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Strange, M. & Tucker, J. (2023). AI and the everyday political economy of global health (1ed.). In: Simon Lindgren (Ed.), Handbook of Critical Studies of Artificial Intelligence: (pp. 367-377). Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AI and the everyday political economy of global health
2023 (English)In: Handbook of Critical Studies of Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Simon Lindgren, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, 1, p. 367-377Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the last few years, we have seen an explosion in the scale and scope of AI health, a trend only exacerbated by COVID-19. Due to the uptake of AI applications in health, the global health landscape has seen significant shifts. To help understand this development and how best to achieve the potential of AI health technologies, it is necessary to critically look at the global political economy through which AI health technologies are made possible. There is a need to see this political economy as embedded in the everyday relations through which healthcare functions. The everyday level of how patients and healthcare professionals engage with AI health technology is essential to knowing how these new tools can help tackle forms of discrimination and other obstacles currently preventing universal health coverage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023 Edition: 1
Keywords
Healthcare, Everyday, Political economy, Global, Artificial intelligence, Ownership
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Research subject
Global politics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-63795 (URN)10.4337/9781803928562.00039 (DOI)978 1 80392 855 5 (ISBN)978 1 80392 856 2 (ISBN)
Funder
Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)
Available from: 2023-11-21 Created: 2023-11-21 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Strange, M. (2023). Communicating Research as a Public Discussion: The PHED Commission on the Future of Health Care Post-COVID 19. The International Journal of Health, Wellness, and Society, 13(2), 21-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicating Research as a Public Discussion: The PHED Commission on the Future of Health Care Post-COVID 19
2023 (English)In: The International Journal of Health, Wellness, and Society, ISSN 2156-8960, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 21-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Often phrased in terms of “societal relevance” and “societal impact,” academic researchers are increasingly expected to design projects that engage with the public and policymakers both through communicating research outputs as well as inclusion within data collection and processing. This article reports on one such engagement initiative that was, paradoxically, a response to the state of mass social isolation imposed on many in the context of the 2020 pandemic. What became known as the “PHED Commission on the Future of Health Post-COVID 19” created a virtual environment that stretched across academic and professional fields, inviting a broad range of actors to provide evidence that was archived (i.e., videoed) and published online and later turned into a written report. In discussing the “Commission,” the article highlights the lessons learned during the process, including the tensions and solutions by which to help contribute to public debates and have societal impact. While we hope that the pandemic remains an exception, we argue that it is important to see where we can benefit from the innovations developed in that moment of crisis while not ignoring the strengths of traditional research practices. Such transdisciplinary activities are, the article argues, important to knowledge that can help advance health and equity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Common Ground Publishing, 2023
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64287 (URN)10.18848/2156-8960/cgp/v13i02/21-37 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159215615 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Strange, M. & Tucker, J. (2023). Global governance and the normalization of artificial intelligence as ‘good’ for human health. AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global governance and the normalization of artificial intelligence as ‘good’ for human health
2023 (English)In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The term ‘artificial intelligence’ has arguably come to function in political discourse as, what Laclau called, an ‘empty signifier’. This article traces the shifting political discourse on AI within three key institutions of global governance–OHCHR, WHO, and UNESCO–and, in so doing, highlights the role of ‘crisis’ moments in justifying a series of pivotal re-articulations. Most important has been the attachment of AI to the narrative around digital automation in human healthcare. Greatly enabled by the societal context of the pandemic, all three institutions have moved from being critical of the unequal power relations in the economy of AI to, today, reframing themselves primarily as facilitators tasked with helping to ensure the application of AI technologies. The analysis identifies a shift in which human health and healthcare is framed as in a ‘crisis’ to which AI technology is presented as the remedy. The article argues the need to trace these discursive shifts as a means by which to understand, monitor, and where necessary also hold to account these changes in the governance of AI in society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
AI, Crisis, Discourse, Global governance, Health
National Category
Media Studies Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Communication Studies
Research subject
