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Levander, Sten
Publications (10 of 59) Show all publications
Svalin, K. & Levander, S. (2020). The Predictive Validity of Intimate Partner Violence Risk Assessments Conducted by Practitioners in Different Settings: a Review of the Literature (ed.). Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 35, 115-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Predictive Validity of Intimate Partner Violence Risk Assessments Conducted by Practitioners in Different Settings: a Review of the Literature
2020 (English)In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 35, p. 115-130Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health problem with severe consequences. One way to prevent repeat IPVis to identify the offender’s risk of recidivism by conducting a risk assessment and then implement interventions to reduce the risk. In order to be effective, accurate risk assessments and effective interventions are required. Practitioners in different settings are conducting IPV risk assessments, but the predictive validity of practitioners’ IPV assessments has not been studied via a comprehensive literature search. This is the overall aim of the present study. The literature search was conducted in five different databases and at three different publisher sites. The selection of studies was based on nine different inclusion and exclusion criteria. The number of studies that fulfilled the criteria was unexpectedly small (N = 11). One of the studies was conducted in a treatment setting, the others in criminal justice settings. The predictive accuracy for the global risk assessments ranged from low to medium. The role of treatment or other interventions to prevent repeat IPV had been analyzed in one way or another in eight of the studies. There is a knowledge gap, the reasons of which are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Intimate partner violence, Criminal justice settings, Violence risk assessment, Predictive validity
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-874 (URN)10.1007/s11896-019-09343-4 (DOI)000541810600001 ()2-s2.0-85070352922 (Scopus ID)29622 (Local ID)29622 (Archive number)29622 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Rasmussen, K., Palmstierna, T. & Levander, S. (2019). Differences in psychiatric problems and criminality between individuals treated with central stimulants before and after adulthood (ed.). Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(2), 173-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in psychiatric problems and criminality between individuals treated with central stimulants before and after adulthood
2019 (English)In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The evidence for central stimulant (CS) treatment in ADHD is strong in some respects but not with respect to unselected clinical material and long-term effects over the life course cycle. The objective of this study was to explore differences in vocational, psychiatric, and social impairment, including crime and substance abuse, among adults with ADHD, treated or not, with CS drugs before age 18. Method: A clinical population of men (N = 343) and women (N = 129) seeking CS treatment as adults was assessed within a specific program for such treatment. Clinical information and data collected by structured instruments were available. Results: Previously CS-treated persons had a lower frequency of problems (alcohol/substance abuse, criminality), and of certain psychiatric disorders (depressive, anxiety and personality ones). Most differences were substantial. Conclusion: The study supports the assumption that CS treatment during childhood/adolescence offers some protection against the development of a range of problems known to characterize adult ADHD patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
ADHD, central stimulant treatment, substance abuse, long term effects, criminality, depression, anxiety, personality disorders
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-4354 (URN)10.1177/1087054715571740 (DOI)000453416600007 ()25795454 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85011592809 (Scopus ID)19368 (Local ID)19368 (Archive number)19368 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Persson, K., Stjernswärd, S. & Levander, S. (2019). FAST-O works well for characterization and monitoring of sheltered housing schizophrenia patients (ed.). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 73(3), 207-210
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FAST-O works well for characterization and monitoring of sheltered housing schizophrenia patients
2019 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 207-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The de-institutionalizing process came to an end before the millennium shift by closing mental hospitals. After that some of the most ill patients are cared for in sheltered housing (SH). There is no in-house psychiatric competence and the staff on the floor usually lacks such knowledge and training. Observation instruments may improve this by making it possible to assess and monitor patients. Method: FAST-O is a simple twelve-item observation scale. Staff at eight SH units were trained in using the instrument and then assessed a total of 67 patients once, twice or three times at monthly intervals. Results: Ten items formed two highly homogenous subscales reflecting Social skills (Soc) and Excitation/Aggression (E/A). Depression and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) items were considered separately. The correlation pattern suggested that the ratings had construct validity. A cluster analysis identified three patient subgroups, of which one had very high E/A scores. Comparisons with reference data suggested that the average symptom level was on par with acutely admitted in-patients for this subgroup. In all groups, E/A symptoms varied considerably over time, the other symptoms were more stable. There were marked differences among the eight SH units with respect to the level of patient problems. Conclusions: The SH staff was able to produce valid FAST-O assessments. There are reference data which makes it possible to characterize individual patients as well as SH units with respect to treatment needs and safety aspects (for instance risk of violence).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
