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Björk, Fredrik
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Björk, F. (2017). ’Gross National Happiness’: Romantic dream or serious alternative? (ed.). Paper presented at Society, economy and economic science, Kyiv, Ukraine (21-22 april 2017). Paper presented at Society, economy and economic science, Kyiv, Ukraine (21-22 april 2017). : Vadym Hetman National Economy University, Kyiv (Ukraine)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>’Gross National Happiness’: Romantic dream or serious alternative?
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It has been conclusive shown that the paradigm of economic growth, and more specifically, of GDP, is seriously flawed and is providing incentives for socially as well as ecologically unsustainable systems (Stiglitz, Sen & Fitoussi 2009, Fioramonti 2017). However, the alternative measurement frameworks that have been suggested have, with some, mostly local or regional exceptions, had little impact on policy structure. Largelly, they have provided indexes, which enthusiasts have shared in social media, but where impact in actual policy making have been marginal. In this paper, the focus will be on the one exception: Bhutan, where the concept of ’Gross National Happiness’, GNH, was coined more than four decades ago, but was not operationalized as a policy tool until in the 2000s (Göpel 2016). Bhutan, and the concept of GNH, has been highlighted in a number of contexts such as biodiversity, carbon neutrality, as well as social dimensions. The question, however, is to what extent the experience of Bhutan is relevant for industrialized countries. For Bhutan, the process was not about a transition from a fossil-fueled economy, but about having a choice of what direction the country’s development should take (McDonald 2010). Still, the indicators and that have been developed as part of the GNH framework are familliar to those that work with sustainability indicators in general, with some notable exceptions – such as the emphasis on culture, heritage and spiritual dimensions (Brooks 2013). In this presentation, the ambition is to discuss the challenges and possibilities of the GNH concept, and to what extent its possible to implement aspects of GNH in industrial/post-industrial capitalist economies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vadym Hetman National Economy University, Kyiv (Ukraine), 2017
Keywords
Gross national happiness, sustainability, economic growth
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-10853 (URN)27193 (Local ID)27193 (Archive number)27193 (OAI)
Conference
Society, economy and economic science, Kyiv, Ukraine (21-22 april 2017)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Augustinsson, E., Backström, C., Björk, F. & Lövgren, M.-L. (2016). Arbetsintegrerande sociala företag (ed.). : Regeringen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbetsintegrerande sociala företag
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

En av de stora samhällsutmaningarna som vi står inför idag är ett ökande utanförskap och en av orsakerna till ett ökat utanförskap är arbetslöshet. Denna rapport beskriver några nya sätt att skapa arbetstillfällen, framförallt för människor som står långt ifrån arbetsmarknaden. Det kan vara människor med funktionsnedsättning, med invandrarbakgrund, som fastnat i långtidsarbetslöshet etc. Rapporten belyser några av de insatser som pågår idag för att skapa arbeten för dessa grupper genom framväxten av socialt företagande med det primära målet att få människor i sysselsättning

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Regeringen, 2016. p. 35
Keywords
socialt företagande, social innovation, arbetsintegrerande sociala företag, impact investment, social effektmätning, sociala investeringar
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-13304 (URN)27191 (Local ID)27191 (Archive number)27191 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Björk, F. & Johansson, R. (2016). Malmö's history after 1850': Co-creating Malmö's history (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Reinterpreting cities, Helsinki, Finland (2016-08-24 - 2016-08-27).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Malmö's history after 1850': Co-creating Malmö's history
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Keywords
Urban history
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-11074 (URN)27192 (Local ID)27192 (Archive number)27192 (OAI)
Conference
Reinterpreting cities, Helsinki, Finland (2016-08-24 - 2016-08-27)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved
Håkansson, P., Björk, F., Brunnström, P., Lindholm, T., Lundberg, S. & Ristilammi, P.-M. (2016). New voices in the narratives of the city (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Reinterpreting cities, EAUH, Helsinki, Finland (2016-08-24 - 2016-08-27).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New voices in the narratives of the city
Show others...
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A collection of city walks showing the history of Malmö has been translated into Arabic, and 19 Arabic speaking guides have been trained to show the city to an audience of visitors and residents. The Institute of the History of Malmö is planning a research project regarding what happens to the city’s narratives when new narrators and a new audience receive them, in a language that is new to the context. In the first part of the project we have interviewed guides about their role in narrating the history of the city, why they chose to be part of the project and what they what to achieve by guiding. Malmö is not today, and has never been, a homogenous city. The last few decades this has become a central part of the city’s identity. Although housing segregation is just as important as in other cities, people seem to feel that the segregation of public space is less obvious here. This contributes to a sense of “us” that includes differences on many levels, a complex and heterogeneous identity that this project seeks to contribute to. The research project accompanying the translated guided walks will take particular interest in three points: 1) How do the narratives change when new narrators and a new audience take them on? The guides’ and the audience’s relation to Malmö, their social and cultural references and relations to various collectives in the city will affect the narratives, we want to know how. 2) How do the narratives change by being linguistically translated from the language involved in the creation of the place to a language with other frames of reference? 3) How are the new narratives brbrought back and allowed to affect the hegemonic narratives of the city?