Global politics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62518 (URN)10.1007/s00146-023-01774-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171198964 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-13 Created: 2023-09-13 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Strange, M. & Askanius, T. (2023). Migrant-focused inequity, distrust and an erosion of care within Sweden’s healthcare and media discourses during COVID-19. Frontiers in Human Dynamics, 5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migrant-focused inequity, distrust and an erosion of care within Sweden’s healthcare and media discourses during COVID-19
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Dynamics, E-ISSN 2673-2726 , Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite initial suggestions that the COVID-19 pandemic affected everyone equally, it quickly became clear that some were much worse affected than others. Marginalization—including poverty, substandard accommodation, precarious or no employment, reduced access to healthcare and other key public goods—was clearly correlated with higher rates of both contagion and fatality. For Sweden, COVID-19 inequality could be seen along clear racial and socio-economic lines, with some of the first high death rates seen amongst Somali communities, where individuals had contracted the virus through unsafe employment as taxi drivers transporting wealthier Swedes home from their winter holidays. At the same time, actors on the extra parliamentarian far-right in Sweden were quick to blame the country's relatively high per-capita fatality rate on persons born outside Sweden working in the healthcare and care home sector. Media frames affirming racial stereotypes grounded in cultural racism circulated across the ecosystem of alternative media in the country. In both healthcare and the media, we see growing forms of exclusion disproportionately affecting migrants. Such intertwined exclusions in Sweden, as the article argues, are a sign of a wider disintegration of Swedish society in which individuals lose trust in both the core institutions as well as across different parts of society. Drawing on Davina Cooper's understanding of the relationship between the state and other public institutions with individuals as based on “touch,” the article explores how exclusionary practices impact this relationship. Our key argument is that, whilst ostensibly such practices often most materially hurt minority groups (e.g., migrants), they are indicative of—and accelerate—a broader disintegration of society through undermining a logic of “care” necessary to sustain social bonds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
Covid19, Inequality, migrants, care, public health, media discourse
National Category
Media and Communications Political Science International Migration and Ethnic Relations Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-62873 (URN)10.3389/fhumd.2023.1243289 (DOI)001092320100001 ()2-s2.0-85178134459 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-29 Created: 2023-09-29 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Dalingwater, L., Mangrio, E., Strange, M. & Zdravkovic, S. (2023). Policies on marginalized migrant communities during Covid-19: migration management prioritized over population health. Critical Policy Studies, 17(2), 316-336
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policies on marginalized migrant communities during Covid-19: migration management prioritized over population health
2023 (English)In: Critical Policy Studies, ISSN 1946-0171, E-ISSN 1946-018X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 316-336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Migration management policies in many states have marginalized significant numbers of individuals on the basis of their precarious residency status, negatively impacting their health. This article looks at how three European states with high levels of contagion - France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom - adapted their migration management policies to the changed circumstances during the Covid 19 pandemic in which there was new pressure for prioritizing population health over other concerns. The analysis compares globally-recognized 'best practices' for migrant health during the pandemic with policies adopted by France, Sweden, and the UK - selected as prominent migrant-hosting states and that experienced high rates of Covid-19. The article draws on supplementary evidence through interviews with civil society organizations working directly with migrants living on the margins of society - what are termed here 'marginalized migrants' (MMs). As the article concludes, the national policies often fell below international 'best practices' such that migration management was often prioritized over population health despite the crisis. The perspective developed in this paper is important for understanding where migration control policies have been prioritized over public health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Marginalized migrants, Migration management, covid 19, France, Sweden, United Kingdom, population health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-54057 (URN)10.1080/19460171.2022.2102046 (DOI)000828963400001 ()2-s2.0-85134598485 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-02 Created: 2022-08-02 Last updated: 2023-10-18Bibliographically approved
Colonna, L., Filatova-Bilous, N., Dignum, V., Friberg, S., Haynie-Lavelle, J., Magnusson Sjöberg, C., . . . Tucker, J. (2022). Community Reference Meeting: Challenges and Opportunities of Regulating AI: The Participation Paradox in the Politics of AI. Wallenberg Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community Reference Meeting: Challenges and Opportunities of Regulating AI: The Participation Paradox in the Politics of AI
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Main Findings:

AI systems are increasingly being used to shift decisions made by humans over to automated systems, potentially limiting the space for democratic participation. The risk that AI erodes democracy is exacerbated where most people are excluded from the ownership and production of AI technologies that will impact them.

AI learns through datasets but, very often, that data excludes key parts of the population. Where marginalized groups are considered, datasets often contain derogatory terms, or exclude explanatory contextual information, that is hard to accurately categorise in a format that AI can process. Resulting biases within AI design raise concerns as to the quality and representativeness of AI-based decisions and their impact on society.

There is very little two-way communication between the developers and users of AI-technologies such that the latter function only as personal data providers. Being largely excluded from the development of AI’s role in human decision-making, everyday individuals may feel more marginalized and disinterested in building a healthy and sustainable society.

Yet, AI’s capacity for seeing patterns in big data provides new ways to reach parts of the population excluded from traditional policymaking. It can serve to identify structural discrimination and include information from those otherwise ignored in important decisions. AI could enhance public participation by both providing decision-makers with better data and helping to communicate complex decisions – and their consequences – to wider parts of the population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wallenberg Institute, 2022. p. 11
Series
WASP-HS RESEARCH BRIEF SERIES ; 2022/02
Keywords
Participation, Artificial Intelligence, AI, democracy, decision making
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-54920 (URN)
Note

The section titled "The Participation Paradox in the Politics of AI" (pages 7-8) details the main findings of a workshop organised by the authors with a range of experts. Roundtable experts included (please note that the text does not necessarily reflect the views of everyone listed):Malvika Sharan, The Turing Institute, UK; Pedro Sanches, Umeå University, Sweden; ​Sunny Dosanjh, Deloitte MCS Limited​, UK; Aleks Berditchevskaia, NESTA, UK;​Henrik Björklund, Umeå University, Sweden; ​Birgit Schippers, University of Strathclyde Glasgow, UK​; Rachel Foley, DeepMind, UK/USA; Ratidzo Njagu, Kunashe Foundation, Zimbabwe. 