FAST-O, Schizophrenia, observation scales, percentile scores, sheltered housing, symptoms
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14838 (URN)10.1080/08039488.2019.1582696 (DOI)000465347800007 ()30888234 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063080583 (Scopus ID)28186 (Local ID)28186 (Archive number)28186 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Levander, S. (2019). Malmös undre värld: en socialantropologisk studie. In: Marie Väfors Fritz; Ardavan Khoshnood (Ed.), Marie Väfors Fritz, Ardavan Khoshnood (Ed.), Brottslighet och utsatthet i Malmö: (pp. 145-164). Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Malmös undre värld: en socialantropologisk studie
2019 (Swedish)In: Brottslighet och utsatthet i Malmö / [ed] Marie Väfors Fritz; Ardavan Khoshnood, Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 145-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Studentlitteratur AB, 2019
National Category
Social Anthropology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-8942 (URN)30691 (Local ID)978-91-44-12627-2 (ISBN)30691 (Archive number)30691 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Svalin, K., Mellgren, C., Torstensson Levander, M. & Levander, S. (2018). Police employees' violence risk assessments: the predictive validity of the B-SAFER and the significance of protective actions (ed.). International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 56, 71-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Police employees' violence risk assessments: the predictive validity of the B-SAFER and the significance of protective actions
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 56, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Violence risk assessment and management is conducted in police settings in order to prevent repeat victimization. One of the most frequently used violence risk assessment tools in this specific context is called the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER), which focuses on intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study examines B-SAFER assessments conducted by police employees, related protective actions and repeat IPV crimes in order to study: 1) to what extent risk- and victim vulnerability factors in the B-SAFER predicted global risk assessments, 2) the predictive accuracy of each B-SAFER item and the global risk assessments with regard to repeat IPV, 3) to what extent recommended protective actions were implemented and 4) the preventive effect of the implemented protective actions on repeat IPV. There were a large number of missing cases in the assessments and the risk and victim vulnerability factors only contributed to the global risk assessments to a minor extent. The predictive validity was low overall, few protective actions were implemented and those which were actually implemented did not appear to prevent repeat IPV. The continuous education and training of assessors is required to improve the work of violence risk assessment and management in police settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
violence, risk assessment, police, IPV, B-Safer
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14565 (URN)10.1016/j.ijlp.2017.09.001 (DOI)000424181700010 ()28954698 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029756745 (Scopus ID)23637 (Local ID)23637 (Archive number)23637 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Svalin, K., Mellgren, C., Torstensson Levander, M. & Levander, S. (2017). Assessing and managing risk for intimate partner violence: Police employees’ use of the Police Screening Tool for Violent Crimes in Scania (ed.). Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 18(1), 84-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing and managing risk for intimate partner violence: Police employees’ use of the Police Screening Tool for Violent Crimes in Scania
2017 (English)In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Relapse into intimate partner violence (IPV) can potentially be predicted and counter-measures applied. This study examines the predictive validity of a violence risk assessment tool: the Police Screening Tool for Violent Crimes (PST-VC) among a sample of 65 offenders. All PST-VC assessments regarding IPV that were conducted at the Scania police department in 2010 were included in the sample. Follow-up time was 16–28 months, and all reported incidents with the same victim and suspected offender were recorded. The PST-VC demonstrated limited effect in the ability to identify high-risk offenders and predict repeat victimization. Interventions against the offender and victim protective actions were more often recommended in high-risk cases but did not lower the number of IPV relapses. The study suggests that the PST-VC is not a promising instrument.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
intimate partner violence, violence risk assessment, police, victims, interventions, crime prevention
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15252 (URN)10.1080/14043858.2016.1260333 (DOI)2-s2.0-85002216167 (Scopus ID)21718 (Local ID)21718 (Archive number)21718 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Levander, S. (2017). Fem typer av psykiska störningar som poliser och andra inom rättsväsendet ofta möter: Kunskapsbaserade råd om bedömning och bemötande (ed.). Malmö högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fem typer av psykiska störningar som poliser och andra inom rättsväsendet ofta möter: Kunskapsbaserade råd om bedömning och bemötande
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Psykiska störningar är vanliga, och vissa av dem är kopplade med en betydligt ökad brottslighet. Ju mer man vet om dessa störningar desto bättre kan man hantera de problem som uppstår i närkontakten med sådana, oavsett om man är polis, arbetar inom socialtjänst, kriminal-vård eller psykiatri, eller är väktare. I dessa professioner möter man inte bara brottslingar – man möter också deras offer och ska anlägga ett psykologiskt första-förband. Man ställs också inför situationer där man får ansvar för initiala medicinska bedömningar. Läser man texten bör man bli bättre rustad i sådant arbete.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö högskola, 2017
