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Wigerfelt, Berit
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Wallengren, S., Wigerfelt, A., Wigerfelt, B. & Mellgren, C. (2023). Trust Toward the Criminal Justice System Among Swedish Roma: A Mixed-Methodology Approach. Race and Justice, 13(2), 207-230, Article ID 2153368720930405.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trust Toward the Criminal Justice System Among Swedish Roma: A Mixed-Methodology Approach
2023 (English)In: Race and Justice, E-ISSN 2153-3687, ISSN 2153-3687, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 207-230, article id 2153368720930405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Minority populations' trust toward the criminal justice system is understudied in many parts of Europe, including Sweden. This article will contribute to this field by examining the trust in the criminal justice system among the Roma community in Sweden. The aim of the study was to (1) estimate the Roma community's trust toward the criminal justice system, (2) examine what factors influence the community's trust toward the criminal justice system, and (3) analyze whether trust toward the authorities influences the Roma community's willingness to report victimization. The study used a mixed-methodology design in combining survey data (n = 610) with in-depth interviews (N = 30). The findings show that the respondents have a low level of trust in the criminal justice system authorities. According to the regression analysis, the strongest predictor of trust was shown to be explained by the respondent's perception of procedural unfairness. Qualitative findings supported these results while also highlighting cultural effects and historical processes that explain the community's lack of trust. Finally, trust in the authorities seems to be an important factor that influences crime reporting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
criminal justice system, trust, police, minority, Roma
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-17755 (URN)10.1177/2153368720930405 (DOI)000538102700001 ()2-s2.0-85085943376 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-07-14 Created: 2020-07-14 Last updated: 2023-07-28Bibliographically approved
Wallengren, S., Wigerfelt, A., Wigerfelt, B. & Mellgren, C. (2020). Visibility and vulnerability: A mixed methodology approach to studying Roma individuals’ victimization experiences (ed.). International Review of Victimology, 26(3), 276-294
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visibility and vulnerability: A mixed methodology approach to studying Roma individuals’ victimization experiences
2020 (English)In: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 276-294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study examines the prevalence and impact of victimization among a sample of Roma individuals in Malmö and Gothenburg (Sweden). The aim of the study was to examine the link between visibility and victimization, and whether the Roma community employs behavioural strategies to reduce visibility, and, finally, to analyse how such strategies affect the group. The study design combines survey data (n1⁄4610) with interviews (n1⁄430). The findings suggest that visibility is an important risk factor for victimization and that the study participants’ attempt to conceal their ethnicity affects them negatively both at an individual and a community level. The discussion concludes by presenting a number of policy implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2020
Keywords
hate crime, Roma, Victimization, stigma, visibility
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-1498 (URN)10.1177/0269758019885676 (DOI)000496683300001 ()22973420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85075123876 (Scopus ID)30494 (Local ID)30494 (Archive number)30494 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, B. & Wigerfelt, A. S. (2017). Hatbrott med främlingsfientliga och rasistiska motiv: en kunskapsöversikt. Delegationen för migrationsstudier (Delmi)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hatbrott med främlingsfientliga och rasistiska motiv: en kunskapsöversikt
