive Virtual Reality (VR) system that employs stepless valves to enable control of scent magnitude and blending (Fig. 1). Our olfactory display allows for concealed (i.e., unknown to the user) combinations of odours with virtual objects and contexts, making it well suited to applications involving interactions with odorous objects in virtual space for recreational, educational, scientific, or therapeutic functions. Through a user study and gas sensor analysis, we have been able to demonstrate that our device presents clear and consistent scent output, is intuitive from a user perspective, and supports gameplay interactions. We present results from a smell training game in a virtual wine tasting cellar in which the initial task of identifying wine aroma components is followed by evaluating more complex blends, allowing the player to "level up" as they proceed to higher degrees of connoisseurship. Novice users were able to quickly adapt to the display, and we found that the device affords sniffing and other gestures that add verisimilitude to olfactory experience in virtual environments. Test-retest reliability was high when participants performed the task two times with the same odours. In sum, the results suggest our olfactory display may facilitate use in game settings and other olfactory interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Olfaction, Olfactory display, Smell training, Virtual reality
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-56008 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhcs.2022.102928 (DOI)000869794000004 ()2-s2.0-85138456623 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-15 Created: 2022-11-15 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Brooks, J., Bahremand, A., Lopes, P., Spackman, C., Amores Fernandez, J., Ho, H.-N., . . . Niedenthal, S. (2023). Sharing and Experiencing Hardware and Methods to Advance Smell, Taste, and Temperature Interfaces. In: CHI EA '23: Extended Abstracts of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: . Paper presented at 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA 2023, Hamburg, Germany, April 23-28, 2023. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID 362.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sharing and Experiencing Hardware and Methods to Advance Smell, Taste, and Temperature Interfaces
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2023 (English)In: CHI EA '23: Extended Abstracts of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, article id 362Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There has been a monumental push from the CHI community to bring more human senses to interactive devices. This trend is significant because we use all our senses in everyday interactions but only an extremely narrow subset when interacting with computers. This workshop focuses on bringing together researchers to advance some of the most challenging senses to embed into interfaces, but arguably the most exciting: smell, taste, and temperature. To integrate these modalities into interfaces, researchers not only use methods from traditional mechanics or haptics (e.g., pumps, heating pads, etc.) but must also acquire tacit skills and understandings from psychophysics, neuroscience, anatomy, and chemistry (e.g., receptor signaling pathways or food chemistry). This demo-based workshop provides a platform to come together and bring their demonstrations, experiments, and hardware to experience, discuss, and advance the field.  

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63790 (URN)10.1145/3544549.3573828 (DOI)2-s2.0-85158154918 (Scopus ID)9781450394222 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA 2023, Hamburg, Germany, April 23-28, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-20 Created: 2023-11-20 Last updated: 2023-11-20Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S., Nilsson, J., Jernsäther, T., Cuartielles, D., Larsson, M. & Olofsson, J. K. (2021). A Method for Computerized Olfactory Assessment and Training Outside of Laboratory or Clinical Settings. i-Perception, 12(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method for Computerized Olfactory Assessment and Training Outside of Laboratory or Clinical Settings
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2021 (English)In: i-Perception, E-ISSN 2041-6695, Vol. 12, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are currently few ways to reliably and objectively assess olfaction outside of the research laboratory or clinic. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for remote olfactory assessment; in particular, smell training at home is a promising method for olfactory rehabilitation, but further methodological advances might enhance its effectiveness and range of use. Here, we present Exerscent, a portable, low-cost olfactory display designed primarily for uses outside of the laboratory and that can be operated with a personal computer. Exerscent includes Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags that are attached to odor stimuli and read with a MFRC522 module RFID reader/antenna that encodes the odor in order to provide adaptive challenges for the user (e.g., an odor identification task). Hardware parts are commercially available or 3D printed. Instructions and code for building the Exerscent are freely available online (https://osf.io/kwftm/). As a proof of concept, we present a case study in which a participant trained daily to identify 54 odors, improving from 81% to 96% accuracy over 16 consecutive days. In addition, results from a laboratory experiment with 11 volunteers indicated a very high level of perceived usability and engagement. Exerscent may be used for olfactory skills development (e.g., perfumery, enology), and rehabilitation purposes (e.g., postviral olfactory loss), but it also allows for other forms of technological interactions such as olfactory-based recreational interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
olfactory assessment, olfactory displays, olfactory interactions, smell training
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-44142 (URN)10.1177/20416695211023953 (DOI)000663460800001 ()34178300 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85107781186 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-23 Created: 2021-06-23 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S., Nilsson, J. & Olofsson, J. (2020). A hybrid digital/physical platform for olfactory assessment and training in non-laboratory settings. Paper presented at 29th Annual Meeting of the European-Chemoreception-Research-Organization (ECRO), SEP 11-14, 2019, Abdus Salam Int Ctr Theoret Phhys, Trieste, ITALY. Chemical Senses, 45(2), 172-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A hybrid digital/physical platform for olfactory assessment and training in non-laboratory settings
2020 (English)In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 172-173Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Although prior studies have shown sensory benefits of smell training, they are limited by the lack of technologies that enable training with performance feedback in domestic settings. Current research olfactometer designs prioritize the output of carefully controlled scent concentrations at a predictable onset, at the expense of size and portability. Here we present a portable olfactory display designed primarily for uses outside of the laboratory and that can be operated with a personal computer.

