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Buhre, T. & Tschernij, O. (2018). Sample Distribution and Research Design Are Methodological Dilemmas When Identifying Selection and Using Relative Age as an Explanation of Results (ed.). The Sport journal (2018-03-29)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sample Distribution and Research Design Are Methodological Dilemmas When Identifying Selection and Using Relative Age as an Explanation of Results
2018 (English)In: The Sport journal, E-ISSN 1543-9518, no 2018-03-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of a statistical test, such as the chi-squared test, to determine if selection has occurred within a sport has been used frequently in research. The assumed distribution of a sample could influence the occurrence of significant outcomes. The occurrence of significance is generally interpreted as RAE and explained as a result of selection within the sport. Most studies in this field have been done using a cross-sectional design. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of using different types of distribution when testing for significance, in swimming as an example, over a nine-year period of six cohorts in age by gender groups. 1/10 Results show that using either an assumed uniformed distribution or a proportional distribution of the national population distribution will lead to an increased number of significant results, in comparison to using either a distribution of the actual sample of the specific age by gender group or the distribution of the previous year within the age by gender group. In addition, when using a longitudinal design over a nine-year period, the occurrence of significance decreased over time. In order to interpret significant results as a consequence of selection within a sport the use of a sport specific and age by gender distribution and a longitudinal design is proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United States Sports Academy, 2018
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14534 (URN)27901 (Local ID)27901 (Archive number)27901 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Buhre, T. & Tschernij, O. (2018). The impact of relative age on sampling and performance in Swedish age-group swimming system (ed.). The Sport journal, 20(Sept 30, 2018)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of relative age on sampling and performance in Swedish age-group swimming system
2018 (English)In: The Sport journal, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 20, no Sept 30, 2018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phenomena of relative age effect (RAE) has been investigated thoroughly in the sport and school settings. However, different measures and research designs have been applied in the various settings. At the same time different constructs, such as sampling, participation, and performance have been investigated in separate studies. Most interpretations have been done in a de-contextualized manner. That is, results have not been interpreted based on the functioning of the age-grouping system over time, but rather on a general level of grouping individuals based on chronological age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of RAE in sampling, competitive participation, and selection for national competition in the Swedish age-group swimming system based on a thorough understanding of the specific impacts of age and gender of this system over time. Results show that there is inconclusive evidence suggesting that RAE occurs due to the age-grouping system in Swedish swimming. The system does not create a bias based on either relative age difference or gender. Based on this study and future suggestions the continued research on RAE should be expanded to include longitudinal studies following specific age by gender groups over time. In addition, measures of performance and criteria of selection should be investigated in order to draw conclusions if systematic discrimination is embedded within a specific country and sport age-grouping system in favor of athletes that could be attributed to a relative age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United States Sports Academy, 2018
Keywords
relative age, sampling, research design, swimming and performance
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14470 (URN)27941 (Local ID)27941 (Archive number)27941 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Buhre, T., Lagergren, L. & Fundberg, J. (2017). A Child´s perspective in football coach education: an action research project (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at The 11th ICCE Global Coaches Conference, Liverpool, England (31 of July).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Child´s perspective in football coach education: an action research project
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: This action-research project was initiated by a Regional Football association in Sweden. The region encompasses, 380 clubs, 2.500 youth teams and approximately 25.000 players between the age of 6 and 12 years. 