2017 (Swedish)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Kränkningar och hatbrott baserade på grupptillhörighet kan förutom offret själv även påverka offrets grupp, andra sårbara grupper samt samhället i stort. Syftet med den här kunskapsöversikten är att ge en överblick över den aktuella forsknin- gen om hatbrott både internationellt och i Sverige. Vårt fokus ligger på främlings- fientliga och rasistiska hatbrott (afrofobiska och antiromska hatbrott närmare bestämt) samt antisemitiska och islamofobiska hatbrott. I kunskapsöversikten di- skuteras även definitioner av hatbrottsbegreppet, lagstiftningens framväxt samt teorier om orsaker och beteenden vid hatbrott. Svensk lagstiftning innehåller inte någon egentlig juridisk definition av hatbrott. Det är med andra ord inte en egen brottsrubricering. År 1994 infördes emellertid en regel som anger att straffskärpning kan tillämpas om motivet är att kränka någon på grund av ras, hudfärg, nationellt eller etniskt ursprung, trosbekännelse eller (från 2002) sexuell läggning eller annan liknande omständighet (BrB 29 kap. 2§ 7p). Det är brott som faller inom ramen för denna straffskärpningsregel som kallas hatbrott i dagligt tal. Många forskare hävdar att ett hatbrott är värre än samma brott utan hatmotiv, eft- ersom hatbrottet ger en signal till gruppen som offret anses tillhöra att de ”ska veta sin plats” i hierarkin, och eftersom de psykiska skadorna kan bli långvariga för den utsatte eller för gruppen som påverkas indirekt. Hatbrott kan också leda till allmänt ökande motsättningar i samhället och motverka integrationen av mi- noritetsgrupper. Man kan ha olika åsikter om det är bra eller dåligt med straffskärpning för gärn- ingar med hatmotiv. Vi vill poängtera att straffskärpning markerar att det är oac- ceptabelt att begå brott mot personer därför att de tillhör eller uppfattas tillhöra en speciell grupp. Hårdare straff är ett sätt att rikta strålkastarna mot hatbrott som ett viktigt samhälleligt och demokratiskt problem. Det är osäkert hur många som utsätts för hatbrott. Brottsförebyggande rådet (Brå) anger i en rapport att drygt 6 200 hatbrott anmäldes 2014, en ökning med cirka 700 fall jämfört med året före. Av dessa anmälningar hade 69 procent (drygt 4 310 anmälningar) ett främlingsfientligt eller rasistiskt motiv (varav underavdelningar- na afrofobiska utgjorde 25 procent och antiromska 7 procent). Åtta procent (490) av anmälningarna handlade om islamofobiska motiv och 4 procent (270) hade an- tisemitiska motiv. Både Brå och Nationella trygghetsundersökningen (NTU, 2014), som återkommande följer upp tillgänglig statistik över anmälda hatbrott, uppskat- tar att mörkertalet är stort. Många hatbrott anmäls antagligen inte. Den här kunskapsöversikten redogör för några förklaringar till detta: händelsen bedöms som trivial; den utsatta personen känner skam och vill inte figurera i en rättsprocess; den utsatta tror inte att en polisanmälan leder till något; offret lever som papperslös; man är rädd för ve- dergällning från förövare eller har bristande tillit till rättsväsendet. För att få individer och grupper med låg benägenhet att anmäla hatbrott att vilja kontakta polisen, är det viktigt att skapa bättre förtroende mellan parterna. Även åklagarna har en mycket viktig roll i rättskedjan och behöver, liksom polisen och domstolarna, kontinuerlig utbildning om hatbrott. Denna forskningsöversikt tyder på att det finns många och komplexa orsaker ba- kom hatbrott. Men på ett grundläggande plan handlar det om historiskt och kul- turellt rotade fördomar och om hat mot dem som anses avvika. Eftersom fördomar är en del av maktrelationer och allmänna diskurser, behövs breda, långsiktiga lösningar kring kränkningar och hatbrott – det räcker inte med effektivare lag- stiftning och rättssystem. Även strukturella och institutionella åtgärder är viktiga instrument. Det finns många studier om enskilda individer som utsatts för hatbrott. Ändå saknar vi delvis kunskap om konsekvenserna av hatbrott för särskilt utsatta grup- per. Här behövs komparativa studier på gruppnivå och samhällsnivå. Hur skilda grupper hanterar utsatthet och hur och varför det skiljer sig mellan individer i sam- ma grupp, är andra angelägna forskningsområden. Kunskapsöversikten visar att det över huvud taget behövs fler studier inom hat- brottsområdet. Ofta utsatta grupper bör jämföras med varandra avseende orsak- erna till utsatthet, historisk bakgrund och möjliga åtgärder för att minska hatbrotten. Mer forskning krävs även om begreppet hatbrott, vad det betyder inom olika kontexter och vilka signaler det ger. Inte minst behövs teorier som specifikt passar hatbrottsfältet. Det finns ett fåtal forskningsstudier om medias och sociala me- diers påverkan på hatbrott, men fördjupningar är önskvärda. I detta sammanhang bör kopplingen mellan attityder och beteenden bli föremål för ytterligare studier. Dessutom är det angeläget att fylla kunskapsluckorna om hur hatbrott i allmänhet kan förebyggas.