We employ RFID tags as a means of linking individual scent units to a database, as part of a training regimen that is easy to learn, easy to maintain, and scalable. These tags can be attached to any set of scent vials. Our hybrid digital/physical platform for conducting olfactory research combines the benefits of a digital, interactive platform—including the ability to monitor subject performance, logging and archiving experimental data—with scent delivery units under control of the user.

A pilot study included a participant training to identify 48 wine aromas (from the commercially available Le Nez du Vin set) using a multiple-choice format with feedback. Through brief daily training sessions at home, an improvement from 81% to 96% correct responses was observed in 16 days, offering proof of principle. We will describe how our hybrid platform can be useful for flexible olfactory assessment and training outside of a laboratory setting, and create new opportunities for employing digital environments in the service of olfactory research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2020
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-17654 (URN)000538788900155 ()
Conference
29th Annual Meeting of the European-Chemoreception-Research-Organization (ECRO), SEP 11-14, 2019, Abdus Salam Int Ctr Theoret Phhys, Trieste, ITALY
Available from: 2020-07-02 Created: 2020-07-02 Last updated: 2022-04-26Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S., Lundén, P., Ehrndal, M. & Olofsson, J. K. (2019). A Handheld Olfactory Display For Smell-Enabled VR Games. In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN): . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN), 26-29 May 2019,Fukuoka, Japan, Japan (pp. 114-117).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Handheld Olfactory Display For Smell-Enabled VR Games
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN), 2019, p. 114-117Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We describe a class of olfactory displays located at the hand, well-suited to support exploratory and active smelling behavior. We have developed a handheld olfactory display for the HTC Vive VR environment, and validated it in a two-step method that combines qualitative user evaluation with an empirical task-based study. The results of our qualitative study suggest that handheld olfactory displays may enhance a sense of presence in virtual environments. Our validation method is suitable for testing instruments that engage novel forms of smell interaction, and seek to provide clear and consistent output for empirically-validated olfactory research.