Available from: 2022-09-14 Created: 2022-09-14 Last updated: 2023-07-20Bibliographically approved
Strange, M. (2022). Is AI creative or a Tool for Creativity?. In: Martin Thörnkvist; Reeta Hafner; Rowan Drury (Ed.), If Only the Lake Could Talk: Futures of AI for Sustainability (pp. 122-141). Malmö: MediaEvolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is AI creative or a Tool for Creativity?
2022 (English)In: If Only the Lake Could Talk: Futures of AI for Sustainability / [ed] Martin Thörnkvist; Reeta Hafner; Rowan Drury, Malmö: MediaEvolution , 2022, p. 122-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Are these systemsonly tools for our creativity, or should they be understood as creative in their own right? Answering this question, aswill be shown, is central to whether AI aids or hinders thesustainability of our world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: MediaEvolution, 2022
Keywords
Artificial Intelligence, Creativity, Politics
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Design Computer Systems
Research subject
Global politics; Interaktionsdesign; Science education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-64990 (URN)978-91-987389-1-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Mangrio, E., Nieuwenhuijsen, K., Wahel Sebhatu, R., Strange, M. & Zdravkovic, S. (2022). Rapport #2 PHED-kommissionen för framtiden för hälso-och sjukvård efter Covid-19: allmän hälso- och sjukvård för en gemensam framtid. Baserad på offentliga seminarier som hållits mars - juni 2021. Malmö: Malmö universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapport #2 PHED-kommissionen för framtiden för hälso-och sjukvård efter Covid-19: allmän hälso- och sjukvård för en gemensam framtid. Baserad på offentliga seminarier som hållits mars - juni 2021
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2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Den här rapporten ger en sammanfattning av de seminarier som organiserades under våren 2021 av PHEDKommissionen för framtiden för hälso- och sjukvården efter covid-19, som bjöd in till vittnesmål från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal, tjänstemän, tankesmedjor, forskare, civilsamhället och andra intresserade parter baserat på de erfarenheter de fått och lärt sig av under pandemin. De vittnesmål som framfördes kom från många olika geografska platser och många olika nivåer, vilket gjorde dem relevanta både för Sverige och globalt. De fastställer fera centrala rekommendationer för att skydda och förbättra folkhälsan. Dessa rekommendationer både kompletterar och i hög grad utökar de rekommendationer som togs fram i den första rapporten, som var mer fokuserad på Sverige (”Ojämlikhet i samhället gör oss sårbara för pandemier”) och baserad på vittnesmål från hösten 2020, och som kan nås via: https://phed.uni.mau.se/. Den stora mängd erfarenheter som sammanfattas här går långt utöver pandemiperioden och tillhandahåller idéer och praktisk vägledning för att skydda och stärka människors hälsa så att den blir mer motståndskraftig inför framtida kriser. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2022. p. 25
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Care science; Urban studies; Health and society; Global politics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-58838 (URN)10.24834/isbn.9789178773282 (DOI)978-91-7877-327-5 (ISBN)978-91-7877-328-2 (ISBN)
Projects
PHED - Precision Health and Everyday Democracy
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), SG 2017-6954
Available from: 2023-03-27 Created: 2023-03-27 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Mangrio, E., Nieuwenhuijsen, K., Wahel Sebhatu, R., Strange, M. & Zdravkovic, S. (2022). Report #2 PHED commission on the future of healthcare post covid-19: universal health coverage for a real future. Based on sessions conducted from March until June 2021. Malmö: Malmö universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Report #2 PHED commission on the future of healthcare post covid-19: universal health coverage for a real future. Based on sessions conducted from March until June 2021
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report summarises the Spring 2021 sessions of the PHED Commission on the Future of Healthcare Post Covid-19, which invited testimony from healthcare practitioners, civil servants, thinktanks, researchers, civil society, and other interested parties based on their experiences learnt during the pandemic. The evidence presented came from multiple geographies and levels, making it relevant both to Sweden and globally. It identifes several key recommendations for protecting and improving public health. These recommendations supplement and greatly expand upon those identifed in the report (‘Societal inequity makes us vulnerable to pandemics’) based on testimony from Fall/Autumn 2020, which can be accessed via: https://phed.uni.mau.se/. The wealth of experience summarized here goes well beyond the pandemic period, providing ideas and practical guidance for protecting and strengthening human health to be more resilient in the face of future crises.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2022. p. 24
Keywords
Public health, health equity, democracy, covid
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Care science; Urban studies; Health and society; Global politics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-58833 (URN)10.24834/isbn.9789178773305 (DOI)978-91-7877-329-9 (ISBN)978-91-7877-330-5 (ISBN)
Projects
PHED - Precision Health and Everyday Democracy
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), SG 2017-6954
Available from: 2023-03-27 Created: 2023-03-27 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Mangrio, E. & Strange, M. (2022). Segregation within welfare societies: Communication Barriers to Migrants`Healthcare in Scandinavia. In: Do Kyun David Kim; Gary L.Kreps (Ed.), Global Health Communication For Immigrants and Refugees: Cases, Theories, and Strategies. New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Segregation within welfare societies: Communication Barriers to Migrants`Healthcare in Scandinavia
2022 (English)In: Global Health Communication For Immigrants and Refugees: Cases, Theories, and Strategies / [ed] Do Kyun David Kim; Gary L.Kreps, New York: Routledge, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter compares health communication towards migrants living at the margins of society – undocumented migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees – within the different Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden), to understand the present state of health communication and its role in both strengthening and, where being unequal, segregating societal inclusion within the Nordic region. We know that such migrants often experience health challenges related not only to their migratory journey, but often caused by the precarious situation in which they are placed upon arrival in host countries. Past studies show significant challenges in obtaining care, and difficulties with communication, including cultural awareness. Where health communication fails to meet the needs of a diverse population, we see growing societal segregation that often follows racialized structures with long-term consequences for society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2022
Series
Routledge Research in Health Communication
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Care science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-55353 (URN)10.4324/9781003230243-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85143449164 (Scopus ID)9781032132358 (ISBN)9781003230243 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-10-12 Created: 2022-10-12 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
Undocumented children’s rights claims. A multidisciplinary project on agency and contradictions between different levels of regulations and practice that reveals undocumented children ‘s human rights; Malmö UniversityPHED - Precision Health and Everyday Democracy; Malmö University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2903-7267

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