Abstract [en]

Violations and hate crimes based on group membership can, in addition to the vic- tim itself, also affect the victim’s group, other vulnerable groups and society at large. The purpose of this research overview is to provide an insight into the available re- search literature on hate crimes, both internationally and in Sweden. Our focus is on xenophobic and racist hate crimes, specifically Afrophobic and anti-Roma, as well as anti-Semitic and Islamophobic hate crimes. The overview also discusses definitions of the concept of hate crime, the emergence of the legislation and theories about the causes and behaviors in connection to hate crimes. There is no proper legal definition of hate crimes in Swedish legislation. Hate crime, in other words, is not an offense on its own. In 1994, however, a rule was introduced which states that a sentence enhancement can be applied if the motive is to harm someone because of race, color, national or ethnic origin, religious beliefs, or (since 2002) sexual orientation or other similar circumstance (Penal Code 29 chapter 2 §7p). It is the crimes that fall within the framework of this enhanced sentence rule that are colloquially called hate crimes. Many researchers argue that a hate crime is worse than an equivalent crime without a hate motive because it gives a signal to the group to which the victim is considered to belong that they “should know their place” in the hierarchy, and that the psycholog- ical damage can be long-lasting for the victim or the group that is indirectly affected. Hate crimes may also lead to a general increase of tensions between different groups, which can counteract the integration of minority groups in society. There are different opinions on whether sentence enhancement is equitable for acts where the motive is to harm someone because of their perceived membership of a racial or ethnic group, religious belief or sexual orientation. We want to stress that the purpose of sentence enhancement is to emphasize that it is unacceptable to commit crimes against persons because they belong or are perceived to belong to a special group. Tougher penalties are consequently a way to put the spotlight on hate crimes as a major social and democratic problem.  The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ) states in a report that over 6,200 hate crimes were reported in 2014, an increase of about 700 cases since 2013. Of these allegations, 69 percent had a xenophobic or racist motive (of which, the sub- divisions of Afrophobic hate crimes constituted 25 percent and anti-Roma 7 percent). In 8 percent of the complaints, it was about Islamophobic motives and 4 percent had anti-Semitic motives. Both the Swedish Council for Crime Prevention and the National Crime Survey (NTU, 2014), which repeatedly follows up on available statistics on re- ported hate crimes, estimates that the number of unreported cases is high. This research overview describes some explanations for this, namely that the incident is deemed trivial, the victim is ashamed and does not want to figure in a lawsuit, the victim does not think that a police report will lead to any results, the victim is an un- documented migrant, the victim is afraid of retaliation from the perpetrator or have a lack of trust in the judicial system. To get individuals and groups with a low propen- sity to report hate crimes, it is important to improve trust between these individuals/ groups and the police. Even prosecutors have a very important role in the legal pro- cess and need, along with the police and courts, continuous training on hate crimes. The research overview suggests that the reasons behind hate crimes are many and complex. At a fundamental level, however, it is about historically and culturally root- ed prejudices and hatred toward those who are different. Since prejudices are a part of power relations and public discourses, long-term solutions regarding harassment and hate crimes should be more comprehensive than just effective regulations and legal systems. Even structural and institutional measures are important to consider. Although there are many studies on individual victims of hate crimes, there is a lack of knowledge about the consequences for particularly vulnerable groups. Hence, there is a need for comparative studies on the consequences for separate categories at a group and community level, as well as research on how different groups manage vul- nerability and how and why it differs between individuals of the same group. In an overall perspective, the research overview indicates that more studies are need- ed on the subject of hate crimes. Often victimized groups should be compared regard- ing causes of vulnerability, historical background and possible measures to reduce hate crimes. It is also important that further research is conducted on the concept of hate crimes, the meaning of hate crimes in different contexts and what signals it  gives. Not least, there is a great need of theories that are specifically customized for the research field of hate crimes. There is some research on media and social media’s impact on hate crimes, but these studies are few in number and a deeper understand- ing of the problem is desirable. In this context, the connection between attitudes and behavior is also in need of further investigation. In addition, it is urgent to cope with the knowledge gaps about how hate crimes in general can be prevented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Delegationen för migrationsstudier (Delmi), 2017. p. 90
Series
Delmi rapport ; 2017:2
Keywords
hatbrott, kunskapsöversikt, afrofobiska, antisemitiska, antiromska, islamofobiska, policy