National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-40272 (URN)10.1109/ISOEN.2019.8823162 (DOI)000855983900036 ()2-s2.0-85072948459 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-8327-9 (ISBN)978-1-5386-8328-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN), 26-29 May 2019,Fukuoka, Japan, Japan
Available from: 2021-02-01 Created: 2021-02-01 Last updated: 2023-12-14Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, J. K., Niedenthal, S., Ehrndal, M., Zakrzewska, M., Wartel, A. & Larsson, M. (2017). Beyond Smell-O-Vision: Possibilities for Smell-Based Digital Media (ed.). Journal Simulation & Gaming, 48(4), 455-479
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond Smell-O-Vision: Possibilities for Smell-Based Digital Media
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2017 (English)In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 455-479Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research Problem: The purpose of this research synthesis is to identify new opportunities for smell-enabled games based upon current olfactory research, and to present early game concepts that have emerged from our empirical assessments. Literature Review: We briefly summarize key projects in the history of scent technologies for film and media. Human-Computer Interaction researchers have also explored a number of uses for scent delivery in interactive digital media. Recent developments in olfactory psychology and neuroscience research suggest that a fruitful avenue for exploration is to develop learning games that expand olfactory capacity. Methodology: We have conducted two studies of computer-based perceptual and cognitive olfactory tasks. 1. Mixture perception experiment: We designed a perceptual experiment where the task was to correctly estimate the intensity of odor components in a blend of coffee and tea. Blended odors were presented to 10 healthy adults by means of a computer-controlled olfactometer. Following each stimulation, the participant used a computer interface to estimate the intensity of components of the blend. 2. Event-based memory experiment: We have developed a digital olfactory version of the children's game "Memory." The game interface consists of 32 white squares that are presented in a grid pattern on the screen and that, when participants click on them, triggers the release of one of eight possible smells from the olfactometer. Fifteen healthy adult participants were tested in 10 laboratory sessions distributed over three weeks. Results and Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that smell training through learning games holds promise as a means of improving cognitive function. The results of our event-based memory experiment suggest that both olfactory and visual memory capacities might have benefitted from olfactory game training. The results of our mixture perception experiment indicate that binary odor mixtures might provide a suitable starting point for perceptual training, and we suggest that a smell-enabled game might include adaptive difficulty by progressively introducing more complex mixtures. We have used event-based memory and mixture perception as "olfactory targets" for game mechanic development, and present early design concepts for "Smelly Genes" and "Scenter." Finally, we discuss future directions and challenges for this new, interdisciplinary research topic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
learning games, olfactory research, scent technologies, smell training
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-1480 (URN)10.1177/1046878117702184 (DOI)000409369800003 ()2-s2.0-85026880216 (Scopus ID)25536 (Local ID)25536 (Archive number)25536 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S. (2016). Flying on the Ground: Driving for Pleasure in Digital Racing Simulation Games. In: Perron, Bernard and Schröter, Felix (Ed.), Video Games and the Mind: Essays on Cognition, Affect and Emotion (pp. 126-140). McFarland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flying on the Ground: Driving for Pleasure in Digital Racing Simulation Games
2016 (English)In: Video Games and the Mind: Essays on Cognition, Affect and Emotion / [ed] Perron, Bernard and Schröter, Felix, McFarland, 2016, p. 126-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
McFarland, 2016
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-18426 (URN)9781476626277 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-10-01 Created: 2020-10-01 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S. (2012). Skin Games: Fragrant Play, Scented Media and the Stench of Digital Games (ed.). Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, 6(1), 1-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skin Games: Fragrant Play, Scented Media and the Stench of Digital Games
2012 (English)In: Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, E-ISSN 1866-6124, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents an argument in favor of using multiple theory triangulation (Mäyrä 2009) as a means of generating design heuristics and gameplay themes for engaging the sense of smell in games. The disciplines that are drawn upon include sensory psychology, sensory anthropology, literature, interaction design research and game studies. The physical and historical context of smell in games is sketched by considering the challenges of designing for the sense of smell, examining how different cultures have integrated smell into their lives and entertainment, analyzing the failures of scented filmic media, and surveying games in which smell has played a role: Leather Goddesses of Phobos (Infocom Inc. 1986), Leisure Suit Larry 7: Love for Sail! (Sierra On-Line Inc. 1996) and the Nordic live-action roleplaying game Dragonbane (Koljonen, Kuustie and Multamäki 2006). Rather than naïve immersion, in which smell merely confirms what is seen onscreen, this study seeks to root the future development of scented gameplay in Ermi and Mäyrä’s sensory, challenge-based and imaginative (SCI) model of immersion (2007), and draws upon design discourses related to the bodily and spatial uses of scent: perfume and incense. We can learn about how to effectively engage smell in games by examining the ways in which people have organized play around perfume and incense, from games that incorporate perfume themes (ranging from board games to Axe cologne advergames), to the playful behaviors of an online fragrance community (Basenotes.net). The results of this study include a provisional design heuristics for smell in games, as well as specific gameplay themes: Sillage: longing for the absent, Skin games: scent and intimacy and Abuse, power and transgression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore-MIT GAMBIT Game Lab, 2012
Keywords
Game design, Media design, Smell, Scented media, Perfume, Incense
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-1723 (URN)13627 (Local ID)13627 (Archive number)13627 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S. (2010). Indoor Fireworks: The Pleasures of Digital Game Pyrotechnics (ed.). Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, 4(1), 69-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor Fireworks: The Pleasures of Digital Game Pyrotechnics
2010 (English)In: Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, E-ISSN 1866-6124, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 69-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fireworks in games translate the sensory power of a real-world aesthetic form to the realm of digital simulation and gameplay. Understanding the role of fireworks in games can best be pursued through through a threefold aesthetic perspective that focuses on the senses, on art, and on the aesthetic experience that gives pleasure through the player’s participation in the simulation, gameplay and narrative potentials of fireworks. In games ranging from Wii Sports and Fantavision, to Okami and Assassin’s Creed II, digital fireworks are employed as a light effect, and are also the site for gameplay pleasures that include design and performance, timing and rhythm, and power and awe. Fireworks also gain narrative significance in game forms through association with specific sequences and characters. Ultimately, understanding the role of fireworks in games provokes us to reverse the scrutiny, and to consider games as fireworks, through which we experience ludic festivity and voluptuous panic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore-MIT GAMBIT Game Lab, 2010
Keywords
Fireworks, Pyrotechnics, Digital Games, Game Aesthetics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-1998 (URN)12754 (Local ID)12754 (Archive number)12754 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S. (2009). Patterns of Obscurity: Gothic Setting and Light in Resident Evil 4 and Silent Hill 2 (ed.). In: Bernard Perron (Ed.), Bernard Perron (Ed.), Horror Video Games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play: (pp. 168-180). : McFarland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns of Obscurity: Gothic Setting and Light in Resident Evil 4 and Silent Hill 2
2009 (English)In: Horror Video Games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play / [ed] Bernard Perron, McFarland, 2009, p. 168-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The experience of playing a survival horror game is marked by a sense of vulnerability and an ongoing effort to accommodate to unfolding events and environments. These qualities and tasks can be better understood by exploring the similarities between this genre of games and gothic literature, in which obscurity plays an important role in achieving the desired effect. The design and illumination of survival horror environments, such as those in the Resident Evil (Capcom) and Silent Hill (Konami) series, is key to achieving obscurity, and contemporary eyetracking technologies can help us differentiate the different types of obscurity provided by occlusion, atmosphere or darkness, and begin to grasp how they inflect the experience of fear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
McFarland, 2009
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-9516 (URN)12772 (Local ID)978-0-7864-4197-6 (ISBN)12772 (Archive number)12772 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4132-2287

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