150 football-coaching courses are completed yearly and a total 2.710 coaches have completed these courses, since 2010. A board decision was made (10/1/2016): To make a shift down-sizing the importance of winning that exists at the youth-level to focusing on the individual soccer-development of all participants. This decision was made because the drop-out rate has increased in the age-group around the age of 10, and reports of both physical and verbal abuse has increased during the later years. The Association contacted Malmö University with an initial request to enforce the board decision: What research is available on positive youth development in sports and children´s development over time? Initial actions: The process started with 10 two hour meetings, discussing definitions and perspectives to gain a common ground of understand both the problem at hand and the interpretations of possible mechanisms creating the problem. The collective view on what needed to be done after these initial meetings, was a change in perspective away from a focus on sports to a see the world from a child´s perspective. Thus, a major culture change is needed on all levels in order to alleviate the problem at hand. Consequences of actions: The greatest leverage for a cultural change is the coach education. Coaches are the “keeper” of values and belief systems on the grass-root level. The initial collective analysis revealed a gap between the research and the material distributed by the National Football Federation, based on the UEFA standards. The gap was between “what to do in organized football” and “how to do it, from a child´s perspective”. In the material, the sport transpose it´s importance and the child gets lost in translation. Further actions: The next step is in progress and it entails participation in coach education courses, analyzing course evaluations and further discussions to the identified the incongruences between the child´s perspective and the focus on football. Initial analysis has identified three problematic factors: The lack of participation of youth soccer players, the focus on ball-movement in all videos and the constant use of a grown-up terminology in analyzing the game of football. To alleviate this problem the use of authentic learning is suggested, by the research team.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-11222 (URN)27938 (Local ID)27938 (Archive number)27938 (OAI)
Conference
The 11th ICCE Global Coaches Conference, Liverpool, England (31 of July)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Buhre, T. (2016). Difference in speed at fixed reference points, and changes in speed between fixed reference points, during 100 meter swimming races at the European Championships, 2010 (ed.). Journal of Swimming Research, 24(1), 22-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Difference in speed at fixed reference points, and changes in speed between fixed reference points, during 100 meter swimming races at the European Championships, 2010
2016 (English)In: Journal of Swimming Research, ISSN 0747-5993, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 22-31Article in journal (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose was to examine the differences and relationships between speed variables and performance in 100 meter events at the European Championships long course (LC) and short course (SC) for all strokes and gender. Data was collected from the website www.swim.ee, transformed, and analyzed using statistical methods. Swimming speed (SS) at different reference points was significantly different for in both short course (SC) and long course (LC) swimming, SS15>SS35>SS45SS85>SS95. The effect size for all measures was large (Cohen ́s d). The changes in SS between reference points was significantly different in all events for both sexes in both SC and LC swimming, δSS15:35> δSS35:45, but only for SC when comparing δSS85:95> δSS65:85. Correlations of placing at the end of the race, split times for each 50 m segment and SS at different reference points, showed no clear pattern. The differences in the swimming speed variables, can be explained based on the theory of complexity and performance, utilizing previous research findings and the standard equation of drag force in fluids. Thus taking into account all different aspects of performance. The managing of speed through out a race needs to be a special focus in both training and competition. Thus, allowing for a more individualized approach both in utilizing training methods training and analysis of performance in 100 m race.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Swimming Coaches Association, 2016
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-3722 (URN)27942 (Local ID)27942 (Archive number)27942 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Buhre, T. (2016). How speed makes a difference: A case study of 100- meter races (ed.). Journal of Swimming Research, 24(1), 14-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How speed makes a difference: A case study of 100- meter races
2016 (English)In: Journal of Swimming Research, ISSN 0747-5993, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-18Article in journal (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Swimming faster has always been of interest to coaches. How we perceive time and swimming speed is vital to how we train, interpret the results of training, plan for completion and evaluate performance. Modern technology has broadened our perspective on how to interpret performance. The data was collected online (www.swim.ee) and statistical tests were used to analyze the results. In all 100 meter events at the European short course and long course championships, The swimmers were swimming slower as a group from 15 to 95 meters, regardless of stroke, course and sex. The differences that occur in swimming speed during 100 m races are larger than the difference that can have an impact on placing at the end of the race. We hypothesize; that the difference in swimming speed between fixed points occurs continuously because of the density of water creates a high resistance that the swimmer has to over-come, thus leading to a reduction in swimming speed between individual stroke-cycles. Interpreting the difference in time at the finish of the race, or differences in split-times during the race increases the the magnitude of improvements that has to be made in order to improve performance. By looking at swimming speed instead of time differences, a reduction of the magnitude in the improvement-gap becomes manageable. This has implications for both training an d competition, because it changes the perception of how performance can be improved from physiological, biomechanical and psychological perspectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Swimming Coaches Association, 2016