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-8015 (URN)22469 (Local ID)978-91-88021-19-9 (ISBN)22469 (Archive number)22469 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, A. & Wigerfelt, B. (2016). Media Images and Experiences of being a Jew in the Swedish City of Malmö (ed.). SAGE Open, 6(1), 1-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media Images and Experiences of being a Jew in the Swedish City of Malmö
2016 (English)In: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of high-profile incidents in and after 2008 placed Malmö in southern Sweden on the national and international map as a place that was unsafe for people identified as Jews. The primary aim of this article is to explore and exemplify what it is like to live with Jewish identity in Malmö within a framework of how the media reports anti-Semitism and how this group copes with being the potential target of anti-Semitic harassment and hate crime. Based on interviews with people with Jewish identity in Malmö, we analyze and discuss their experiences using different themes, such as violent and everyday anti-Semitism, the local impact of the Israel–Palestine conflict, how media images affect their lives, and how exposure and vulnerability are dealt with. The findings are important in terms of both possible long-term measures against anti-Semitism and as immediate support for those targeted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
Keywords
Anti-semitism, hate crime, harassment, media images, Malmö
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14353 (URN)10.1177/2158244016633739 (DOI)000458981700024 ()2-s2.0-84976472829 (Scopus ID)20377 (Local ID)20377 (Archive number)20377 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, B. & Wigerfelt, A. S. (2015). Anti-gypsyism in Sweden: Roma´s and Travllers´Experiences of Bias-motivated Crime (ed.). Internet Journal of Criminology (6743), 1-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-gypsyism in Sweden: Roma´s and Travllers´Experiences of Bias-motivated Crime
2015 (English)In: Internet Journal of Criminology, E-ISSN 2045-6743, no 6743, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hundreds of Roma have been murdered in hate crime attacks in recent years in several European states. Even though anti-gypsyism has many common characteristics, its expression can differ in different countries. Despite the Nordic countries having recently become a “migration hot spot”, when it comes to Roma, very few studies of hate crimes against Roma have been conducted in Scandinavia. This article, which is mostly based on in-depth interviews, is therefore an important contribution to the research field of hate crimes against Roma. The purpose of the article is to examine and exploit Roma experiences of everyday harassment, discrimination and hate crime and to discuss the usefulness of the hate crime concept in the work to combat anti-gypsyism. The interviewed Roma´s narratives clearly show that prejudices against and the discrimination of Roma are part and parcel of the everyday and influence their lives in many respects. Some of the interviews show that as a Traveller/Roma you are exposed to physical violence and death threats. Despite this many of the victims do not report such incidents. This suggests that the number of unrecorded cases could be considerable. The damage that hate crime does is spread beyond the individual to the victim´s entire group. These crimes constitute “message crimes” and tell the victim´s group that they can also be targeted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York University Press, 2015
Keywords
Hate Crime, Roma´s, Travellers
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-1842 (URN)18681 (Local ID)18681 (Archive number)18681 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, B. & Wigerfelt, A. S. (2015). Antisemitiska och antiromska hatbrott i Sverige: erfarenheter, konsekvenser och hantering av utsatthet (ed.). Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, 22(3-4), 265-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antisemitiska och antiromska hatbrott i Sverige: erfarenheter, konsekvenser och hantering av utsatthet
2015 (Swedish)In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 265-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anti-Semitic and anti-Roma hate crimes in Sweden – Experiences, consequences and coping

Based on interviews, the purpose of the article is to study how Roma and Jews experience every- day violations and hate crime and how the victims deal with this exposure. The victims’ narratives are analysed using, for example, theories and research on anti-Semitism, anti-Ziganism, everyday racism and power relations. During the post-war period Jews have largely been seen by the majo- rity population as belonging to the white ”Swedishness”, while the Roma belong to one of many deeply despised minorities that often are exposed to everyday violations and hate crime. However, there is anti-Semitism in Sweden that in certain situations and circumstances is explicitly expres- sed in the form of abuse, threats or violence. The article describes and analyses how the victims of hate crime deal with this exposure and how the crimes affect them. Some Roma and Jews ”are forced” to live a kind of double life because they are afraid of being ”exposed” as a Roma or a Jew. For example, Jewish and Roma symbols are often spontaneously concealed. The damage that hate crime causes is spread beyond the individual to the victim’s entire group, a form of ”message crimes”. The consequences for the individual concerned can be very serious. Roma and Jewish groups as a whole can also be affected by the restrictions imposed on their lives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Förbundet för forskning i socialt arbete (FORSA), 2015
Keywords