Keywords
Urban history, cultural heritage, historical walking tours, memory, spatiality, master narrative
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-16464 (URN)27194 (Local ID)27194 (Archive number)27194 (OAI)
Conference
Reinterpreting cities, EAUH, Helsinki, Finland (2016-08-24 - 2016-08-27)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Björk, F. & Edvik, A. (2016). Organizing for urban farming: Knowledge sharing in cross-sectorial networks (ed.). Paper presented at Sustainable City Development 2016, Malmö, Sweden (2016-11-30 - 2016-12-02). Paper presented at Sustainable City Development 2016, Malmö, Sweden (2016-11-30 - 2016-12-02).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizing for urban farming: Knowledge sharing in cross-sectorial networks
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During recent years, urban farming has increasingly been regarded as an important strategic approach to sustainable urban development. The aspects that urban farming are said to aim towards spans the whole spectrum of urban sustainability – from access to healthy food to increased biodiversity and social cohesion (Cockrall-King 2012; Bendt, Barthel & Colding 2013). While projects and inspirational activities have largelly focused on farming itself, less attention have been directed towards organizational aspects. Managing and developing urban farming initiatives (often organized as non-profit organizations) means that organizations needs to navigate between and collaborate with a range of partners, many of whom are part of public administration. The diverse character of the organizations involved, and the different aims that these organizations have with urban farming initiatives, means that there will be colliding and contrasting institutional logics and rationalities. This may lead to conflicts, but can also promote innovation (Coule & Patmore 2013). Both for public administration and for urban farmers, access to knowledge is crucial to reach the aims of the initiative. Also, it is not uncommon that several public administration bodies have interest in the urban farming. A common response is to form loosely organized networks which include a wide range of actors. Sometimes, these networks may also achieve more formal status, such as the Guelph Wellington Food Round Table, in which the University play an important role (Hayhurst, Dietrich-O'connor, Hazen & Landman 2013) or the Toronto Food Policy Council, initiated by the health department of the City of Toronto (Blay-Palmer 2009). An interesting example of local governance, is Malmö Stadsodlingsnätverk. In 2011, environmental coordinators in one of the City of Malmö’s departments decided to call for a network meeting, where anybody who had an interest in urban farming could participate. Five years later, this loosely coordinated network is still active. It includes public servants, urban farmers, non-profit organizations, activists and others (Larsson 2015). This form of organizing in the field of sustainability is interesting in several ways. By not having a formal role, it is difficult to use the structure to excercise power. Rather, the structure enables an exchange of knowledge between peers. Relevant knowledge and engagement are the factors that give participants legitimacy. With no administrative structure, knowledge sharing can be extremely efficient but at the same time difficult to plan or control. Using concepts from Svensson & Von Otter (2001) this may be regarded as a network- or activation strategy. A key question, however, is to what extent this networked or activation strategy will work if urban farming in Malmö continues to grow and take new forms, such as more commercially oriented activities. Formalizing the structure might lead to a situation where competing institutional logics become more pronounced, and may lead to less knowledge sharing and de-legitimize the network. The aim of our presentation is to discuss aspects of organizing for sustainability, using examples from urban farming. We suggest that these forms of organizing, which have taken similar form in different contexts, may also be relevant for other fields of urban sustainability, where cross-sector collaboration and knowledge sharing are crucial. References: Bendt, Pim; Barthel, Stephan & Colding, Johan (2013). Civic greening and environmental learning in public-access community gardens in Berlin. Landscape and Urban Planning. No. 1, pp. 18-30. Blay-Palmer, Alison (2009). The Canadian Pioneer: The Birth Generics of Urban Food Policy in Toronto”.  Journal of International Planning Studies. No. 4, pp.401-416.  Cockrall-King, Jennifer (2011). Food and the City. Urban agriculture and the new food revolution. New York: Prometheus Books. Coule, T. & Patmore, B. (2013). Institutional logics, institutional work, and public service innovation in non‐profit organizations. Public Administration, vol. 91, no. 4, pp.980-997. Hayhurst, R., Dietrich-O'connor, F., Hazen, S. & Landman, K. (2013): Community-based research for food system policy development in the City of Guelph, Ontario. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, 18:5, 606-619 Larsson, A. (2015). Odling över gränser. Malmö: Stadsområde Norr Svensson, L. & von Otter, C. (2001). Projektarbete: Teori och praktik. Med sagan om diamanten som sprängdes, Stockholm: Santérus.