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-2840 (URN)27943 (Local ID)27943 (Archive number)27943 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Buhre, T., Hageskog, C.-A., Forsberg, H. & Fjeldstad, N. (2013). The organic development of coach education structure for the future: a collaborative effort between higher education and national federations in Sweden (ed.). Paper presented at The 9th ICCE Global Coach Conference, Durban, South Africa (13-16 of september). Paper presented at The 9th ICCE Global Coach Conference, Durban, South Africa (13-16 of september).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The organic development of coach education structure for the future: a collaborative effort between higher education and national federations in Sweden
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Good practice - developing a future coach education structure Sweden is a country, where coaching can be said to be a blended profession . Out of 335.000 coaches in Sweden, approximately 10% or 33.500 has an income that is directly related to their coaching duties . Based on the international sport coaching framework , a collaboration of four different national federations (swimming, tennis, athletics and floor-ball) and institutions of higher-education (Malmö University and Linnæus University), has developed a model, to make both coach education feasible and also to develop coaching effectiveness in the process, based on this specific context. The model considers aspects of both non-mediated and mediated learning. It takes into consideration aspects of certification, educational content and education-providers. The aspects are considered from both a stakeholders- and education-providers perspective. The model has developing organically (since 2011), using both the AEHESIS-project and the ITESCE-project as templates. It strives for inclusion of stakeholders focusing on; 1) structures of collaboration, 2) educational content and need depending upon coaching level and 3) the process of validation. In the specific context, the process of validation is of utmost importance. The current cohort of coaches within the four national federations, exhibit a range of professional experience. Many coaches have, through non-mediated learning , gained a tacit knowledge that improves their effectiveness. The origin of knowledge can therefore never be a question of debate. Thus aligning a coach education program with the competences of current coaches in the blended profession has been a high priority. At the same time, quality control of coaching competences both through the validation process and educational process needs to be harmonized in order to develop a possible scheme for certification in relation to accredited certification programs. Four aspects under consideration in developing the educational process are: 1) the coaching context , 2) the athletes expected outcome , 3) the need for practical experience to develop coaching effectiveness in younger coaches , and 4) the feasibility to participate in an educational process over a period of years in learning to gain mastery as a coach in relation to current engagements. The current model utilizes the EFRCCQ to provide general competences based on an identification of thematic professional content areas. Aligning the national federation education with higher education courses, allows for both individual flexibility in continuous professional development and quality control in validation process and certification programs. It is based on e-learning, part-time and both mediated and non-mediated learning experiences.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16558 (URN)27939 (Local ID)27939 (Archive number)27939 (OAI)
Conference
The 9th ICCE Global Coach Conference, Durban, South Africa (13-16 of september)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Buhre, T. & Ingrell, J. (2011). Reflekterande extraherande tentamina som bedömning av studenters prestationer (RET-BSB) (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Erfarenhet vs. Forskning – Hur utvecklas vi som högskolelärare?: Programbok. Paper presented at Erfarenhet vs. Forskning – Hur utvecklas vi som högskolelärare?, Malmö, Sweden (8-9 december 2011) (pp. 54-57). : Malmö högskola, Akademiskt Lärarskap (AKL)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflekterande extraherande tentamina som bedömning av studenters prestationer (RET-BSB)
2011 (Swedish)In: Erfarenhet vs. Forskning – Hur utvecklas vi som högskolelärare?: Programbok, Malmö högskola, Akademiskt Lärarskap (AKL) , 2011, p. 54-57Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö högskola, Akademiskt Lärarskap (AKL), 2011
Series
Akademiskt lärarskap (AKL) : skriftserie ; 1
Keywords
Pedagogisk utveckling, Högskolepedagogik
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16568 (URN)26745 (Local ID)978-91-980036-0-4 (ISBN)26745 (Archive number)26745 (OAI)
Conference
Erfarenhet vs. Forskning – Hur utvecklas vi som högskolelärare?, Malmö, Sweden (8-9 december 2011)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Buhre, T. (2010). Good practices in transnational coach education development. (ed.). Paper presented at ICCE Continental Coach Conference, Arnhem, Netherlands (2010). Paper presented at ICCE Continental Coach Conference, Arnhem, Netherlands (2010).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Good practices in transnational coach education development.