Antisemitic, anti-Roma, Hate crime, Experience, consequences, coping
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-2063 (URN)10.3384/SVT.2015.22.3-4.2341 (DOI)21322 (Local ID)21322 (Archive number)21322 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, A. S., Wigerfelt, B. & Dahlstrand, K. (2015). Online Hate Crime: Social Norms and the Legal System (ed.). Quaestio Iuris, 8(3), 1859-1878
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Hate Crime: Social Norms and the Legal System
2015 (English)In: Quaestio Iuris, ISSN 1516-0351, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1859-1878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A central point of departure for this socio-legal study about online hate crimes concerns the significance of analysing and understanding social norms in relation to these crimes on the Internet. This is of importance not least when one approaches the issue of how law and the legal system may contribute towards positive developments in this field and prevent hate crimes. It is apparent that law and social norms function concurrently in influencing behaviours. On the one hand, social norms have a strong impact on how law is formulated due to law typically being shaped to reflect the morals and values in society. On the other hand, the reverse effect can also play an important role: When law leads and paves the way for changed behaviours, it may in time produce changes in social norms. People tend to revaluate their views of right and wrong and adapt their values towards legally advocated behaviour. People also tend to make demands of their social environment in a manner that coincides with legally grounded values. Through clear legal signals, processes are initiated that have the potential, in time, to lead to changed social norms. People must, then, not only consider the legally constructed risk involved in being caught, sentenced and punished, we must also relate to the risk of being condemned by our fellow citizens. The empirical study is made in Sweden and the article present the Swedish legal and social context related to different hate crimes and how these phenomena are perceived among Swedish Internet users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Faculdade de Direito, 2015
Keywords
Hate Crime, Social Norms, Legal system
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-2138 (URN)000371427900024 ()19680 (Local ID)19680 (Archive number)19680 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, A. & Wigerfelt, B. (2014). A challange to multiculturalism: everyday racism and hate crime in a small Swedish town (ed.). Omnes: the journal of multicultural society, 5(1), 48-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A challange to multiculturalism: everyday racism and hate crime in a small Swedish town
2014 (English)In: Omnes: the journal of multicultural society, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 48-75Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

At times of economic decline, such as the deep economic crisis experienced in many European countries today, vulnerable groups can clash with other vulnerable groups. These clashes can be exploited by different political movements and individuals, who point to the Other and the multicultural society as the cause of society’s problems. This can result in intensified everyday racial violations, and an increase in violent hate crimes. A case study, from a small Swedish town in which an asylum seeker from The Ivory Coast was stabbed to death by extreme right-wing youths, illustrates how racist hate crime relates to discrimination and everyday harassment. The murder became a test case for what in Sweden later became known as hate crime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sookmyung Institute for Multicultural Studies, 2014
Keywords
Economic crisis, everyday racist harassment, racial violence, hate crime
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14366 (URN)17654 (Local ID)17654 (Archive number)17654 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, B. (2014). Skolintegration med förhinder (ed.). In: Ove Sernhede, Ingegerd Tallberg Broman (Ed.), Ove Sernhede, Ingegerd Tallberg Broman (Ed.), Segregation, utbildning och ovanliga lärprocesser: (pp. 39-53). : Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skolintegration med förhinder
2014 (Swedish)In: Segregation, utbildning och ovanliga lärprocesser / [ed] Ove Sernhede, Ingegerd Tallberg Broman, Liber, 2014, p. 39-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det finns en stor oro bland många skolaktörer över en tilltagande skolsegregation i Sverige. Artikeln fokuserar på hur olika aktörer förhöll sig till och upplevde den integrationsprocess som ägde rum mellan två skolor i Malmö mellan 2007 och 2010.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Liber, 2014
Keywords
integration, segregation, school
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-8969 (URN)18085 (Local ID)978-91-47-11154-1 (ISBN)18085 (Archive number)18085 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Wigerfelt, B., Wigerfelt, A. & Kiiskinen, J. (2014). When colour matters: policing and hate crime (ed.). Social Inclusion, 2(1), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When colour matters: policing and hate crime
2014 (English)In: Social Inclusion, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cogitatio Press, 2014
Keywords
borders, hate crime, private policing, public policing, profiling
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14393 (URN)10.17645/si.v2i1.31 (DOI)000218842600001 ()2-s2.0-84939636194 (Scopus ID)17657 (Local ID)17657 (Archive number)17657 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
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