Series
FoU-rapport, ISSN 1650-2337 ; 2017:2
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-13083 (URN)23538 (Local ID)978-91-7104-831-8 (ISBN)978-91-7104-830-1 (ISBN)23538 (Archive number)23538 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-29 Created: 2020-02-29 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Svalin, K., Mellgren, C., Torstensson Levander, M. & Levander, S. (2017). The Inter-Rater Reliability of Violence Risk Assessment Tools Used by Police Employees in Swedish Police Settings (ed.). Nordisk Politiforskning, 4(1), 9-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Inter-Rater Reliability of Violence Risk Assessment Tools Used by Police Employees in Swedish Police Settings
2017 (English)In: Nordisk Politiforskning, ISSN 1894-8693, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Risk assessments are used by the police in order to identify the need for victim protection. The aim of this study was to examine the inter-rater reliability of two violence risk assessment tools; the Police Screening Tool for Violent Crimes (PST-VC) and the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER), used by police employees in two different police authorities in Sweden. The inter-rater agreement was evaluated for both tools, with respect to global risk assessments, recommended protective actions and risk- and victim vulnerability factors. The main results showed that the inter-rater agreement was highest for the global assessments and widely varying, from very low to fairly high, for the structured variables. The fairly high reliability for the global risk assessments was most likely due to shared assumptions (heuristics, tacit knowledge) among the assessors rather than being based on the information obtained by the tools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitetsforlaget, 2017
Keywords
Violence risk assessments, crime prevention, police, inter rater reliability
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-15144 (URN)10.18261/issn.1894-8693-2017-01-03 (DOI)22699 (Local ID)22699 (Archive number)22699 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
Ivert, A.-K., Zyto, M., Adler, H., Torstensson Levander, M., Rydelius, P.-A. & Levander, S. (2016). Criminality among Former Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Patients and Matched Controls (ed.). Open Journal of Medical Psychology (6), 16-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criminality among Former Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Patients and Matched Controls
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Open Journal of Medical Psychology, ISSN 2165-9370, no 6, p. 16-30Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Externalizing symptoms in children (aggression, oppositionality, prop- erty and status violations), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) triad of problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity) display a substantial co- morbidity. The “short temper” problem is common to these syndromes, which are predictive of a range of negative life outcomes including substance abuse and crimi- nality in adulthood. There is a gender gap for the syndromes (boys are more af- fected), for criminality (men are more criminal) and knowledge (we know less about girls’ criminal careers). Aims: The main aim was to compare crime rates and crime profiles among former Child and Adolescent Psychiatric (CAP) patients with cor- responding data for matched controls, focusing externalizing and internalizing psy- chiatric symptoms, sex and adverse social factors. Method: Data for 6055 former CAP-Stockholm outpatients were extracted from available treatment registers. For each CAP patient, two matched controls from the general population were randomly selected from the same area of residence, of the same sex and with the same year of birth (N approx. 12,000). Data on criminality for these individuals were obtained from a Swedish police register which also includes crimes committed prior to age 15. Results: Overall, twice as many former CAP patients were registered for crimes at a mean age of 21.4 compared to the controls. The over-representation was larger for crimes of violence. Females were registered for a much lower number of crimes, par- ticularly crimes of violence (gender gap). The gender gap among the CAP patients was smaller than among controls. Compared with controls, CAP patients character- ized by externalizing problems at referral had an odds ratio (OR) for crimes of 5 for males and 10 for females. Neglect was the only adverse social factor which was asso- ciated with a higher crime rate and affected boys more than girls. Compared to pre- vious Swedish CAP cohorts, the criminality of the current cohort was much higher. Conclusion: In-depth studies of female crime careers characterized by externalising problems are needed. Child psychiatric services must find new and more effective ways of identifying and treating children with such problems, regardless of sex. The findings can guide the choice of strategies which will reduce crime rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2016
Keywords
Child and adolescent psychiatry, longitudinal, criminality, diagnosing, externalising, internalising, neglect
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-14688 (URN)10.4236/ojmp.2017.61002 (DOI)21716 (Local ID)21716 (Archive number)21716 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Levander, S. (2016). Diagnoser i psykiatrin (ed.). In: Kurt Almqvist (Ed.), Kurt Almqvist (Ed.), Diagnoser: (pp. 65-74). : Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse för allmännyttiga ändamål
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnoser i psykiatrin
2016 (Swedish)In: Diagnoser / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse för allmännyttiga ändamål , 2016, p. 65-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse för allmännyttiga ändamål, 2016
Keywords
diagnos, psykiatri
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-8964 (URN)20857 (Local ID)978-91-89672-78-9 (ISBN)20857 (Archive number)20857 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
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