2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Good practice in developing transnational transparency in coach education system. Introduction: The AEHESIS project (Petry, 2007) developed reference points for comparison of coach education in a transnational perspective. Crucial for developing transparency of these different components of coach education systems is both an understanding of the purpose and current outcomes of the Bologna process (European Commission, 2009) and also a competence on educational development in relation to matching learning outcomes with methods of assessment to monitor the competence development of students (Biggs, 1996). Methods: The project has resourced these three areas and applied two types of methodologies, based on both the AEHESIS project (Petry, 2006) and documentation from the European Observatory of Sports employment, (EOSE, 2009) to develop and describe learning outcomes and assessment methods. An additional important question to address when implementing a new educational structure in coach education has been validation of prior learning (CEDEFOP, 2007) , i.e. recognizing the formal, informal and non formal strategies that have been used on an individual basis to develop the competency needed for the coaching profession. Participants: Based on the participation of and cooperation between different types of organisations (institutions of higher education, national confederations, and national sport federations) in Hungary, Denmark and Sweden, the project “Improving transparency in European Sport Coach Education” has resulted in a variety of outcomes that could be described as “good practice” in the area of coach education system development. Results: The outcomes from the project are both of tangible and intangible nature. On one hand there are results pertaining to such concrete issues as learning outcomes and assessment methods based on the concept of constructive alignment (ITESCE, 2010). On the other hand the project experience lead to realizations in regards to more abstract issues such as learning process (ITESCE, 2010), procedure or course of action, in this project funded by the European commission´s life-long learning programmes through the Leonardo da Vinci initiative.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-11889 (URN)11473 (Local ID)11473 (Archive number)11473 (OAI)
Conference
ICCE Continental Coach Conference, Arnhem, Netherlands (2010)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Engblom, H., Steding, K., Carlsson, M., Mosén, H., Hedén, B., Buhre, T., . . . Arheden, H. (2010). Peak oxygen uptake in relation to total heart volume discriminates heart failure patients from healthy volunteers and athletes (ed.). Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 12(1), Article ID 74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peak oxygen uptake in relation to total heart volume discriminates heart failure patients from healthy volunteers and athletes
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, ISSN 1097-6647, E-ISSN 1532-429X, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background An early sign of heart failure (HF) is a decreased cardiac reserve or inability to adequately increase cardiac output during exercise. Under normal circumstances maximal cardiac output is closely related to peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) which has previously been shown to be closely related to total heart volume (THV). Thus, the aim of this study was to derive a VO2peak/THV ratio and to test the hypothesis that this ratio can be used to distinguish patients with HF from healthy volunteers and endurance athletes. Thirty-one patients with HF of different etiologies were retrospectively included and 131 control subjects (60 healthy volunteers and 71 athletes) were prospectively enrolled. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by maximal exercise test and THV was determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. The VO2peak/THV ratio was then derived and tested. Results Peak oxygen uptake was strongly correlated to THV (r2=0.74, p<0.001) in the control subjects, but not for the patients (r2=0.0002, p=0.95). The VO2peak/THV ratio differed significantly between control subjects and patients, even in patients with normal ejection fraction and after normalizing for hemoglobin levels (p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis the VO2peak/THV ratio was the only independent predictor of presence of HF (p<0.001). Conclusions The VO2peak/THV ratio can be used to distinguish patients with clinically diagnosed HF from healthy volunteers and athletes, even in patients with preserved systolic left ventricular function and after normalizing for hemoglobin levels.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14543 (URN)10.1186/1532-429X-12-74 (DOI)000286282600001 ()21162743 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79952788320 (Scopus ID)11183 (Local ID)11183 (Archive number)11183 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Steding, K., Engblom, H., Buhre, T., Carlsson, M., Mosén, H., Wolhfart, B. & Arheden, H. (2010). Relation between cardiac dimensions and peak oxygen uptake (ed.). Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 12(1), Article ID 8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relation between cardiac dimensions and peak oxygen uptake
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, ISSN 1097-6647, E-ISSN 1532-429X, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract Background: Long term endurance training is known to increase peak oxygen uptake ( VO2peak ) and induce morphological changes of the heart such as increased left ventricular mass (LVM). However, the relationship between VO2peak and the total heart volume (THV), considering both the left and right ventricular dimensions in both males and females, is not completely described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that THV is an independent predictor of VO2peak and to determine if the left and right ventricles enlarge in the same order of magnitude in males and females with a presumed wide range of THV. Methods and Results: The study population consisted of 131 subjects of whom 71 were athletes (30 female) and 60 healthy controls (20 female). All subjects underwent cardiovascular MR and maximal incremental exercise test. Total heart volume, LVM and left- and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV, RVEDV) were calculated from short-axis images. VO2peak was significantly correlated to THV, LVM, LVEDV and RVEDV in both males and females. Multivariable analysis showed that THV was a strong, independent predictor of VO2peak (R2 = 0.74, p <0.001). As LVEDV increased, RVEDV increased in the same order of magnitude in both males and females (R2 = 0.87,p < 0.001). Conclusion: Total heart volume is a strong, independent predictor of maximal work capacity for both males and females. Long term endurance training is associated with a physiologically enlarged heart with a balance between the left and right ventricular dimensions in both genders.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14452 (URN)10.1186/1532-429X-12-8 (DOI)000274785300001 ()20122149 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77952536031 (Scopus ID)11180 (Local ID)11180 (Archive number)11180 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
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