Keywords
sustainable development, urban farming, urban gardening, cross-sector collaboration, governance, institutional theory, organizational theory
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-10912 (URN)27195 (Local ID)27195 (Archive number)27195 (OAI)
Conference
Sustainable City Development 2016, Malmö, Sweden (2016-11-30 - 2016-12-02)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Edvik, A. & Björk, F. (2016). Social Change Through Temporary Short-term Interventions: The Role of Legitimacy in Organizing Social Innovation. In: Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Roger Spear (Ed.), Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Roger Spear (Ed.), Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives (pp. 198-214). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Change Through Temporary Short-term Interventions: The Role of Legitimacy in Organizing Social Innovation
2016 (English)In: Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives / [ed] Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Roger Spear, Routledge, 2016, p. 198-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The literature on social innovation is growing quickly, covering many aspects of the phenomenon. However, in this chapter, we argue that organizational aspects of social innovation is a topic that deserves more attention. Using institutional theory, more specifically, the concept of legitimacy, the aim is to look at why project grants have become an important way of organizing social innovation processes, especially those that are structured around cross-sector collaboration. The argument is illustrated by five examples of initiatives working with social innovation and social entrepreneurship in the Region of Skåne in southern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2016
Series
Routledge studies in social enterprise & social innovation
Keywords
social innovation, legitimacy, projects, social innovation ecosystem, penta helix
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-9556 (URN)27200 (Local ID)978-1-138-65626-0 (ISBN)27200 (Archive number)27200 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Noväng, L., Johansson, P. & Björk, F. (2015). Challenging Power in the Public Debate: The Conversation as a Commons (ed.). Paper presented at 'The City as a commons' 1st Thematic IASC-Conference on Urban Commons, Bologna, Italy (November 6, 2015 – November 7, 2015). Paper presented at 'The City as a commons' 1st Thematic IASC-Conference on Urban Commons, Bologna, Italy (November 6, 2015 – November 7, 2015). : Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Power in the Public Debate: The Conversation as a Commons
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the discussion on urban governance and the commons, surprisingly little attention is targeted towards the underlying structures of political debate – in media as well as in physical space – where the agendas and speaking orders are predetermined by established power structures. Invitations to panels and seminars, moderation are guided by already evident positions in the discourse and landscape of power, based on institutionalized perceived “expertise” – academic or otherwise – or a position of power, by being a “decision maker”. Sometimes a random representative of “the public” or from “vulnerable groups” may be invited to provide “diversity”. But the structure is already given and institutionalized, and thus the outcome will rarely be something else than a pure reproduction of the map of institutions and political power (McCann 2001). There are, however, alternative interventions that aim to challenge these structures, providing what might be understood as a commons of ideas and politics, focusing on unsettling formal structures of political debate. One such example is the Conversatory (“konversatoriet”, www.konversatoriet.se), an open source art-based research intervention (McNiff 2008) where all particpants are required to leave behind their formal attributes of power and engage in a conversation where ideas and human experiences are at the center. In this presentation, we will discuss and analyze the implications of alternative modes of political discussion and debate, such as the Conversatory, and the possibilities that lies here for a more commons-based exchange of ideas and possibly decision-making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2015
Keywords
Commons, citizenship, public debate
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-10992 (URN)21223 (Local ID)21223 (Archive number)21223 (OAI)
Conference
'The City as a commons' 1st Thematic IASC-Conference on Urban Commons, Bologna, Italy (November 6, 2015 – November 7, 2015)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Björk, F., Hansson, J., Lundborg, D. & Olofsson, L.-E. (2014). An Ecosystem for Social Innovation in Sweden: A strategic research and innovation agenda (ed.). : Institute for Educational Sciences, Lund University, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ecosystem for Social Innovation in Sweden: A strategic research and innovation agenda
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report represents the continuation of a national dialog among actors across Sweden with the aim of identifying promising areas of development for the social innovation system. The output of this dialog is a list of suggestions that would support the advancement of social innovation knowledge and practice within academia, the public sector, civil society and business. The recommendations put forward in this agenda aim to leverage the growth of individuals and organizations wanting to develop social innovations that assist in addressing societal challenges in line with the European Union’s and Sweden’s innovation policy strategies (the explicit targets of addressing grand societal challenges).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute for Educational Sciences, Lund University, Sweden, 2014. p. 43
Keywords
social innovation, infrastructure, societal challenges, research
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-13329 (URN)18345 (Local ID)18345 (Archive number)18345 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Björk, F. (2014). Att göra social förändring: en bok om Sofielund Agency (ed.). : Glokala Folkhögskolan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att göra social förändring: en bok om Sofielund Agency
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Glokala Folkhögskolan, 2014. p. 97
Series
Att bygga den glokala staden, ISSN 1654-2649 ; 4
Keywords
Social innovation, Projektledning
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-13350 (URN)20243 (Local ID)978-91-976877-3-7 (ISBN)20243 (Archive number)20243 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Calzada, I. & Björk, F. (2014). Cross Border City-Regions Beyond Nation-States: Basque & Oresund Comparative Cases (ed.). Paper presented at Diverse Regions: Building Resilient Communities and Territories, Izmir, Turkey (2014). Paper presented at Diverse Regions: Building Resilient Communities and Territories, Izmir, Turkey (2014).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross Border City-Regions Beyond Nation-States: Basque & Oresund Comparative Cases
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
Regional development, City-regions, Cross-border cooperation, Entreprenurship
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-11000 (URN)20244 (Local ID)20244 (Archive number)20244 (OAI)
Conference
Diverse Regions: Building Resilient Communities and Territories, Izmir, Turkey (2014)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
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